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6 refs. Process for the selection of experiments for specific flights. Selection should not be made before this detailed, analytical process has been performed. Experiment selection is divided into three work areas, which are described in detail.
Consideration of the possibility of solving the problems associated with the management of aerospace ground equipment (AGE) by a program designed to ensure proper recognition by contractor and customer management. Such a program requires extensive changes in administration, engineering, configuration management, contracts, and data. Implementation will ensure an adequate appreciation of AGE requirements by management and furnish effective guidance to the de engineer.
Discussion of configuration management, a method for current and precise documentation which attempts to assure the customer and builder that the final hardware is what they agreed on, in spite of the thousands of engineering changes normally experienced in the development of a complex system. The formal definition of configuration management is defined as "the management of technical requirements which define systems, system equipment, or individual equipment and changes thereto. It is implemented through procedures by which uniform and mutually supporting methods of configuration identification, control and accounting are established and maintained for systems and equipment and for components of systems and equipment. The object of the policy is to enable the contractor to prove there is no contradiction at any level among the contract, the internal authorizations, the specifications and drawings, the hardware, the inspection documents, and the handbooks and manuals.
Description of the generalized system for project control and evaluating. This is an approach to avaluating quantitative indices of value and cost effectiveness that can be optimized, possibly by operational research methods, to produce information that can be used by management in making realistic decisions. The oject of the system is to control and monitor a project from initiation, through development to completed production, considering the four essential variables of cost, time, performance, and reliability. The proposed management control system uses servomechanism control principles to construct an analog of the evaluation, development and production processes that are required for efficient management. It is constructed around four initial building bricks, consisting of management systems and models, resource allocation, time scheduling, performance evaluation, and reliability assessment.
Discussion of some practical problems which have arisen in past systems development efforts, including the development of software. Some of the practical benefits of adopting configuration management are considered, along with associated implications. The necessity of treating Automatic Support Equipment (ASE) software development as an engineering task is emphasized. It is concluded that the development of ASE software must be planned, organized, managed, and controlled as any other element of the system, to prevent the software from continuing to lag behind the hardware and from plaguing the schedule.
This paper discusses the practical aspects of configuration management. It outlines the basic requirements for change identification, control, implementation, and accounting for typical engineering/manufacturing organizations regardless of size and specific customer requirements. It then develops criteria for implementation of an effective configuration-management framework within which through modular expansion or contraction, organizational dynamics and changing customer requirements can be accommodated.
Discussion of some principal administrative aspects of management of systems effectiveness programs. The problem of achieving credibility in the results and with the need for the identification of the point of diminishing returns in each investigation is discussed. An example analysis is diagramed, and the administrative task is shown to be that of providing the control, the guidance, and the environment of understanding among all of the technical disciplines involved.
Description of an improved systems effectiveness methodology utilized for a one-week turn-around space mission. It is shown
that this technique, which involves much preplanning and analysis,
A. B. K.
Discussion of the newer concepts of railroad management, the source of developments in right-of-way, power, vehicular equipment, terminaling, intermodal exchange, schedules, and commercial considerations. Comments are made on railroad-airline relationships, with evaluation of the capabilities of each.
A66-28436 # A66-30441
THE COMPATIBILITY OF VALUE ENGINEERING AND CONTESTING FACILITIES - POTENTIAL PROFITMAKERS?
FIGURATION MANAGEMENT. K. J. Dell (Bunker-Ramo Corp., Defense Systems Div., Informa- Marvin Wasserman (Brown Engineering Co., System Engineering tion Technology Laboratory, Test Facilities Dept., Canoga Park, Dept., Huntsville, Ala. ). Calif.).
IN: THE CHALLENGE OF SPACE; PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD IN: INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES, ANNUAL
SPACE CONGRESS, COCOA BEACH, FLA., MARCH 7-10, 1966. TECHNICAL MEETING, SAN DIEGO, CALIF., APRIL 13-15, 1966, (A66-28401 14-30] PROCEEDINGS. (A66-30434 16-11)
Congress sponsored by the Canaveral Council of Technical Societies. Mt. Prospect, 11., Institute of Environmental Sciences, 1966,
Cocoa Beach, Fla., Canaveral Council of Technical Societies, 1966, p. 49-54.
p. 437-451. Discussion of factors entering into the disposition of capital
Review of the philosophies of system management and of the equipment and facilities devoted to environmental testing. It is
interrelationships of program management, system engineering, illustrated that through analysis of existing facilities and the needs and management tools, directed to management levels responsible of the surrounding technical community a profitable utilization of for ensuring system compatibility and mission success. Value unneeded facilities can be achieved. Some of the more frequent
engineering and configuration management are discussed as the causes of work-load reorientation that can undermine the need for catalysts to be integrated into the management network, thus capital test facilities are discussed, and an analysis is made of the assuring system compatibility and mission success at the lowest management alternatives regarding the disposition of the affected
overall cost. It is concluded that those in management should facilities. The facets of implementation that would face responsible establish a configuration management and value engineering program, department management are explored on the basis of a management the objectives of which are listed.
B. B. decision to proceed with a commercial laboratory operation. An attempt is made to illustrate by example the areas in which economies can be effected so as to make the laboratory more competitive in the
A66-26391 commercial market place.
A PRACTICAL DATA PROCESSING APPROACH FOR ACHIEVING
EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT CONTROL OF AIRCRAFT MANU-
Ben Gebhardt (Mooney Aircraft, Inc., Kerrville, Tex.).
Society of Automotive Engineers, Business Aircraft Conference, AN ANALYTICAL CONCEPT FOR THE SELECTION, FLOW, AND Wichita, Kan., Mar. 30-Apr. 1, 1966, Paper 660205. 9 p. TRANSFERENCE OF TECHNOLOGY IN A LARGE ELECTRONICS /
Members, $0.75; nonmembers, $1.00. AEROSPACE FIRM.
Review of a system application of data processing for offsetting Robert R. Kley (Technology Planning Center, Inc., Ann Arbor, Mich. ). costly inefficiencies of the aircraft industry, developed from "ideal" IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, vol. EM-13,
operating concepts. The theory behind the system development is Mar. 1966, p. 21- 36.
outlined, and the critical control procedures and objective operating The basic functions of any firm can be separated into planning, results achieved are identified.
M.M. control, and operations, the time span of decision being the separating variable. In the planning sector, the three basic factors of importance are the methodologies and concepts used to relate and
A66-23831 integrate corporate strategy, structure, and policies. As the
MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS OF AN AEROSPACE COMPUTER physical size of a firm changes, possibly accompanied by shifts
CENTER. in customer and market orientation, the combinations of strategy,
G. A. Garrett (Lockheed Aircraft Corp., Lockheed Missiles and structure, and policies change. In the electronics/aerospace
Space Co., Sunnyvale, Calif.). industry, these three factors readily translate into (1) a process
IN: AMERICAN FEDERATION OF INFORMATION PROCESSING for selecting market areas as well as developing a technological
SOCIETIES, 1965 FALL JOINT COMPUTER CONFERENCE, LAS resource base for a firm, and (2) a process of ensuring that this
VEGAS, NEV., NOVEMBER 1965, PROCEEDINGS. VOLUME 27. technological activity is embedded in an environment which will
PART 1. (A66-23824 12-08) permit an intrafirm flow and transference of technology. For the Washington, D.C., Spartan Books, 1965, p. 129-137. selection process, a method is presented which develops a tech
Discussion of technical facets of the direction of a large aeronique for establishing a physical cross-sectoral relationship between space computer installation. Some of the figures available on the the military and commercial markets using a unique tree diagram actual costs of change are considered, together with aspects of the and matrix approach. A related concept for developing technological turn-around problem, from the management standpoint. Remarks flow and transference is developed using a Shannon-Weaver commu
are offered on the reasonable future expectations of the computer nication model. A composite organization structure model correlat- center considered.
M.M. ing all of these factors is also developed using a small group behavior, linking pin, and decision model.
S. R. Wallace (Department of Defense, Office of Defense Research A66-29801 #
and Engineering, Behavioral and Social Sciences Branch, WashingMANAGEMENT - THE GREATEST CHANGE IN RAILROADING
ton, D.C.). WITH INNOVATION ORIENTED TO THE LOGISTICS MARKET AND IN: ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIES ASSOCIATION, CONFERENCE RETURN ON INVESTMENT.
ON SYSTEMS EFFECTIVENESS, IST, WASHINGTON, D.C., Robert S. Reebie (Robert Reebie and Associates, Rye, N. Y.).
OCTOBER 19, 20, 1965, PROCEEDINGS. (A66-2 3434 11-34] IN: THIRD INTERNATIONAL FORUM FOR AIR CARGO, CHICAGO, Washington, D.C., Electronic Industries Association, 1965, ILL., MAY 24-26, 1966. (A66-29788 15-34]
p. 206-215. Forum sponsored by the American Institute of Aeronautics and
Study of possible means of improving the human factors' conAstronautics, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and tribution to system effectiveness. The roles of the customer the Society of Automotive Engineers.
project officer, the contractor engineering manager, and the human New York, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics,
factors specialist in improving system effectiveness are discussed. 1966, p. 64-68.
It is felt that much work is required to extend the data base in the
areas of automation, decision making and problem solving, stress, and performance of men working in groups. The requirement for research which can be used to form compatible measures of human performance is also noted.
Discussion of the manner in which design activity can affect systems effectiveness. In order for the design function to be programed and managed, decision guide activities - including design analysis, development tests, application of standards and checklists, and use of consultants - must be systematically identified. The steps required to ensure a proper choice of components and materials for electronic devices are outlined. The concepts of design and system review are considered. System effectiveness is defined as capability times availability times dependability.
Account of a project to demonstrate and refine a computer programing concept known as Generalized Data Management as exemplified by the Advanced Data Management (ADAM) System developed by the MITRE Corporation for the Electronic Systems Division/MITRE Systems Design Laboratory. ADAM is designed to provide generalized routines for functions common to a large class of command and management problems. Although earlier implementations of the Generalized Data Management concept have been demonstrated, ADAM has not been demonstrated in an operational application. The Air Force Logistics Command has provided an application (category I and IIR Consumption Item Requirements Computation System) with which to test ADAM. The Requirements System provides Logistics Command managers with information concerning stock items to buy, procurement contracts to terminate, items to repair, and budgets. ADAM implementation will provide an on-line real-time information system; the present Requirements System operates in a nonreal-time batch processing mode. The usefulness of providing an on-line system, which can be easily modified, is evaluated.
Study of the problem of development management and cost control in a Defense setting. It is thought that progress toward a solution in this field has been retarded in the UK by the lack of publication of attempts to think about this problem. Tables show sharply contrasting views on how to conduct general procurement, feasibility studies, and the development phase of an R and D project. It is noted that the Zuckerman Committee appears to oversimplify in the important creative phase while Hitch and McKean coming much nearer the truth of the matter (although they themselves do not treat the key question of how to control the independent developing of components and the duplication of approaches which they advocate). It is recognized that these opposite views state the problem and that it is in reconciling them that the solution of the problem is to be found.
Evaluation of the methodology of systems effectiveness based upon a combination of reliability, ma intainability, value, safety, and human engineering disciplines. The concepts employed in such an evaluation include mathematical models, system synthesis, and operations research. Criteria for systems effectiveness are considered in the light of the excellent performances of the Polaris program. It is shown how the concept of systems effectiveness can resolve the apparent conflict between a number of possible optimization criteria for a given system, such as greater reliability, least cost, minimum personnel re quired, or minimum construction time.
Examination of a systematic approach to the critical element in software management - the schematic. The approach consists of three steps: developing a complete set of schematics early in a design program, controlling the size, shape, and general makeup of the diagrams to meet the requirements of multiple users; and packaging the diagrams for rapid accessibility. Electrical, hydraulic, pneumatic, mechanical, and other types of information flow are considered, and special attention is focused on diagrams that display combinations of these various types.
Discussion of the criteria for a quantitative basis for expressing the effectiveness requirements of a system and the measures to provide management techniques for achievement of the required levels of effectiveness throughout all phases of the systems program. The need for developing common definitions for a variety of terms in order to overcome problems of semantics and communications is emphasized. The drawbacks and dangers inherent in the use of analytical models are tonsidered. The need for a cost-estimating procedure for providing uniform methods in presenting estimates and tracking estimate changes is stressed.
D. P. F.
Description of some promising techniques that are being developed: (1) computerized tools for flight operations planning; (2) constraint-analysis; (3) heuristic models for flight plan conflictdetection and contingency-derivation; and (4) a computer program for resource-allocation in a real-time environment. As a means toward discovering the architecture of an integrated replanning/
rescheduling/reallocation program, computerized tools are being investigated and two general purpose programing systems have been adapted. One programing system provides on-line information retrieval and a second system provides advanced data management as well as a test-bed for special purpose tools. Constraint analysis deals with many-dimensional relations among resources. The application of advanced man-machine practical communication systems will be investigated in order to form a bridge between the intuitive processes of the flight planner and machine processes. Logical and computational requirements for other tools to drive the real-time planning/scheduling/resource allocation programs are being studied. These tools include on-line aids for quick-look data reduction, experiment trend-analysis, and mission success prediction.
Force Systems Command (AFSC). The Air Force effort in the past few years towards increasing its overall management professionalism is reflected in a series of new regulation, program-management instructions, and manuals, the subject of which is systems manage ment, A system safety management manual has been developed to establish the system safety engineering approach to be taken within the system development network. To provide a more efficient management tool, the System Safety Task Force has undertaken the updating and revision of military specification, safety engineering of systems and associated subsystems, and equipment, MIL-S-38130 (USAF). The handbook program, which is a responsibility of AFSC, consists of seven existing, five developmental, five new, and three proposed handbooks, and a series of handbooks de signated AFSCM 80-9 is presently under development. Updating requirements call for a 90-day revision cycle of handbook data.
Society, Journal, vol. 69. Sept. 1965, p. 601-610. 22 refs.
Discussion of the profitable application of operational research to problems in the different branches of the aviation industry. Concentrating on capital investment programs and the procurement of aircraft, a discussion of cost structure leads to some detailed models. Objectives and financial policy, cost structure and investment costs, and some considerations for an aircraft replacement policy are given extensive attention. Problems of air traffic control and airport runways are considered. The analysis highlights the complexity of the interactions between system parameters in affecting the operations rate of the runway when it is used for both landings and takeoffs. The operations rate is affected differently by each parameter, depending on the values of the other parameters. Under all conditions, it is considered to be advantageous that the minimum time separation required between successive landings required at the runway, runway occupancy time of a landing aircraft, minimum time separation required between successive takeoffs, and minimum distance (from the approach end of runway) of a landing aircraft to permit interposing a takeoff before the landing, be as small as possible consistent with safety limitations.
Examination of the relations among safety, education, and management. The development of education for aerospace accident preventers is reviewed, and safety education is related to manage ment education. The belief is expressed that safety education has been the key that has opened the door to new concepts of management education: it serves to reemphasize the role the safety practitioner can play in the total management process since much of his basic education and experience is, in concept, the same as that required for management.
Brief review of developments that may lead to efficient costeffectiveness management in the year 1980. It is pointed out that, by the year 1980, many contractors will have developed continuous analysis and reporting systems that will satisfy management needs.
Panel discussion of safety and management intended as a forum for some of the top safety personnel of aerospace industry systems to discuss the relationship of their organizations and activities with their higher managements, Observations are made relative to the evolution of the systems safety effort. The importance of military specifications which require contractors to establish systems safety engineering programs, is discussed. Recommendations are presented for the benefit of the managements of companies comprising the aerospace community to further the cause of accident prevention.
Review of developments in the field of Air Force system safety management. A brief insight is provided into the role of the Air
Demonstration of the power of the operational research approach both in general and in particular, with some examples relative to the aviation industry. It is shown that the key to operational research is the scientific method, moving logically through the phases of assumption, analysis, tests, and predictions. By the intuitional deve lopment of a model, followed by the application of a Poisson distribution, a detailed operational research approach is presented.
F.R.L. A65-31586 # MANAGEMENT ASPECTS OF AERO-SPACE SYSTEM SAFETY ENGINEERING Harold D. Trettin (Boeing Co., Aero-Space Div., Seattle, Wash. ). IN: SYSTEM SAFETY SYMPOSIUM, SEATTLE, WASH., JUNE 8-10, 1965, PROCEEDINGS. (A65 - 31568 20-34] Symposium sponsored by the University of Washington and the Boeing Co. Seattle, Boeing Co., 1965. 13 p.
Description of a model system safety program and discussion of the role of management in aerospace system safety. To implement its tasks in this field, it is suggested that management should define the objectives for the safety field, specify the tasks to be completed, provide an organization structure and command media, and provide the resources required to implement the program. Basic objectives in the training of system safety personnel are also described.
Discussion of various aspects of the management of space programs. The topics considered are: (1) science, technology, and management; (2) systems concepts; (3) program management; (4) organization of space activities; (5) critical aspects in the management of space programs; (6) tools and techniques; and (7) summary and implications for the future.
Discussion of program management, an approach to organiza tional theory that has no organizational or departmental constraints. The idea of program management centers around the control and integration of large aggregations of resources which are outside the traditional flows of authority and responsibility. The role played by this philosophy in the defense industry-government complex is examined.
A systems engineering approach for effectively correlating the total system data needed in complex system development programs is described which is intended for managerial, supervisory, and operating personnel, as well as beginners in the field of data activities. The text is concerned with all forms of technical data needed in all phases of systems engineering efforts, as well as the operational functions in system programs, but with special reference to the technical data needed for a typical military (principally Air Force) or space system. The first eight chapters describe the major technical data requirements. Data described in Chapters 2 through 7 are covered in the same sequence in which they are generally encountered under government contracts. The eighth chapter covers many other ancillary data that are needed in support of system procurement, manufacturing, installation, assembly and checkout, test, and other program functions. Chapters 9 through 12 describe principles and requirements for management and administration, development and verification, production and quality assurance,. cost controls, automation, and contracting. Chapter 13 summarizes the ideas presented, and relates them all to the predominating principle of the integrated data concept. A glossary is provided for the benefit of newcomers to the field, and a bibliography provides a list of suggested reading and text referA subject index is presented.
A general survey of system engineering, its definition, structure, viewpoint, and functions. A system is defined as having the following seven characteristics: it is manmade, it is integral, large, complex, semiautomatic, competitive, and its input is stochastic - i.e., the exact load or performance at any instant cannot be predicted. The problem of system structure can be broken down into the chronological phases of system design, the logical steps involved, the mathematical and scientific tools used, the functional parts of a system, and the administratively designated subsystems of a system. The basic viewpoint relative to system engineering is optimization of the cost-effectiveness ratio of the overall system; construction of a mathematical model is of great importance in the technique of optimization, based on "operations research," which involves the necessity of establishing and defining a quantitative measure of effectiveness. The ability to examine a problem, define such a quantitative measure, and then write equations based on the parameters of the particular case being analyzed are a measure of the competence of a system engineer, whose background should be broad but also deep in either mathematics or engineering
Members, $0.50; nonmembers, $1.00.
Discussion of the fundamental causes of the difficulties which prevent effective application of contemporary management information systems. These difficulties relate to the effects of change and technological system deficiencies. Methods of minimizing these problems include: (1) the adequate definition of system objectives, (2) placing responsibility in the hands of operating management rather than staff specialists, (3) using the task force approach, and (4) continual education and training of all affected persons. The PERT/COST system is used to illustrate specific examples of the problems encountered.
Observations on the responsibilities of designers in terms of value control and cost effectiveness. Value and cost are controlled by the designer. Design decisions made so as to balance cost and performance will yield the greatest utility value to a system. Good value may be achieved by developing a cost model and a performance requirements model in detail sufficient to permit tradeoffs to be made by the designer.