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Discussion of problems, techniques, trends, and possibilities of incentive contracting, with application to specific aerospace projects. It is stated that it is difficult to draw conclusions about a new and, in a sense, exploding development such as the one treated. The work undertaken to date by the DOD, NA'SA, and segments of industry promises future benefits. More and more sizable incentive contracts, with greater profit/loss possibilities, are certain. And the planning and execution of these contracts will demand a growing percentage of management's attention. It is noted that lack of sufficient management attention to incentives will preclude successful incentive contracting and thwart the benefits potentially obtainable.

A67-15336 ANCILLARY BENEFITS OF AN AUTOMATED R&D RESOURCES ALLOCATION SYSTEM. Ambrose B. Nutt (USAF, Systems Command, Research and Technology Div., Flight Dynamics Laboratory, Wright - Patterson AFB, Ohio). American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Winter Annual Meeting and Energy Systems Exposition, New York, N. Y., Nov. 27-Dec. 1, 1966, Paper 66-WA/MGT-18. 9 p. Members, $0.75; nonmembers, $1.50.

The ancillary benefits derived from use of an automated R and D resources allocation system are described, prefaced by a brief description of the system itselí. The use of the system as an aid to management of a large Air Force R and D laboratory with a wide range of technical responsibilities is outlined. The several resultant benefits, exclusive of those related to resources allocation, are delineated and are shown to range from technical program data retrieval to vastly more knowledgeable planning at the task engineer level, These side benefits are concluded to be equally as useful to management as the basic system itself, which was designed originally only to be an aid to resources allocation.

(Author)

A64-19731
VALUE ENGINEERING IN PROGRAM CONTRACTS.
S. Robinsos (Radio Corporation of America, Missile and Surface
Radar Div., Moorestown, N.J.).
Journal of Value Engineering, vol. 2, May 15, 1964, p. 61-66.

Discussion of the Project Definition Phase (PDP) method of contracting, considered in a sense as an intensive value study conducted by all project activities. A significant aspect of PDP is the concept of system trade-offs among cost, performance, and schedules. A realistic and practical approach is to maximize capability for a specified cost or to minimize cost for a specified capability. The establishment of the PDP system is considered to have put value engineering into official government contracting policy. Various aspects of the problems involved are treated in detail.

A66-35534 #
INDEPENDENT RESEARCH MANAGEMENT.
R. J. McNair and F. C. Shadley (Avco Corp., New York, N. Y.).
IN: NAECON/66; PROCEEDINGS OF THE ANNUAL NATIONAL
AEROSPACE ELECTRONICS CONFERENCE, 18TH, DAYTON,
OHIO, MAY 16-18, 1966. TECHNICAL PAPERS. (A66-35501 19-21)
Conference sponsored by the Dayton Section of the Institute of
Electrical and Electronics Engineers.
Dayton, Ohio, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers,
1966, p. 343 - 345.

Study of the management approach used by Avco Corporation, Electronics Division, to implement and manage its independent research effort. There, the independent research effort is defenseoriented and centers on communication and IR technologies. Factors discussed include experience, personnel, facilities, and available funding

M. F.

A63-18030
NEW COMPLEXITIES IN R & D PROCUREMENT.
Walter R. Moynihan (Geophysics Corporation of America, Bedford,
Mass.)
Aerospace Management, vol. 6, May 1963, p. 48-51.

Consideration of the changes in government contracting which took place in 1962 by enactment of Public Law 87-653, emphasizing the revised Certificate of Current Cost or Pricing Data. The effects which the new law will have on companies carrying R&D contracts are briefly discussed, including consequences in contract procurement and negotiations. The distinction made in PL 87-653 between "pricing data" and "cost data" is described. The procurements for which the Certificate of Current Cost or Pricing Data must be furnished are outlined.

A66-28435 #
CAPABILITY MANAGEMENT AN APPROACH TO SELLING
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT.
Salvatore F. Divita (International Business Machines Corp., Federal
Systems Div., Washington, D.C.).
IN: THE CHALLENGE OF SPACE; PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD
SPACE CONGRESS, COCOA BEACH, FLA., MARCH 7-10, 1966.
(A66-28401 14-30)
Congress sponsored by the Canaveral Council of Technical Societies.
Cocoa Beach, Fla., Canaveral Council of Technical Societies, 1966,
p. 427-432.

Review of the current approach to selling research and development (R and D) and an attempt to relate it to the workings of related marketing areas. Some fundamental shortcomings of the current practice are pointed out, and a new approach is suggested to the problem. A new concept is introduced in the approach to marketing R and D capabilities to the defense/ space market which is based primarily on establishing capability managers as the focal point of the managing function. It is suggested that this is only one of the several new concepts that are needed to meet the challenges of marketing.

B.B.

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A66-26033 #
EVALUATING R&D EFFECTIVENESS.
George T. Buck (USAF, Systems Command, Research and Tech-
nology Div., Flight Dynamics Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB,
Ohio).
Astronautics and Aeronautics, vol. 4, Apr, 1966, p. 86-88.

Description of a program (called RDE) for evaluating the effectiveness of research and development programs. The program, which uses analog computer methods, was developed at the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory (AFFDL). The ways in which RDE is used at AFFDL to help determine the allocation of resources to various R&D projects is outlined.

R. A. F.

A66-19461
AN APPROACH TO RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT EFFECTIVE-
NESS.
A. B. Nutt (USAF, Systems Command, Research and Technology
Div., Flight Dynamics Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio).
(NATIONAL AEROSPACE ELECTRONICS CONFERENCE, 17TH,
DAYTON, OHIO, MAY 10-12, 1965, PROCEEDINGS, p. 339-345.)
IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, vol. EM-12,
Sept. 1965, p. 103-112. 5 refs.
[For abstract see issue 18, page 2724, Accession no. A65-29270)

This procedure was tested in a research laboratory by having four decision makers evaluate a selected list of research projects. The resulting ranking of the projects was found to agree with an intuitive evaluation by the decision makers of the same list of projects. This gives an indication that the expected-value model may be useful in the complex area of research project selection.

A65-29270 #
AN APPROACH TO RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT EFFECTIVE-
NESS.
A. B. Nutt (USAF, Systems Command, Research and Technology
Div., Flight Dynamics Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio).
IN: NATIONAL AEROSPACE ELECTRONICS CONFERENCE, 17TH,
DAYTON, OHIO, MAY 10-12, 1965, PROCEEDINGS. (A65-29228
18-09]
Conference sponsored by the Professional Group on Aerospace and
Navigational Electronics, Dayton Section of the Institute of Electrical
and Electronics Engineers, and American Institute of Aeronautics
and Astronautics.
Dayton, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Dayton
Section, 1965, p. 339-345. 5 refs.

Description of the Research and Development Effectiveness (RDE) computerized planning program, designed to utilize analytical techniques in the management of research and development resources in the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory. The concept of a mission matrix, expressing the technical needs of the Air Force, is introduced, and the mathematical model of the RDE program is developed.

S.H.B.

A64-23346
THE DETERMINANTS OF INVESTMENT VARIATIONS IN RE-
SEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT.
Marshall Hall (Wisconsin, University, Dept. of Economics,
Madison, Wis.).
IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, vol. EM-11, Mar.
1964, p. 8-15. 13 refs.
Research supported by the University of Wisconsin.

Presentation and test of a model designed to explain the research and development investment decision of firms. An attempt is made to explain the role of certain variables after is olating other variables that are not specified in the model. Estimates are made of the departure from the desired level of research and development expenditure and the coefficients of important variables that cause deviations from the level. The main variables discussed are profits, sales changes, expected sales changes, and expected capacity changes. The statistical method used to estimate the parameters of the variables is multiple regression analysis. On the basis of the analysis, several hypotheses are proposed and discussed in relation to alternative hypotheses.

A65-24155 #
SCOPE - MANAGEMENT VISIBILITY AND CONTROL SYSTEM.
W. Hochwald, W. D. Ashcraft, and B. U. Miller (North American
Aviation, Inc., Autonetics Div., Anaheim, Calif.).
IN: NATIONAL AEROSPACE ELECTRONICS CONFERENCE,
DAYTON, OHIO, MAY 11-13, 1964, PROCEEDINGS. (A65-24101
13-09]
Conference sponsored by the Professional Group on Aerospace and
Navigational Electronics, Dayton Section of the Institute of Electrical
and Electronics Engineers, and American Institute of Aeronautics
and Astronautics.
Dayton, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Dayton
Section, 1964, p. 463-478.

Description of the SCOPE (irom Schedule, Cost, and Performance) computer-aided management system for the budget and schedule control of complex research and development programs. The system uses a computer to combine, assess, and summarize information from various organizational levels to provide data which account for the schedule, cost, and performance of all work units. The SCOPE output, in the form of reports, summaries and graphs, enables management to rapidly recognize cost, schedule, and organizational-interface problems. Project summaries are used to indicate where corrective action can be applied both by line supervision and program management.

P.K.

A64-23238
LABORATORY MANAGEMENT.
Charles Cavalconte (Republic Aviation Corp., Power Conversion
Div., Farmingdale, N. Y.).
IN: INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES, ANNUAL
TECHNICAL MEETING, PHILADELPHIA, PA., APRIL 13-15,
1964, PROCEEDINGS.
Mt. Prospect, Ill. , Institute of Environmental Sciences, 1964,
p. 593-595.

Discussion of the meaning of the concepts of research, development, and test in terms of the activities of an industrial laboratory. The set of tasks which must be carried out regardless of the project served are considered. These tasks which support the laboratory activities are: technical assistance - engineering, activities concerning the equipment, technician assistance, maintenance, and activities concerning the facilities.

A63-18271
MANAGEMENT OF AN INDEPENDENT LABORATORY.
Alan E. Surosky (General Testing Labs., Moonachie, N. J. ).
IN: Institute of Environmental Sciences, 1963 Annual Technical
Meeting, Proceedings. Mt. Prospect, Ill., Institute of Environ-
mental Sciences, 1963, p. 95, 96.

Analysis of the problems of managing an independent laboratory in terms of personnel, equipment, scheduling, and establishing of priorities, sales, and economic operation. The differences in operation between an independent laboratory and a government or company laboratory are discussed.

A64-23347
RESEARCH PROJECT SELECTION - TESTING A MODEL IN THE
FIELD
William H. Pound (Northwestern University, Technological
Institute, Dept. of Industrial Engineering and Management Science,
Evanston, 11.).
IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, vol. EM-11, Mar.
1964, p. 16-22. 7 refs.

Results of a field test of a procedure for evaluating research projects. The procedure, based on what is termed an expectedvalue model, considers the following decision elements: (1) the environment of the problem, (2) the decision maker, (3) his objectives, and (4) his alternatives. The decision maker's alternatives, in this case a number of potential research projects, are evaluated in the light of his objectives. The result of the procedure is a ranking of potential projects in terms of their expected values.

A63-16584
MANAGEMENT OF DEFENSE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT.
Harold Brown (Dept. of Defense, Office of Defense Research and
Engineering, Washington, D.C.)
(National Advanced-Technology Management Conference, Proceed-
ings, Seattle, Wash., Sept. 4-7, 1962.)
IN: Science, Technology, and Management, New York, McGraw-
Hill Book Co., Inc., 1963, p. 49-60.

Presentation of information concerning the current conduct of DOD research and engineering activities. Management of research in the defense establishment is studied. It is shown that management provides the broad environmental influences wherein scientific programs can take place and technical decisions can be made which culminate in major scientific breakthroughs. It is suggested that management should not restrict creative ideas in the initial stages of a program, but should provide wide latitude for research and experimentation. However, it is pointed out that this process of maintaining flexibility and a number of avenues cannot continue through the later processes of engineering and development. At these stages, objectives have to be clearly defined and parameters established; the decision-making process is then more clearly defined. The current problems of the DOD in performing its functions are reviewed, and the actual management of the Office of Defense Research and Engineering program is discussed in detail.

Conference sponsored by the Society of Automotive Engineers, the
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and the American Insti-
tute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.
New York, Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., 1967, p. 322-330.

Discussion of a Specification Tree - a pictorial presentation of the interrelationship of requirement documents, specifications, and standards applicable to a particular program. Its purpose as a management tool consists in (1) providing a basis for technical management of Hardware and Software control, (2) forming a part of the Program Work Package Structure for Earned Value administration and control, (3) serving as a ready-reference document for procuring agency and contractor personnel, and (4) portraying pictorially the effect of decisions on the configuration and data requirements for the Contract End Items. Diagrams of specification tree samples are included.

(Author)

M4 MANAGEMENT TOOLS & TECHNIQUES

A67-33635
HYBRID SIMULATORS INDISPENSABLE FOR SYSTEMS MANAGE-
MENT (HYBRIDSIMULATOREN UNER LÄSSLICH FÜR DIE SYSTEM-
FÜHRUNG).
Eveline Gottzein (Bölkow GmbH, Ottobrunn, West Germany).
Bölkow-WMD/SIAT Report, May 1967, p. 10-19. In German.

Discussion of hybrid simulators, with description of a large unit which has been in operation for some time at Bolkow GmbH mainly for aerospace and military programs. It consists of analogcomputer units with a total of approximately 1200 operational amplifiers, two digital computers adapted to the special requirements of hybrid computation, and the interface units for handling the data flow between analog- and digital-computer elements. The necessity of such units for planning and accomplishing large-scale programs is shown. Examples are taken from the development of the third stage of the Europa I launch vehicle.

F.R.L.

A67-43019 #
COMPUTER AIDS TO ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT AND DESIGN
A MANAGER'S VIEW.
Fred W. Maxwell (Boeing Co., Aerospace Group, Missile and Infor
mation Systems Div., Seattle, Wash.).
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Annual Meeting
and Technical Display, 4th, Anaheim, Calif., Oct. 23-27, 1967,
Paper 67-920. 9p.
Members, $1.00; nonmembers, $1.50.

Description of an AGM-69A (an air-to-surface missile system) program-management system using a CRT display which translates PERT/Time and Cost Control data directly from computer storage into program-control displays. Thus the need for manual handling of the data and preparation of graphic illustrations is eliminated. This system has been given the acronyms COACH, for computeraided chartroom, and IMPACT, for instantaneous method for predicting, appraising, communicating, and tracking. A technical description of the system, the operation of the system, the application of the system to the AGM-69A program, and the lessons learned to date regarding the use of the system are given from a manager's point of view.

P.V.T.

A67-33634
PERT - A PLANNING METHOD (PERT EIN PLANUNGSVER-
FAHREN).
Ekkehard Schmid (Bolkow GmbH, Ottobrunn, West Germany).
Bölkow-WMD/SIAT Report, May 1967, p. 7-9. In German.

Discussion of the PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) planning method, the primary objective of which is to give project management a simple means for controlling the project with respect to time in order to accomplish a task with a known capacity in the shortest possible time. The project being planned is first described by a model, in order to ensure that at any moment the method supplies information on the state of the project and on the chances for future development and that it is always possible to determine the influences of possible decisions and of new events on the further progress of the project with the greatest possible accuracy. A PERT method is described in detail.

F.R.L.

A67-42966 #
ANA LYSIS AND COMPARISON OF SPACECRAFT RESOURCES
FORECAST ING TECHNIQUES FOR UNMANNED MISSIONS.
Sanford L. Rosing (Martin Marietta Corp., Friendship International
Airport, Md.) and William J. Bursnall (Martin Marietta Corp.,
Martin Co., Denver, Colo.).
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Annual Meeting
and Technical Display, 4th, Anaheim, Calif., Oct. 23-27, 1967,
Paper 67-809. 16 p. 41 refs.
Members, $1.00; nonmembers, $1.50.

Review of existing resource-predicting techniques for making effective decisions in marketing and facility planning of future space programs in connection with a forthcoming tougher evaluation of future space programs by the Executive Branch and Congress in terms of priority shifts and low confidence in cost-forecasting preci

Selected techniques are compared and evaluated for Mariner C and Voyager with emphasis on proposed program-resource forecasting against expenditure estimates for a program underway. The impact of new technology not specifically reflected in these techniques, such as increasing complexity of experiments, long-life reliability, and sterilization, on the forecasting precision is discussed. V.Z.

$10n.

A67-30223
THE USE OF CRITICAL PATH ANAL YSIS METHODS IN THE
EUROPEAN SPACE VEHICLE LAUNCHER DEVELOPMENT
ORGANISATION.
1. Stevenson (European Space Vehicle Launcher Development
Organisation, Central Planning and Progressing Service, Paris,
France).
IN: INTERNATIONAL COMPUTERS AND TABULATORS, NETWORK
PLANNING USERS CONFERENCE, LONDON, ENGLAND, JUNE 8,
1967, PAPERS. (A67-30221_15-34)
London, International Computers and Ta bulators, Ltd., 1967,
p. 43-53.

Outline of the Critical Path Analysis system (CPA), a project control system based on network techniques which has been adopted by ELDO to coordinate the separate development programs of its imeniber States into an overall plan, This plan snoula (1) provide an effective overall planning method, a common progress-reporting routine, and a timely informed project management at all levels, and (2) be easy to introduce, compatible with systems used by individual Member States, and understandable at all levels of management.

V.2.

A67-34671
SPECIFICATION TREES - A TOOL FOR MANAGEMENT.
Charles K. Murtaugh (General Electric Co., Missile and Space Div.,
Re-Entry Systems Dept., Philadelphia, Pa.).
IN: ANNALS OF RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY; ANNUAL
RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY CONFERENCE, 6TH,
COCOA BEACH, FLA., JULY 17-19, 1967, PROCEEDINGS. VOLUME
6 - ALL SYSTEMS GO? (A67-34648 18-15)

A67-24655
PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF PLANNING DEVELOPMENT
PROGRAMMES AND NEW MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES.
G. P. Dollimore (Hunting Engineering. Ltd., Luton, Beds.,
England).
(Symposium on Management, London, England, Mar. 2, 1966,
Paper.)
Royal Aeronautical Society, Journal, vol. 71, Mar. 1967, p. 193-201.
6 refs.

Investigation of the management methods used in the development of an item of military equipment to be used with a range of aircraft. It is concluded that the relatively simple management methods selected as a basis for the experiments have proved themselves sufficiently useful to be employed with confidence on similar developments.

B. B.

A66-37972 #
SYSTEM ANALYSIS - A MANAGEMENT TOOL.
William F. Stevens (USAF, Systems Command, Andrews AFB,
Washington, D. C.).
IN: ANNALS OF RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY. VOLUME
5 - ACHIEVING SYSTEM EFFECTIVENESS; ANNUAL RELIABILI TY
AND MAINTAINABILITY CONFERENCE, 5TH, NEW YORK, N. Y.,
JULY 18-20, 1965, PAPERS. (A66-37879 20-15)
Conference sponsored by the American Institute of Aeronautics
and Astronautics, the Society of Automotive Engineers, and the
American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
New York, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics,
1966, p. 944-947.

Discussion of system analysis as a management tool and of its application in aviation. Certain basic inputs are necessary in order to properly simulate aircraft operation. These inputs fall into three categories: system's characteristics, mission requirements, and maintenance and operational factors. The outputs discussed include mission success rates, downtime, availability, utilization rate, maintenance manhours, and space requirements.

M. F.

A67-17246
QERT.
Virgil Rehg (Ohio State University, Defense Management Center,
Columbus, Ohio).
IN: ANNUAL TECHNICAL CONFERENCE TRANSACTIONS 1966;
AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR QUALITY CONTROL, ANNUAL TECH-
NICAL CONFERENCE, 20TH, NEW YORK, N.Y., JUNE 1-3, 1966,
TRANSACTIONS. (A67-17240 05-15)
Milwaukee, American Society for Quality Control, Inc., 1966,
p. 107-114.

Description of the quality evaluation review technique (QERT) which provides a manager with a tool for tacuitating program planning and scheduling. It makes use of a grap network which allows the manager to see quickly the status of the program. Ways of using this technique for quality improvement are discussed.

M.F.

A66-33947
THE MANAGEMENT OF COST REDUCTION - METHOD OR MYTH?
H. Davies (Thiokol Chemical Corp., Reaction Motors Div., Denville,
N.J.).
Royal Aerona utical Society, Journal, vol. 70, June 1966, p. 639-
648. 15 refs.

Examination of the general framework of business profitability and review of a number of the possibilities for practical cost reduction within the field of the aerospace industry. The business profitability model is described and cost effectiveness is studied. The U.S. Department of Defense cost reduction program is reviewed. Possible approaches to cost reduction are reviewed including program management and control, design and process cost studies, value analysis, competitive purchasing, operational research, the statistical de sign of experiments, operations auditing, natural productivity increa ses, investment analysis, and zero defects.

M.F.

A67-14498
STRATEGIC VERSUS TACTICAL PLANNING IN MODERN BUSINESS.
H. R. Headley (Radio Corporation of America, Defense Electronic
Products, Missile and Surface Radar Div., Moore stown, N.J.).
IN: RADAR, RANGE INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT
SYSTEMS.
Camden, N.J., Radio Corporation of America, 1966, p. 2-5.

Summary of efforts to date in the application of an advanced feedback-system simulation technique as a strategic planning discipline. The results of an extensive parameter-sensitivity analysis are presented, and the utility of simulation is evaluated. M.F.

A66-31739
SYSTEMS AND SIMULATION,
D. N. Chorafas.
New York, Academic Press, Inc., 1965. 503 p.
$14.50.

A funda me ntal study of the theory and application of mathematical simulation in man-made systems, this book begins with mathe matical abstraction, the establishment of simulation studies, and the deve lopment and use of mathematical models. It conta ins practical information on writing and testing equations and the collection and analysis of data for systems. After specific case studies in industrial systems, military operations, traffic and cargo problems, and in hydraulic applications, the book concludes with the supplementary use of analog media in scientific investigation.

M.F.

A67-14256
THE MONTE CARLO METHOD: THE METHOD OF STATISTICAL
TRIALS.
N. P. Buslenko, D. 1. Golenko, lu. A. Schreider, I. M. Sobol',
and V. G. Sragovich.
(Translation of Metod Statisticheskikh Is pytanii Metod Monte Karlo,
Moscow, Fizmatgiz, 1962).
Edited by Iu. A. Shreider.
Oxford and New York, Pergamon Press (International Series of
Monographs in Pure and Applied Mathematics. Volume 87), 1966.

381 p.

$12.50.

This book gives an explanation of the basic features of the method of statistical trials (the Monte Carlo method) and considers typical examples of its application to simple problems in computational mathematics. A detailed study of the computation of multidimensional integrals is presented, a variety of examples of statistical modeling is analyzed, and the accuracy of the computations is investigated. The applications of the Monte Carlo method in those branches of physics and technology where it has been widely and successfully used are reviewed. The applications of the Monte Carlo method to the investigation of servicing processes are developed. This branch is concerned with the simulation of complex systems of control and operations research. Methods are considered for organizing statistical experiments on universal digital computers.

M.F.

A66-23833
AN INTEGRATED COMPUTER SYSTEM FOR ENGINEERING
PROBLEM SOLVING.
Daniel Roos (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Civil
Engineering, Cambridge, Mass.).
IN: AMERICAN FEDERATION OF INFORMATION PROCESSING
SOCIETIES, 1965 FALL JOINT COMPUTER CONFERENCE, LAS
VEGAS, NEV., NOVEMBER 1965, PROCEEDINGS. VOLUME 27 -
PART I. (A66-23824 12-08)
Washington, D.C., Spartan Books, 1965, p. 423-433. 13 refs.

Description of a modular computer system designed to enable the engineer to easily communicate and interact with the computer. The programer uses the ICETRAN (ICES-FORTRAN) programing language to develop and modify the necessary components of the system. Dynamic memory allocation, alternate data structures and data transfer and management facilities are available to the programer. It is noted that these features combine to make ICES an integrated computer system for total civil engineering problem solving.

M.M.

A66-23439 #

structed and then used to determine the important factors in a prof. COST EFFECTIVENESS.

itability model. The significant elements in the decision process G. R. Herd (Kaman Aircraft Corp., Bloomfield, Conn. ).

are found to be the uncertainty in esumating moder-paramete, values IN: ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIES ASSOCIATION, CONFERENCE

and the optimal utilization of limited engineering-manpower resources ON SYSTEMS EFFECTIVENESS, IST, WASHINGTON, D.C.,

where this uncertainty exists.

(Author) A. B.K. OCTOBER 19, 20, 1965, PROCEEDINGS. (A66-23434 11-34] Washington, D.C., Electronic Industries Association, 1965, p. 78-85. The paper discusses cost effectiveness as an analytical tool for

A65-34072 # engineering and management. It identifies the tasks and inputs that

APPLICATION OF THE THEORY OF GRAPHS IN THE DESCRIPTION should be included in an analysis. Cost data are discussed as well

AND ANALYSIS OF INFORMATION-FLOW SCHEMES IN CONTROL as the risks and uncertainties involved in the costing. The cautions

SYSTEMS (O PRILOZHENII TEORII GRAFOV DLIA OPISANIIA I and limitations involved in interpreting and implementing the results

ANALIZA SKHEMY POTOKOV INFORMATSII V UPRAVLIAIUare presented along with the benefits of the approach. Simple exam

SHCHIKH SISTEMAKH). ples are used to illustrate the various ideas.

(Author)

V. L. Epshtein.
Avtomatika i Telemekhanika, vol. 26, Aug. 1965, p. 1403-1409.
refs. In Russian.

Description and analysis of information-flow schemes in control A66-23060 #

systems, using contiguity matrices of information graphs. The VALUE ANALYSIS AS A WORKING TOOL.

properties of this matrix model are considered.

A.B.K. H. Davies (Thiokol Chemical Corp., Reaction Motors Div., Denville, N. J.). Chartered Mechanical Engineer, vol. 13, Feb. 1966, p. 60-64. 7 refs. A65-25176 Review of value analysis as a management technique that

ELEMENTS OF A STRATEGY FOR MAKING MODELS IN LINEAR results in cost reduction. The example discussed is the applica- PROGRAMMING. tion of the technique to the production of the Bullpup A and B

A. Charnes (Northwestern University. Evanston, Ill.) and W. W. missiles, both of which were already in service when the tech

Cooper (Carnegie Institute of Technology, Pittsburgh, Pa.). nique was applied. It is shown that in the case of production

IN: SYSTEM ENGINEERING HANDBOOK. programs which are contracted out on a successive basis, value

Edited by R. E. Machol, W. P. Tanner, Jr., and S. N. Alexander. analysis provides an effective tool for improving competitive effi- New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1965, p. 26-1 to 26-30. 44 refs. ciency. The manner of organization of the value analysis technique A description of the techniques applicable to the construction of with respect to existing company structure and departments is

models in linear programing, with particular application to manageexplained. The importance of supplier participation is emphasized.

ment and social science. The need for distinguishing between a Two small components - a pintle (used as a flame holder and

problem and the way it might be modeled is stressed, as, for turbulence increasing device in the injector area of the combustion

example, in the search for intersections between the wanted solutions chamber) and a small plug · are cited as specific examples where

of a nonlinear problem and a linear model constructed to deal with the technique permitted significant cost reductions. A check on

it. Model equivalents that can be obtained by effecting various production records shows that value analysis reduces cost without transformations are discussed. These transformations, together causing any reduction in quality and reliability.

M. L.

with the properties of a constrained optimization, can be used to obtain still further extensions - for example, when obtaining the

replacement of a compound objective with a simpler objective, in A66-21321

order to deal with a larger problem in engineering design. TechSIMULATION.

niques for characterizing the rank of a matrix, applying duality to A. W. Swan (Nova Scotia Technical College, Halifax, Nova Scotia,

linear programing, using constrained regressions for algorithmic Canada).

completion, and extending the simplex method to algorithmic The Engineer, vol. 221, Jan. 28, 1966, p. 170-172.

alterations are described.

D.P.F. Discussion of the relatively simple basic principles of simulation which can represent an extremely complex, managing policy. It is noted that a simulation imitates an industrial situation by converting

A65-25151 it into a mathematical model and that, whereas it is usually impos

THE ROLE OF LARGE-SCALE SIMULATION IN THE PROGRAM sible to experiment with an actual situation, to see for example the

DEFINITION PHASE ENVIRONMENT - AN EXAMPLE. effect on costs of varying production rates or the effect on stock

William J. Kenneally (U.S. Army, Electronics Command, Electronlevels of varying ordering policies, it is possible to experiment as ics Laboratories, Fort Monmouth, N.J.). one wishes with a mathematical model, once it has been proved to IEEE Transactions on Military Electronics, vol. MIL-9, Apr. 1965, be an accurate simulation, and arrive at an optimum policy. It is

p. 163-171. 33 refs. pointed out that one of the most remarkable examples of simulations

Discussion of the role of the government laboratory in the from industry concerned a textile mill in which the highly complex Program Definition Phase (PDP) environment. Emphasis is placed rules that governed the running of the mill, many of which had be- on the dual task of defining the technical boundaries of the problem, come buried in the subconscious minds of the heads of the departments, and evaluating the PDP reports to select the most acceptable engiwere converted to a mathematical simulation model which so im

neering approach. The problem of accomplishing a detailed technipressed the managers with its faithful reproduction of policy that cal evaluation of several proposed approaches in a short time frame they arranged to use it for the basis of their weekly planning meeting. is examined, with the result that a requirement for a better "yard

M. M. stick" is established. Design decisions leading to the final specifica

tion of such a yardstick - the Tactical Avionics System Simulator
(TASS) - and a summary of its anticipated capabilities are presented.

(Author) V.P.
A65-34621
SCORING AND PROFITABILITY MODELS FOR EVALUATING AND A65-24537
SELECTING ENGINEERING PROJECTS.

HOW PERT WAS USED IN MANAGING THE X-20 (DYNA-SOAR) Burton V. Dean (Case Institute of Technology, Cleveland, Ohio)

PROGRAM. and Meir J. Nishry ( Boeing Co., Seattle, Wash. ).

Raymond M. Sadow (USAF, Systems Command, Aeronautical (The Institute of Management Sciences and Operations Research

Systems Div., DOD AIMS System Program Office, Program Society of America, National Meeting, Minneapolis, Minn. , Oct. Control Div., Wright - Patterson AFB, Ohio). 7-9, 1964, Paper.)

(USAF, Aeronautical Systems Division, Science and Engineering Operations Research, vol. 13, July-Aug. 1965, p. 550-569.

Symposium, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio, 1963. ) Construction of mathematical models yielding solutions for al- IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, vol. EM-11, locating manpower resources to projects. A scoring model is con- Dec. 1964, p. 138-154.6 refs.

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