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Attempt to delineate NASA's management challenge as viewed broadly from top echelon. NASA's budgetary problems are sketched, and managerial successes, challenges, and problems are briefly discussed. The controversy of the incentives system in industrial contracting is reviewed, and the trend toward maximizing competition is stressed.
and the fundamental concept is stressed that scientific achievements and technological advancements are translated into useful products or services through management processes. It is noted that the functions of management have become much more difficult and complex because of advances in science and technology. The program management concept is introduced and defined. Finally, the five basic missions necessary for successful mission accomplishment are discussed: (1) perception of need, (2) design-development, (3) production, (4) delivery-deployment, and (5) utilization,
Discussion of factors involved in shaping policy with regard to aerospace activity, with emphasis on the role of the scientist in developing this policy. Areas of science and technology which have been aided by aerospace research are reviewed, and the overall benefits to society from aerospace activity are noted. It is suggested that while the scientist must of course provide the information on which policy decisions are to be made, his own judgment on policy is not necessarily more infallible or omniscient than that of the ordinary mortal.
A63-16580 PLANNING FOR TECHNOLOGY. Warren G. Magnuson (U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C.) (National Advanced - Technology Management Conference, Proceedings, Seattle, Wash., Sept. 4-7, 1962.) IN: Science, Technology, and Management. New York, McGrawHill Book Co., Inc., 1963, p. 8-10.
Keynote address emphasizing the growing complexity and confusion of technology. A plea is made for more understanding of science and technology on the part of statesmen and politicians. Cooperation among scientists, engineers, and managers is stressed, but the scientists themselves are urged to learn to manage technology in its applications.
Discussion of recent developments which have a significant impact on aerospace management. New requirements and procedures are discussed which show that: (1) the project definition phase (PDP) sets the stage for incentives by quantifying the trades between performance alternatives; (2) the PDP sets the stage for reliability, maintainability and value-engineering efforts, by providing specific criteria in these areas; (3) the PDP creates the initial program control plans - i, e., PERT networks, etc. ; (4) the contractor perfor. mance evaluation (CPE) supplements incentives by evaluating and ultimately rewarding or penalizing nonincentivized performance elements of the development program; (5) in a broad sense, the function of program review and control techniques is to disclose performance results or projected results which threaten nonconformance with the PDP plan; (6) a good weighted-guideline analysis would be based in part on the task and manpower loading analyses of PDP; and (7) the weighted guideline turns to CPE for past performance inputs. A chart illustrates the interdependence of the above events.
Discussion of some of the elements involved in the economics of space operations. Specific applications to operational space costs, both on a recurring and nonrecurring basis, are given. Several factors upon which the proper utilization of cost-effectiveness analysis is based are presented. These include: (1) the identification of the proper parameters; (2) open-mindedness on the part of program planners; and (3) proper utilization of "figures of merit." Other factors, which are the key elements in the identification of economically practical space operations, are also considered. Two preliminary conclusions drawn are: (1) the recovery and reuse of the launch vehicles, in the small spacecraft categories, will not reduce space operational costs significantly; and (2) the spacecraft predominates in the costs of the space operations. Accordingly, the greatest potential for reducing space operational costs involves the recovery and reuse of the spacecraft.
A63-16581 SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND MANAGEMENT: AN OVERVIEW. Fremont E. Kast and James E. Rosenzweig (University of Washington, College of Business Administration, Seattle, Wash.) (National Advanced - Technology Management Conference, Proceedings, Seattle, Wash., Sept. 4-7, 1962.) IN: Science, Technology, and Management. New York, McGrawHill Book Co., Inc., 1963, p. 16-30.
Discussion of the relationship between science, technology, and management, particularly in large-scale advanced-technology programs. The evolution of science in Western society is traced, and its pervasiveness is emphasized, with special reference to its impact on the United States. This evolution is measured by the vast increase in expenditures for research and development. The importance of management in the development of science is considered
Appraisal of airline equities by the financial market. Better profits, an improved stock-market image, and the health of the general economy are said to be the outstanding financial considerations today. Other aspects include the benefits of investment tax credits and the continuing opportunity to benefit therefrom, with substantial purchase commitments running into 1968 and 1969. Possibilities of leasing are receiving greater consideration, and the procedure has certain advantages, as well as disadvantages.
Financing assistance by manufacturers is evidence of the strong competition in a buyers' market. A continuing strong economy is considered to be the key to airline realization of potential heavy cash flow adequate to service the sizeable purchase commitments.
exercise is the preparation and defense of the budget. Planning in the 1970s, as compared with the 1960s, will have to clear the hurdle of greater competition for the Federal dollar. The coming decade will find substantially more dollars spent on space projects than its predecessor, but they will have to meet the practical tests of benefits and pa yoffs. Another outstanding feature of the coming decade will be the convergence of aeronautics and astronautics, with the greatest advances in each joining to improve transportation within the earth's atmosphere and out into space. Broad mission objectives for evaluating space programs and considering what should be done in advancing the national interest through space technology are outlined.
A textbook is presented whose formulation is intended to fill the gap between general marketing and market research works and the existing literature on various aspects of the size of the market and certain specific aspects of the weapons procurement process. The volume represents the edited contributions of a large number of people experienced in defense-space market research. Their efforts were brought together by the Electronics Industry Association, and they are listed as text contributors or planning and editorial contributors. The work discusses the nature of the market, market research and planning, and general characteristics of defense-space market research; various aspects of the process of and the organization for defense-space market research, with an appendix giving positions descriptions in two companies; information sources, including a discussion of the link between military planning and defense budgeting, with an appendix giving program element lists; forecasting the market, identifying growth areas, and utilizing information. A list of abbreviations, a glossary, selected references, and an index are presented. The work is intended to provide a basic text for courses in defense-space marketing and economics which should shorten the period required for in-house training programs and expand the supply of persons competent to function effectively in this professional activity.
# THE DYNAMICS OF ACCIDENT PREVENTION INFORMATION. c. O. Miller (Southern California, University, Institute of Aerospace Safety and Management, Los Angeles, Calif.). (Canadian Aeronautics and Space Institute, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, and Cornell-Guggenheim Aviation Safety Center, Aviation Safety Meeting, Toronto, Canada, Oct. 31Nov. 1, 1966, Paper.) Canadian Aeronautics and Space Journal, vol. 13, June 1967, p. 273277. 18 refs.
Discussion of the role of recording of accident data and the dynamics of accident-prevention information. Known precedent in accident causation has traditionally been the foundation of accident prevention. Thousands of accidents have occurred from which lessons of the past have been learned. Still, repetitive causal factors are regularly observed. Some of these are undoubtedly due to man's inherent limitations; others result from information lost or degraded during transmission from accident occurrence to prevention of other accidents.
Discussion of the role of the program manager in the integration of the requirements of a space program. A differentiation is made between the functional or matrix-type organization, in which all program efforts are performed by the company departments, and the project organization, in which essentially all effort is performed by a specially organized project team under the direct supervision of the project manager. The advantages of an organization characterized by integration and employee self-control over one of authoritative direction and control are discussed.
Discussion of the planning and decision-making system in the area of science and technology. The results of Congressional hearings on the allocation of funds, and the investigation of the Executive Department's decision-making process on research and development are summarized. The need for frequent, systematic, large-scale surveys and analysis of science and technology is stressed from the present to the future frontiers of knowledge. The possibility of a technological revolution in the sense of a sudden and radical change is explained in contrast to the gradual and relatively peaceful process of evolutionary exchange. The need for planning the evolutionary progress is evident but it must be done with the expectation of revolutionary changes. The creation of a "Hoovertype" commission is urged to undertake a complete review of the relationship between public policy and science and technology.
Discussion of problems involved in space planning by the Executive Branch of the Government. It is pointed out that one of the most arduous and time-consuming activities in the entire planning
Discussion of Rolls-Royce's use of computers in engineering, manufacturing, and marketing operations. The company now has 11 computers in use. The current annual expenditure on computing and data processing within the Aero Division lies between 1-1/2 and 2% of annual turnover. Approximately 600 of the Division's staff are employed directly in this work. The design, manufacture, and checking of compressor blades is a typical computer application.
A book containing a bibliography on various aspects of R&D management with book abstracts. Among the subjects covered are allocation of resources, budgeting, communication, control, creativity, decision making, economics, evaluation of results, expenditures, motivation, objective, organization, patents, philosophy, planning, project selection, responsibility, strategy and tactics, system, and theory.
Discussion of the problems encountered in keeping up with research and developments thorugh published technical information. The information problems are summed up as too little and too late. Security restrictions, competitive jealou sies, and organizational weaknesses are blamed for the "too little" a spect. The large volume of data, the reliance on traditional methods (which make use of an increasing number of specialized journals and the multiplication of more and more specialized societies), and the multitude of information sources contribute to the "too late" aspect. Suggestions on how the engineer can help solve his own information problems are provided. Recommendations for the establishment of a national technical information center are included.
A66-24747 # A TRILLION DOLLAR MARKET. Vincent P. Rock (Communications Central, Washington, D.C.). American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Communications Satellite Systems Conference, Washington, D.C., May 2-4, 1966, Paper 66-274. 16 p. 7 ress. Members, $0.75; nonmembers, $1.50.
Examination of three market problems connected with the development of Satellite Educational and Informational Television (SEIT) what values will foster growth of SEIT, what is the nature of market demand and structure, and what is the role of SEIT in opening up this market. Values which facilitate the growth of the market potential are discussed. The "information system," consisting of the complex of peoples, institutions, and technology through which information is created, is described. The role of the SEIT program is evaluated. The conclusions of experts who reviewed the developmental work on TV for educational purposes are set forth. Advantages of satellite communication are reviewed.
Review of changes in Government policies towards profits in the aerospace industry. Shortcomings in cost-plus-fixed-fee contracts are reviewed, and the increasing use of cost-plusincentive-fee contracts is discussed. The role of competitive pressures in determining profit rates is noted. The incentive contract, with its basic philosophy of reward for good performance and penalty for poor, is concluded to offer the best opportunity for the contractor to achieve higher profits.
A64-14706 SELECTED REFERENCES ON PERT AND RELATED TECHNIQUES. B. L. Fry (North American Aviation, Inc., Atomics International Div., Management Systems and Evaluation, Canoga Park, Calif.). (RAND Corp., Memorandum RM-3074-PR, Feb. 1963.) IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, vol. EM-10, Sept. 1963, p. 150, 151.
Bibliography of 50 items selected to demonstrate the scope of material covered in studies of the network-type management control systems. The documents are organized by author, title, author's organization, chronology, and a file number. The bibliography comprises two listings, one indexed by author and one indexed by title.
MANAGEMENT / a continuing literature survey
processing information in large scale operations
total configuration control in terms of design
contracting, noting system trade-offs among
detailing objectives of Project Definition
organization and management with discussion of
management network for system compatibility and
for change identification, control,
access management information systems - AESOP
engineering and vendor controls, and inspection
solved by program ensuring proper recognition by
methods, considering application to Automatic
precise documentation which attempts to assure
processes to prevent design or systems
effectiveness analysis are helping Contract
effects on industrial management planning
contract with cost and risk-taking
Conference, University of Missouri, November
analysis, interface, change control,
solved by program ensuring proper recognition by
associated disciplines, documentation,
Conference, University of Missouri, November
production, financial and contractual management
Description of simple and flexible system of