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N64-83865 System Development Corp., Santa Monica, Calif.
Management concepts are found to be the major concepts underlying the development of command and control systems in support of decision making and action taken by military organizations. The command and control type system for top management decision making is a man-machine system having at its core an ongoing, dynamic operation. Growth of military command and control and basic functions of such systems are discussed; and special attention is given to the meaning of both control and command in this context. Plans, monitoring, and dynamic operations are stressed.
N63-17425 Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Co. Military
This report presents the steps of a generalized systemsanalysis procedure for command and control systems. The steps are then followed, utilizing an existing SAGE Direction Control system as a vehicle for the study. Emphasis is placed upon modeling the human organization as a whole. Author
N63-12833 General Electric Co. Technical Military Planning
A method of analyzing systems is presented as an aid in the selection of a system to perform some given mission. The method considers both the cost and effectiveness criteria, jointly. The method is illustrated by the following missions: system to repair orbiting satellites; weather and reconnaissance satellites; tactical bombing aircraft; and nuclear detection system.
N63-81003 George Washington Univ., Washington, D. C. EXPERIENCE IN DATA COLLECTION. 1: ADMINISTRATION AND ORGANIZATION FOR DATA COLLECTION J. E. Hamilton 8 Sep. 1960 76 p refs (Contract NR-047001) (AD-242853)
The Project was organized as a Naval Task Force and established task groups to visit the more than 120 ships and shore stations which contributed data to the program. The experience of these task groups is presented in a way which is intended to be of assistance to either a Navy task force or a contracting group acting under naval sponsorship if assigned the task of data collection. It is indicated in the paper that the mere act of collecting data is not very expensive. For the regular part of the program with data pertaining to 65 ships being collected, the cost averaged about $530.00 per ship-year. The program described is unique among Navy programs in the following respects: it was carried out for the purpose of empirical research in logistics; it covered a large sample (65) of ships; it covered support activities as well as ships themselves; it covered all kinds of material; it was continued for a long time; it included three years of quasi-war (Korea) and two to six years of quasi-peace (post-Korea); it was conducted by a contractor; and raw documents, not reduced or aggregated data were collected.
N63-11798 California U., Berkeley. Lawrence Radiation Lab. INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT LOGIC PLANNING William C. Bagot Oct. 1962 19 p (Contract W-7405-eng-48) (UCRL-1049) OTS: $0.50
A computer program, PROLOG, has been developed for the management of large-scale projects. In this variation of the critical path method, activities are first diagramed in their logical sequence. and only after this planning phase are times associated with the activities. The shortest possible duration of the project is the time required for the longest chain of sequential activities. Once the project duration has been calculated, the duration of each activity along the network can be obtained, and a time interval for completion of this activity can be established. This technique permits the use of more and randomly numbered node points and also provides for an exact relationship of working time with calendar time. Further, it provides a means by which those persons responsible for getting a task done can do their own planning after receiving information on how their task relates to the rest of the project.
N63-21721 Stanford U., Calif. Applied Mathematics and Statistics Labs SOME ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF RELIABILITY AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT David C. Dellinger May 31. 1963 199 p 52 refs (Contract Nonr-225(53)) (Tech. Rept. 67)
An attempt is made to emphasize the dangers of indiscriminate use of mathematical models in reliability and project management. To utilize the results of theoretical models, one must find or develop a model which fits the particular problem. In the application of reliability test models, the practitioner must either make a judgment relative to the underlying distribution of time to failure or utilize the more expensive nonparametric tests. If realistic results are to be obtained. To utilize the decision theory model for selecting the most economical test procedure, the problem of determining the appropriate a prioiri distribution and the relevant costs must be faced. The true value of management science can only be measured in terms of its contribution toward the solution of practical management problems. Unless the gap between the model builder and the practitioner is reduced, its full value cannot be realized.
N63-11217 Congress House Committee on Government Operations SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT (PART V) Hearings before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations, U.S. House of Representatives, August 28, 29, 30, and 31, 1962 For abstract see N63-11213 03-01 Washington, GPO, 1962 360 p (87th Cong. 2nd Sess. Committee Print)
N63-11216 Congress. House. Committee on Government Operations SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT (PART IV) Hearings before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Govern. ment Operations, U.S. House of Representatives, August 13, 14, 15, 16, 20, and 21, 1962 For abstract see N63-11213 03-01 Washington, GPO, 1962 280 p (87th Cong. 2nd Sess. Committee Print)
N63-11215 Congress. House Committee on Government Operations SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT (PART III) Hearings before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations, U.S. House of Representatives, August 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 9, 10, and 13, 1962 For abstract see N63-11213 03-01 Washington, GPO, 1962 570 p (87th Cong. 2nd Sess. Committee Print)
N67-40547# Congress. House. Committee on Government
Attention is given to the huge scale and rising costs of Federal laboratory operations that require special management and continued improvement in a report by the Committee on Government Operations for the Committee of the Whole on the State of the Union to the 90th Congress. Both the difficulty in controlling the costs of laboratory equipment and inefficient management are noted, and emphasis is placed on the fact that greater economy and efficiency can be attained. The Brookhaven offer-of-sale procurement method, the U.S. Army Natick Laboratories' use of elapsed-time meters to establish equipment utilization, Goddard Space Flight Center's walk-through technique for identifying idle equipment, and equipment pools are mentioned as means to achieve better utilization.
N63-11214 Congress House. Committee on Government Operations SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT (PART II) Hearings before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations, U.S. House of Representatives, July 23, 24, 25, 26, and 27, 1962 For abstract see N63-11213 03-01 Washington, GPO, 1962 378 p (87th Cong. 2nd Sess. Committee Print)
N63-11213 Congress House Committee on Government Operations SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT (PART 1) Hearings before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations, U.S. House of Representatives, June 21, 22, 27, 29, and Aug. 15, 1962 For Part 2, see N63-11214 03-01; Part 3, see N63-11215 03-01; Part 4, see N63-11216 03-01 Washington, GPO, 1962 437 p (87th Cong. 2nd Sess. Committee Print)
The text of the hearings before the Military Operations Subcommittee of the U.S. House of Representatives is presented in five volumes. The basis for the hearings was the report to the President on "Government Contracting for Research and Development," known as the Bell report. This report presents the policy guidelines for (1) deciding how vital research and development programs will be apportioned between Government and non-Government operations; (2) improving the Government's ability to review contractor operations and perform scientific and technical work; and (3) obtaining better contractor performance and lower costs. Witnesses representing Government Agencies, the Military Departments, the nonprofit corporations, assisting the Department of Defense with specialized technical services, and the industrial organizations were heard in an effort to clarify the major issues presented in the Bell report.
N67-40140# Logistics Management Inst., Washington, D. C. TOTAL PACKAGE PROCUREMENT CONCEPT, SYNTHESIS OF FINDINGS Jun. 1967 121 p ref (Contract ARPA SD-271) (AD-655814)
The Total Package method of procurement offers significant advantages over development-only type contracts for both the Government and industry. Advantages include cost savings, shorter development schedules, design for producibility. long range planning, and from the Government's point of view, increased competition. Disadvantages include greater financial risk, premature program definition, and severe competition and increased proposal expenses from the contractor's point of view. TPP should be applied to operational systems development programs and to smaller programs below the DoD Directive 3200.9 threshold criteria. TPP should not be applied to systems where the technology is rapidly changing and responsive to changing military needs or to systems which require an interface application. There is a greater need for an integrated management information system for TPP programs than there is for development-only programs. The Government should disengage from the contractor in TPP programs, and retain visibility but not control unless program redirection is necessary. On balance. the influential factors of cost, schedule, and system performance in the TPP programs studied tend to support rather than constrain technical innovation.
N63-10094 Republic Aviation Corp., Farmingdale, N. Y. A STUDY OF THE AIR FORCE MAINTENANCE TECHNICAL DATA SYSTEM (Final Report] J. W. Losee, R. H. Allen, J. W. Stroud, and J. Ver Hulst WrightPatterson AFB, Ohio, Behavioral Sciences Lab., Aug. 1962 199 p 5 refs (Contract AF 33(616)-8193) (AMRL-TDR-62-85) OTS: $5.00
This report details the research on preparation, production, distribution, evaluation, and verification of Air Force maintenance technical data. It highlights the impact of management on the procurement of accurate, timely, and economical data and identifies the areas in which management was found to be deficient. It points out the specific shortcomings in the data, in its preparation, distribution, and use. Finally, the report recommends actions considered necessary to first, improve the overall technical order system of management, and second, to enhance the quality, usefulness, and timeliness of the data produced.
N67-39769# Logistics Management Inst., Washington, D. C. MULTI-YEAR PROCUREMENT AT THE SUBCONTRACTOR LEVEL Jun. 1967 37 p refs (Contract ARPA SD-271) (AD-655815)
The increasing use of multi-year and total package procurement has given rise to the possibility of achieving greater economies by the use of multi-year subcontracts. In addition, prime contracts placed on an annual funding basis, and sole source prime contracts may provide opportunities for price reductions through multi-year subcontracting. The purpose of this task is to (1) investigate industry policies and practices in using multi-year procurement techniques at the subcontract level: (2) identify and analyze DoD policy, fiscal, and contractual impediments, if any, to the use of multi-year subcontracts for both multi-year and non-multi-year prime contracts: (3) identify and analyze any extraordinary risks to both the Government and contractors inherent in multi-year subcontracting; (4) develop criteria for selection and conduct of procurements to test the practicability, and to determine the benefits to the Government of multi-year subcontracting. Author (TAB)
M2 CONTRACT MANAGEMENT
N66-87880 Air Force Systems Command. Andrews AFB. Md.
Prepared with AF Logistics Command, Wright-Patterson AFB (AFSCM-310-1; AFLCM-310-1)
Policies, procedures, and general information for management of data by contractors are included in this first volume of a manual for Air Force contractors. Policy and responsibilities with regard to data acauisition are detailed; as are instructions for compliance with federal reports and various required data reviews. Logic flow network, time phased milestones, and specific acquisition flow are presented for a typical system acquisition flow. The policies, responsibilities, and management procedures described herein are those established by the Air Force Systems Command and Air Force Logistics Command headquarters. M.W.R.
W. W. Goolsby and F. T. Snyder May 1967 85 p refs
A method of managing research and development projects that incorporates a system of cost control with critical path scheduling has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the method is currently being used on selected projects at the Laboratory. This method serves the needs of the project managers in planning, analyzing, and controlling projects from their inception through their completion. Designed as a general-purpose system that makes maximum use of the automated processing of information, the scheduling system permits management to obtain a coordinated set of time and resource schedules with the option of resource leveling. The cost system uses the information generated by the scheduling system to collect and report detailed costs for labor, material, and equipment. The actual expenditures of time, manpower, and dollars are then compared with the estimated expenditures and the scheduled progress. The development of this time-cost method of project management at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is discussed in this report, and the functions of the scheduling and cost systems, the input requirements for the computer programs, the computer reports, and the options available are described.
N66-36638# Radiation, Inc., Melbourne, Fla.
The combined contract, designed to reduce or eliminate problems which have caused concern to the government and still not go to the extreme and require the contractor excessive risk, is discussed. It is pointed out that considerations should be given to the specific type of procurement. The cost plus fixed fee, cost plus incentive fee, fixed price incentive, and fixed price contracts are compared. Examples are included, and additional conditions are mentioned.
N66-84247 Stanford Research Inst., Menlo Park, Calif.
Organization of research activities; evaluation of research productivity; and recruitment, retention, and utilization of scientists are considered in a program dealing with applications of the behavioral sciences to research management. The program was conducted by having a behavioral scientist work for a period of several weeks in close association with the members of an Office of Aerospace Research (OAR) headquarters or laboratory staff in order to build a communications bridge in OAR between the practical world of management and the theoretical world of behavioral sciences research. The OAR practices are compared to behavioral sciences findings in the areas of organization, productivity, and personnel management; and problems encountered by OAR are presented.
M3 RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
N67-81120 Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Center for Advanced
The research constituted an investigation of organizational factors in scientific performance. A number of hypotheses were tested within a theoretical framework whose major premise states that outstanding achievement in science requires an essential tension' between an orientation toward tradition or wisdom and toward innovation or novelty. Work of highest significance is believed to occur in the simultaneous presence of conditions emphasizing wisdom and of those emphasizing novelty. Specifically. several sources of wisdom and novelty were examined as they arose from individual patterns of consultation, from processes occurring within the work group, and from certain aspects of organizational structure. These variables provided substantial predictions of scientific performance, particularly at the work group and organizational level. Thus, the findings partially substantiate the theory while at the same time suggesting certain modifications applicable in the administration of industrial research laboratories
N66-36639# International Business Machines Corp., Bethesda,
This paper contains a new concept in the approach to marketing R&D capabilities to the defense/space market. The concept is based primarily on establishing capability managers as the focal point of the marketing function. It suggests that this is only one of the several new concepts that are needed to meet the challenges of this unique marketplace. The paper reviews the current approach to selling R&D and tries to relate it to the workings of the marketplace. It points out some of the fundamental shortcomings of the current practice and, in building upon this examination, it goes on to suggest a new approach to the problem.
N67-33183# Oak Ridge National Lab., Tenn.
N66-32852# Sandia Corp., Albuquerque. N. Mex ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OF A STANDARDS AND CALIBRATION PROGRAM FOR A RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT LABORATORY
R. L. Schneider Apr. 1966 10 p Presented at the Natl. Conf. of Std. Labs.. Ann. Meeting. Gaithersburg. Md. (Contract AT(29-1)-789) (SC-DC-66-1491: CONF-660522-1) CFSTI: HC $1.00/MF $0.50
A measurement standards and instrument calibration program for a research and development laboratory is described. The description of this program deals primarily with the organizational philosophy of the system and does not delve into the technical aspects of standards or instrument calibration.
Howard M. Vollmer Washington. A FOAR, Nov. 1964 94 p refs (Contract AF 49(638)-1028) (IMU-3580; A FOSR-64-2555; AD-609356)
The method of study included collection of data by use of personal interviews, a standard written questionnaire, and review of management records. It also included inputs of information from the behavioral sciences to management during the 12-month period covered by the study. Findings on research organization substantiate the importance of protecting the integrity of research activities and of differentiating them from development, to maintain a participatory style of leadership. to support methods to translate research findings into rapid utilization, and to assure a sense of continuity in laboratory structure and research programs. Findings on the evaluation of research productivity point out methods to measure the quality of research products, as well as quantity. through examining subsequent citations of publications and the source of original publication. Findings on the recruitment, retention, and utilization of scientists suggest the importance of freedom in the conduct of research as a general incentive, and also indicate the importance of further research to analyze effectiveness of different incentives for different types of civilian and military scientists identified in this study.
N66-13617# Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge. Alfred P. Sloan School of Management. RESEARCH PROGRAM ON THE MANAGEMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. TIME ALLOCATION AMONG THREE TECHNICAL INFORMATION CHANNELS BY R & D ENGINEERS Thomas J. Allen and Maurice P. Andrien, Jr. Aug. 1965 25 p refs (Grants NSF GN-233; NSF GN-353) (Rept.-131-65)
Four parallel research and development projects are examined to determine the manner in which engineers and scientists allocate their time, and the effect of this allocation on the outcome of the projects. The use of matched pairs of projects allows the relative evaluation of outcomes by technical monitors in the customer agencies. It is seen that the percent of total time spent in three categories of information gathering (outside consultation, staff consultation, literature search) varies significantly over the life of a project. Higher rated teams are relatively stable in all phases of information gathering while lower rated teams initially spend far more time gathering information than they do in the later stages. and fluctuate more throughout the project. It is also seen that subsystems characterized by greater uncertainty receive a higher percent of information gathering time than subsystems where uncertainty is lower.
N64-32217 Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C.
A quantitative methodology for use as an aid to research program planning is sought. An operations research approach to the problem is described, and a generalized systems concept of the research planning process is outlined as background material for the analytical techniques proposed. There are three basic ingredients to the proposed research planning system. The first is the concept of a category-attribute matrix, which describes numerical relationships between desired attributes of a research program and categories of research. The matrix yields a numerical output called "effectiveness." The second ingredient is a predetermined collection of classification systems, which suggests a set of constraints for a balanced program. The third ingredient is a perturbation technique that is used to answer questions posed to the system. Five theorems are proved, and a model consisting of numerical arrays has been formulated to characterize the state of a pro
N65-86414 Air Force Systems Command, Edwards AFB. Fla.
Effectiveness of research and development procurement in the field of airborne targetry was studied in terms of performance. development time, and development cost. Case studies were a representative sample of 25 contracts completed during a sixyear period; and a decided bias was evidenced toward overoptimism and the consequent understatement of development time and cost of targetry equipment. In addition to competitive optimism, major factors contributing to development cost increases were technical difficulty, additional scope, and change in overhead rates. The more ambitious the targetry project, the less accurate were the development time predictions, although the end item performance was usually realized as the result of increased development costs and time. It is hypothesized that in-house research and development efforts have definite advantages over contracted efforts.
N64-27208 National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C.
Because of the lack of concise and reliable information on the organization of sciences in member countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, it was decided that reports should be prepared by the countries them. selves, but that a uniform pattern in subject material and terminology should be followed. The subject of the survey is the mechanism of research, including information on the establishments organizing and promoting scientific research. The reports concentrate on the natural sciences (pure and applied science and technology): educational matters are included only insofar as they pertain to a country's research efforts. D.S.G.
N65-18294# Stanford Research Inst., Menlo Park, Calif. APPLICATIONS OF THE BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES TO RESEARCH MANAGEMENT: AN INITIAL STUDY IN THE OFFICE OF AEROSPACE RESEARCH
M4 MANAGEMENT TOOLS & TECHNIQUES
N67-80945 Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey. Calif. A MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF LONG-RANGE PLANNING Thomas E. Oberbeck In its Fac. and Staff Reprints (1964) 16 p refs Presented at the 10th Intern Meeting of the Inst. of Management Sci., Tokyo, 21-24 Aug. 1963 (See N67-80915)
Thirty-four publications by faculty and staff of the United States Naval Postgraduate School are reprinted that deal with a variety of subjects in the biological and physical sciences. Some of the papers consider optimal determinations of ship routes, various aspects of automatic control theory, and theoretical mathematical presentations. Management related contributions are concerned with cross disciplinary education in control engineering, a mathematical model of long range planning, and optimum control.
pattern, so the engineer cannot use it. Information retrieval system effectiveness is now measured by the number of hits vs misses of relevant documents retrieved. This is not enough for the engineer. he needs information, not data or some documents that might contain what he is looking for. The proposed method developed herein corrects this situation by converting the raw documental data into usable information directly applicable to the engineer's decision process in terms related to performance of physical systems. It does so by introducing into the information retrieval process a system of numerical taxonomies that are clinically diagnostic of equipment performance characteristics. These taxonomies are descriptive throughout the range from failure to oversuccess and are called 'environmental predictors.'
N67-80496 Mitre Corp., Bedford, Mass. INFORMATION SYSTEM SIMULATION AND MODELING TECHNIQUES (1962) 125 p refs Presented at 1st Congr. on the Inform. System Sci., Bedford, Mass., 14 Nov. 1962; Sponsored by Mitre Corp. and AF Electron. Systems Div.
Three reports presented at an information system sciences conference session deal with information systems simulation and modeling techniques. Leviathan, an approach to an experimental study of large organizations with the aid of computers is detailed, including the .conceptual model, command language. hierarchal diversity, automatic mode and live simulation, and simulation in a combined live and artificial mode. Another paper presents a methological spectrum, considers experimental design in empirical systems research, and makes a functional task analysis of the information systems research project. A third presentation deals with an environmental simulation as a technique for studying human behavior.
N67-21816# Oak Ridge National Lab., Tenn. CRITICAL-PATH METHOD FOR SCHEDULING THE TRANSURANIUM PROCESSING PLANT: AN APPRAISAL W. D. Burch and C. H. La Master Mar. 1966 44 p ref (Contract W-7405-ENG-26) (ORNL-3925) CFSTI: HC $3.00/MF $0.65
At the direction of the Atomic Energy Commission, the construction of the Transuranium Processing Plant was scheduled by the critical-path method (CPM) as a test of its usefulness in coordinating and expediting all phases of a major construction project. The use of CPM for the ORNL phases of the project is summarized, along with techniques used and major problems and, advantages of this method in scheduling the design, procurement, fabrication, and installation of equipment. Coordination and scheduling of associated research and development programs were attempted with only limited success. To the members of the project. CPM appeared to have outstanding advantages over previous scheduling systems for a construction project. The fact that the basic project was completed very nearly on schedule (12/31/65) and well within the originally allotted funds can be at least partially attributed to the exacting scheduling required by CPM. The cost attributed directly to scheduling represented 1.3% of total funds expended on the project by the Laboratory. Specific methods used, and discussions of day-to-day management and supervisory uses of the technique are reported. Examples are given to show advantages in developing such schedules, their usefulness in alerting management to trouble spots, and the actions taken by management. Examples of failure to meet expectations are also cited.
N67-38062 California Univ., Berkeley. Operations Research
An alternate method of solving the divisible activity problem is discussed. Constraints are added to make the original alternate primal formulation a special case of the cost-time project scheduling problem. This redefinition permits the divisible activity problem to be solved by an algorithm already developed for solving the cost-time project scheduling problem.
N67-33913# Frankford Arsenal, Philadelphia, Pa.
Environmental engineering seeks solutions to particularized problems about equipment compatability with natural and man-made environments. Since World War II environmental engineering has become costly, time consuming and a big consumer of lead time in product development. However, since World War II considerable environmental effects data about equipment performance has been painstakingly obtained and stored. These data are pertinent and relevant to present day equipment. It is accessible-yet, it isn't being used. The engineering community continues to design and test rather than 'search' the literature for these environmental effects data. As an element of engineering, information is meaningful only in terms of decision making, and decision making patterns related to physical systems. Raw description doesn't adequately fit this
N67-15410# System Development Corp., Santa Monica, Calif. INFORMATION PROCESSING POTENTIALS IN LARGE-SCALE OPERATIONS Summary Report, Oct. 1962-Jun. 1966 Beatrice K. Rome and Sydney C. Rome 18 Jul. 1966 42 p refs (Contract AF 19(638)-5166) (TM-1128/100/00; AD-640591) CFSTI: HC $3.00/MF $0.65
In the study of large organizations, the information, communication, and governing processes have been extremely difficult to formulate. Towards such a formulation, the strategy of the Leviathan studies has been to pursue two lines of attack--theoretical formlization and computer-based simulation. By these means, Leviathan research has studied the interrelationships between (1) executive policy making and control and (2) system performance of large organizations, within (3) experimentally controlled laboratory environments. In answer to the challenge of markedly enhanced computer capabilities just now being made available, practical and theoretical advances have been made in formalizing the communication and governing process in large organizations. These advanced formulations and their significance are explained.