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W.b.n. Vessels entering between the heads at Port Phillip should keep the red light in sight, and steer in with it bearing N.E.b.N. and in line with the high white light. The change of colour from red to white indicates an approach to the Lonsdale or Nepean Reefs. The white light between the bear. ings of N.E.b.E. and N.E. shows over the dangers extending from Lonsdale Point. Between the bearings of N.N.E. to W.b.N., the white light shows over the Corsair Rock to a line passing from the lighthouse through the South channel, southward of Popes Eye and the black buoys, and to the northward of the white buoys, so that vessels during night with light winds or adverse tides will be aided by a bearing of the light.
(e.) 11–So as to show white when bearing from about E.N.E. to N.E. J E., red from N.E. E. to N.E. 4 N., white from N.E. N. to N.b.W.I w., and red from N.b.W. W., round by the West, to S. 7 W. The red light in sight between the bearings of N.E. E. to N.E. I N. indicates the entrance to the West channel, between No. 1. black buoy and the white buoy with perch on the Royal George Shoal.
(f.) 11.–To clear the Corsair Rock, keep the East end of the Telegraph Station open westward of the red obelisk, which is forty feet high, and standing near the site of the old lightliouse, until the white beacon on Nepean Point is open Northward of the red beacon. The beacon on Nepean Point open South of the red beacon leads to the southward of the rock. 'Variation 8° 20' East in 1863.
Co.) 12.-The light shows red to the eastward, white to the S.E., and green to the south ward. "Vessels with the white or green light in sight, should not stand into less than five fathoms water; and should anchor with the red light in sight, in four fathoms, over fine sand and mud. The light will disappear wbilst being trimmed.
(h.) 13.-The light is a fixed white light, varied by a flash every three minutes. The tower stands on the Sciara Biscari, at the South side of the port.
(i.) 13.—The light is red.
(k.) 14.-—The light illuminates an arc of 280° from about S.W. as seen from the lighthouse, round northerly and easterly to about S.E.b.S.
(1.) 15.-The light is a fixed green and red light, showing green to seaward when bearing from about N.W.b.N. to N.W.; W., and red towards Nepean Point and the harbour, from about N.W. W. to W. AN. The green light should be seen in clear weather from a distance of about four miles, and the red light at about seven miles.
The light is exhibited from a site close to the tidal flagstaff on Lonsdale Point, and is intended to warn vessels of their approach to the newly discovered dangers by the Lightning and the Lonsdale Point Rock, at the entrance to the port. Vessels having the green light in sight will be outside the dangers, and with the red light in sight inside the dangers. The blending of the two colours will indicate that a vessel is in the vicinity of the dangers.
AUSTRALIA, - Queensland.
The Treasury, Queensland, 9th January, 1863. The following sailing directions and information respecting the Pioneer River, prepared by Lieutenant G. P. Heath, Portmaster, are published for general information.
T. De LACY MOFFAT, Colonial Treasurer.
Sailing Directions for the Pioneer River.-Approximate Position of
Settlement—Lat. 21° 9' S., long. 149° 14' E. Vessels on nearing the Pioneer River, can always recognize its position, by its proximity to two islands lying N.W. and S.E., one mile apart; that to the S.E. being round-topped and moderately high, while that to the N.W., although about the same height, is flat-topped.
The entrance to the Pioneer is about one and a half miles S.W. of the flat-topped island. A bar extends across the mouth of the river, which nearly dries at low water springs, and from thence the depth of the channel, which has an average width of one cable, varies from one foot to seven feet at low water, until within about three quarters of a niile of the settlement, when it again almost dries across, and from thence the depth gradually increases until abreast the settlement, which is about four miles from the bar, and where there is about seven feet at low water in the centre of the channel.
There is a rise and fall on the bar of from ten and a half feet to sixteen feet, and at the settlement, of from nine feet to thirteen feet, so that most of the vessels trading on the coast can enter the port without difficulty. The Directions for Entering, until the River is Buoyed and Beaconed,
are as follows: To cross the bar, keep a double hummock, which is about eight miles distant, its own width to the southward of some low sand hills on the beach. A vessel may haul up when the island to the S.E. of Slade Point is well shut in with the trees on the extreme East point, but should be careful not to stand over so as to shut in L Island with that point. The channel then runs in a N.b.W. direction, towards the steep shore on the West side of East Point. As that point is neared, the edge of the banks is more clearly defined. They are there steep to, and may be approached within a reasonable distance. The channel then runs along the starboard shore, until a sandy cliffy point is passed, and the settlement opened out to the westward, for which a vessel may then haul up and steer, being careful, after passing the point on the port hand, to keep that shore on board until abreast of the settlement.
Vessels intending to enter the Pioneer River, should not run down on the lee shore when it is blowing hard from the East or S.E., but should anchor under some of the islands off the coast until the weather moderates. In moderate South-easterly weather a vessel would find sufficient shelter under the lee of the flat-topped island, being careful to avoid a sand spit running off the South extreme of that island, towards the East point at the entrance of the river. There is a good passage, about half a mile wide, between this spit and the shoal water off the main land. When in mid channel, the island to the S.E. of Slade Point is on with the peak of M Island. The entrance of the river is sheltered by the islands during North-easterly winds.
Vessels should carefully avoid the dangerous reef to the northward of the two islands off the Pioneer, and lying nearly midway between those islands and the island to the S.E. of Slade Point. There is, however, a clear passage between this reef and the main land, and also between Slade Point and the small island lying off the shore. There is also a clear passage between the round and flat-topped islands.
The tides in the Pioneer River run from three to upwards of four knots. High water, full and change, 11h. 7m.
Vessels, if drawing more than six feet, may lay aground at low water, abreast the settlement, ip safety, on soft sandy bottom ; the river at that time of tide forming a perfectly sheltered basin there.
On entering the river while any tide is running, the banks are generally visible, and there is little difficulty in navigating the river if proper attention is paid, and the lead kept going. From the narrowness of the channel, the port is not well suited for vessels of any great length.
A plan of the river will be in the hands of the lithographer in the course of a few days.
G. P. HEATH, Lieut. R.N.,
Portmaster and Marine Surveyor.
THE SCIENCE OF SHIP-BUILDING-considered in its relations to the laws
of Nature, with numerous illustrations. By H. B. Willson, Esq., of
Canada. Potter, Poultry, London. It is Gay, we believe, who said that
“ He who studies Nature's laws
From certain truth his maxim draws,” and were the observation more frequently followed than it is, there would be less failures than there are where success is looked for. Mr. Willson lays 10 ciaim to a close acquaintance with mathematical reasonings, but justly complains that those who are considered to apply them are widely opposed to each other in the proper form to be adopted in a ship to secure certain conditions, and he very justly says, give us more experiments. He considers our naval architects are all abroad on the subject of form, accounts for the excessive rolling of our Black Prince and others, why the Great Eastern is as bad as the rest in bad weather, and looks to the subject of waves as not having been properly considered in relation to the depth of ships or the important question of stability. If we are to judge by our recent productions, Mr. Willson may fairly be allowed to be right when he declares naval architecture to be yet in its infancy. He does not spare the faults he finds still persevered in on this side the Atlantic, coming himself as a fresh water observer of this important subject from the fresh water ocean lakes of Canada. Our architects will find his precepts are founded on facts from Nature's own workshop, and though few, are well worth their consideration.
EXCURSION TO THE LAKE OF NICARAGUA* UP THE RIVER
San Juan.-By Mr. George Lawrence, Assistant- Surveyor of
H.M.S. Thunder, Commander E. Barnett, in March, 1840. On the 8th of March, at 4h. p.m., we left H.M.S. Thunder, at St. John's, in a canoe, manned with five stout Indians of the Rama tribe, who are considered the best boatmen on this coast, and an intelligent Columbian padrone or pilot.
After touching at the town we proceeded on our voyage up the River San Juan, having been supplied with provisions for seven days.
For the first few miles up the river we found the stream apparently
* Mr. Bailey having ascertained the possibility of constructing a railroad from the head of the lake of Nicaragua, across the isthmus to the Pacific, the government voted him 2,000 dollars to undertake the examination of the River St. John, with a view to ascertain the practicability of constructing a canal, which would avoid the rapids, to obtain the difference of level between the lake and the Atlantic, and how far the river could be made available to steam navigation. To assist him, were appcinted his son, a captain of engineers, and from twenty to thirty native pioneers; however, so arduous was the undertaking, that it appears the only thing done was, the survey of the river on an extensive scale; at the conclusion of which the party was nearly all disabled by sickness, their funds expended, and consequently their expedition at an end, and from the wretched state of affairs, there is no prospect of Mr. Bailey receiving any further encouragement from his government.
With respect to the mode of navigating this river, Mr. Higgins, the American traveller, and several others who have frequently made the voyage of it and the lake, say, that nothing can be more correct than the description given by Roberts in Constable's Miscellany. As to the possibility of cutting a
No. 6.-VOL. XXXII.
flowing at the rate of one knot per hour: the banks low, swampy, and difficult of access, thickly clad with a high coarse grass, called by the natives Gamalooti,* and lined with trees. At sunset we were about a mile above the lower mouth of the Juanillo, where the width varies from a half to three fourths of a cable. At 7h. 30m. p.m. we landed on a dry sand-spit to give the Indians their supper, and then resumed our paddles, keeping up a rate of two miles and a half per hour through the water, but probably not more than one and a half over the ground. The river was here exceedingly shallow, as our canoe, which only drew a foot and a half, and steered by the padrone, who
canal, although several report favourably, it is merely because they are interested in the success of such an undertaking, their opinions being given from what they have seen in passing to and fro, as fast as the rapids would permit, and the impenetrable woods which line the banks would allow them to sce.
As to navigating it by steam-vessels at the present moment, it is out of the question.
From some cause or other, the force of the stream appears to have taken the direction of the Colorados branch, where it sweeps every thing before it. The consequence is that the shallows are growing in the other, and so rapidly that the bongos (trading canoes) are now frequently left aground for several days; and it was with some difficulty that we could find a passage over the bar for our yawl to water.
There is a rapid deposit taking place at the entrance point of the harbour, which clearly shows that if the whole force of the stream is not soon turned in this direction, not only will the river become unnavigable, but the harbour filled in.
The damming up of the Colorados could no doubt be effected, although at a considerable cost and immense labour; yet it should be borne in mind the country is subject to severe earthquakes. On the 22nd of May, two shocks were felt at the village, the last of which so alarmed the inhabitants that they were on the point of quitting their huts; we were at sea, about thirty miles North of the harbour, and felt one of them distinctly.
From Mr. Higgins's account, Mr. Bailey has also examined a part of the southern shore of the lake between Grenada and Nicaragua ; and if he could be furnished with a small decked boat of light draught, he would still carry on the work, the rude bongo and canoe employed by the natives being perfectly unadapted for such a service. This could be easily sent to him in frame, or indeed already constructed, either by the river or across the narrow isthmus which separates the port of St. John in the gulf of Papagayo from the Nicaragua, only a distance of fifteen miles on a cart road; so that it would appear access to the lake is more easily attainable from the Pacific than the Atlantic.
Mr. Bailey is said to have heen employed by a company of American specaJators : this, however, is not the fact; although the merchants concerned in the South Sea fishery are extremely anxious to effect a communication, but nothing will be undertaken by them unless they are convinced it can be accomplished by the way pointed out in Mr. Bailey's mission, which by affording the means of rapid transport of the cargoes and supplies, would enable the whalers to remain entirely in the Pacific. Of course the spur which would be also given to the commerce of Central America is not lost sight of, but the anarchy, confusion, and distrust wbich now so ruinously degrades this disruptured republic, throws the prospect of such desirable results to an immeasurable distance.-Commander E. Barnett.
* Spelt as pronounced.