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boats, several well executed specimens being furnished by the Naval Department (85). C. H. Brunchorst, of Bergen, [Norway, 77) exhibits a model of a fishing boat with a good form of sail; and 0. Holmboe, of Wessen (Norway, 83) a model of a Nordland or Lofoden fishing boat, for which the Jury have awarded a prize medal as representing the carrying boats used in the Norway fisheries. · The principal herring fishing stations on the West coast of Norway are at or near Stavanger and Bergen, and for the cod fishery at the Lofoden Isles. In a country with so extensive a seaboard, and with its numerous deep fiords, having a large part of the population constantly employed on the water, it might be expected that many lives would be annually lost by drowning, but we were not prepared for anything like the amount of loss that really does occur. It appears from a small periodical named Volkevennen, or “Friend of the People," published at Christiania, by Mr. Eilert Sundt (one of the Royal Commissioners for Norway at the International Exhibition), that the average annual loss from drowning for the last ten years, in a population of only a million and a half, has exceeded 700, and this chiefly by the upsetting of boats. In the single diocese of Tromsö, which is the most northern of the five dioceses into which the country is divided, and has a large extent of sea-coast, the accidents from drowning, on an average of ten years, were 206 out of a population of 132,242.
The cause of this startling fact, which could hardly have been credited but for the authority it rests upon, deserves to be the object of the most careful inquiry and philanthropic interference. Is it that the boats are faulty in form? or the fishermen and others reckless in their use of them ? or that the men, as a general rule, cannot swim? or that there is a want of a Humane Society and the most efficient means for saving life in such accidents, and for restoring animation? Perhaps all these causes combine, and we would fain hope that not the least of the benefits of the Exhibition of 1862 may be that, having witnessed the various establishments and means specially provided for saving life from drowning in this country, including the swimming schools set on foot by the Duke of Northumberland in the North of England, those appliances may be extended to the coasts and fiords of Norway.
In the Australian colonies generally, and especially in Tasmania and at Sydney, there are many well built boats of good form, and well adapted to the fisheries in those seas; but the only specimens exhibited are two whale-boats by the Commissioners of Tasmania [194, 330] the production of the best builders of Hobart Town (Chandler and Miller). These boats are of colonial wood, the harpoons and all the requisite fishing gear being fitted by colonial workmen. A medal has been deservedly awarded to this creditable contribution.
In connexion with Tasmania, whale fishing is a branch of colonial industry deserving mention. The fishing ground extends from the shores of this noble island to the Antarctic regions, and attracts many
£70. "The vessels, erespects to those
foreign whale ships, which rendezvous at Hobart Town. The value of the produce from the South Whale Fishery exported in 1861 was £60,359. At the present time there are twenty-five vessels, with an aggregate tonnage of 5,746 tons, engaged in whaling from the port of Hobart Town; and 131 whale-boats (including fifty-one spare ones) identical in all respects to those exhibited, are attached to these twenty-five vessels, each boat costing, when fitted complete, about £70. The boats of the Tasmanian fleet find employment for about 700 men. A colonial writer, in treating of this branch of industry, observes,"Whale fishing is sometimes attended with great hardship, but being looked on as a colossal aquatic sport, and combining the excitement of bold and perilous adventure with the contingency of a good prize and promotion according to merit, it has always been a favourite pursuit with the young Tasmanians, from whom might be selected some of the smartest boatmen in the world.”
The well known racing boat builders, Searle and Sons, of Lambeth, (2,757) exhibit models of boats well adapted as racing boats for lakes and rivers, for which the Jury have awarded them a medal. A. Wentzell, of Lambeth also, [2,762] has some beautiful specimens of the outrigger racing boats. Few of our youths from the public schools, or young men from the universities, that are not acquainted with the randan gig, or the sailing outrigger thirty feet long, or the eight-oared outrigger sixty feet long, for racing in smooth waters. William Biffin, of Hammersmith, 12,744) exhibits the model of a yacht's portable boat, constructed to be put together and taken apart in a few minutes, the object being to save hindrance to speed in towing, and convenience of stowage. The principle is also extended to racing boats, for the purpose of easy transit and saving expense in carriage, as also for the convenience of housing during the winter or when not in use.
A Reynolds [New South Wales, 277) sends a cedar skiff of colonial manufacture, which bas obtained a prize medal for excellence of construction and workmanship. G. R. Tovell, Ramsay, Isle of Man, (2,728] exhibits, among other vessels, the model of a racing yacht, to which the Jury have awarded Honourable Mention for superiority of design. W. Patterson, of Bristol, [2,703] the builder of the Great Western, steamship, also exhibits models of yachts, in addition to his fine models of steamships. Bermuda also sends models of her wellknown sailing boats. Considering the prominent part taken by the Royal Yacht Squadron and other yacht clubs in encouraging beautiful designs of vessels, this characteristic feature of our country is hardly sufficiently represented in the Exhibition. The Royal Yacht Squadron, with its ninety-two vessels, of 9,400 tons, and manned by 1,200 picked seamen, with the Thames, the Western, and other yacht clubs, do honour to the country, and keep alive that familiarity with he sea and with ships that is so desirable in an island kingdom.
(To be concluded in our next.)
SAILING DIRECTIONS FOR THE NORTA PART OF THE GRENADINES,
West Indies, including Bequia, Isle Quatre, Battowia, Baliceaux,
and Rocks adjacent. Bequia.-Bequia Island, with a population of 875 souls, is the most important and largest of those Grenadines which are under the government of St. Vincent, being six miles South of and next to that island, six miles and three quarters long, and from one to one and a half wide in the middle, and having the peculiarity of verging to a point at both ends. The most valuable gift it possesses is a well shil. tered bay or harbour (Admiralty Bay) on its western side. The ten sugar estates in working order which it formerly had are now mostly in ruins, and given up from the extreme want of energy in the people, who care not to undertake any kind of work, being content to loll about the beaches, or lie asleep in their little thatched huts from one week to another. The very existence of these people, so far as aliment is concerned, is to an European a complete mystery.
Admiralty Bay.--Admiralty Bay, on the West side of Bequia, is about two thirds of a mile in depth, and when in the inner pool of deep water near the head, a ship would be well sheltered from all winds except from due S.W. Even when blowing in this direction (an exceedingly rare occurrence, and what we have not seen) it is questionable if much sea could reach her in the upper part of the bay, for it would be broken in passing over the Belmont Shallow and the two banks projecting from the West side of the bay would so far as sea or swell was concerned make natural breakwaters. This upper pool is not of much extent, but is deep enough for any ship, and the channel to it between Belmont Shallow and the opposite bank is clear and distinct, and even traceable from its darker colour and deeper appearance. This place could only be entered by a large ship under steam, or by warping; but small vessels may work in.
For a leading mark which will guide to the neck of deep water between the banks, --look for the principal house, about the middle of the head of the bay (not easily distinguished on account of the trees) and bring it on with the notch in the hill, (see sketch,) which will lead up to it; but trust more to the eye, and colonr of the water, when passing through ; borrow on the Belmont Shallow side, the water on which appears mottled, from weeds and rocks. If only intending to stay a few hours, the vessel's head may be laid for the beach, and she may be made fast to one of the large trees there, as in ordinary circumstances; with the Trade wind blowing, this bay is quite smooth.
The next anchorage within the bay for a small class of vessel, is off the eastern middle sandy bay, called Tony Gibbons. This is a very good anchorage, and may be taken under sail, by running in in any direction from the West, and anchoring in 22 or 24 feet at a quarter of a mile off the beach.
Vessels entering from N.W. on the port tack, the usual method, or running free from St. Vincent, or the North end of Bequia, when near the N.W. point of Bequia, must not shut in the town of Kingstown, in St. Vincent, or Mount St. Andrews at the back of it, (see sketch,) to avoid the Wash Rock off the shore; nor should very heavy ships haul up too much after passing that shoal, as the first bank and ils nucleus of 18 feet, stretching out from the Fort Point, for them is dangerous: nor can they pass the mark which leads up the bay. A heavy ship, if not intending to run into the pool, under steam, should anchor in the deep water of 15 or 16 fathoms, short of the 5 fathom bank extending from Tony Gibbons.
All the banks with less than 5 fathoms over them in this bay assist the navigation greatly by showing their light coloured water, and from a bigh deck they are very easily seen.
There is no good watering place in this bay. Bequia has no running stream. There are some wells at the head of the bay, but the water is not very good. Wood is plentiful, and may be obtained by permission of estate owners; it is doubtful if the natives would cut it, being too proud to do so. Poultry may be had occasionally in small quantities, fish sometimes, vegetables never.
Isle Quatre and Cays.—The next largest island South of Bequia is Isle Quatre, with 37 people living on it. There are three cays between it and Bequia, and an island called Pigeon Island at its West end. These, with part of Bequia, enclose a large space of water, which is moderately smooth and everywhere deep, forming an open but safe anchorage at any time except the hurricane season. Even then, with steam, it is as safe as any other place, and there is no diffi. culty in leaving it at all times. Four channels for ships (steaming) either way are formed by these cays; but sailing vessels should only attempt them when coming from East to West with a commanding breeze, as the currents are strong. As a general rule, pass in the middle of each channel, except between Petit Nevis and Quatre, when you must borrow a little on Quatre, to avoid the breakers off the S.W. end of Point Nevis, which is generally conspicuous. But as little can be gained either in distance or position by taking either of these small channels neither of them should be adopted unless it be necessary.
Friendship Bay.-Friendship Bay, on the S.E. side of Bequia, offers a good shelter for small vessels of 10 feet draught. Here the American whaling schooners often lie in to watch.
Between this group and that more to the eastward comprising the Mustiques, Pillories, Baliceaux, and Battowia, the depth is uniform, being about 20 fathoms. The only danger is the Montezuma Rock, Dear Mustique.
Pillories.—Next North of Mustique is the Double Rock, followed by the Single, and then the Pillories. Between the Double and Single Rocks is a channel of 7 to 8 fathoms; between the Single Rock and the South Pillory is one of 3) fathoms. Between the Middle and North Pillory Cay, (the largest and highest) there is a 5 fathoms channel. All these may be taken by very small craft from East to West; but without being absolutely necessary no ship should use them.
To the N.E. of Great Pillory Cay is a group of low rocks, between which and the Great Pillory Cay there is a good channel, half a mile wide. But there is a rock of 8 feet, generally breaking, to windward or S.E.b.E. from Great Pillory Cay two thirds of a mile, and within that, at half a mile distant from the cay there is another awash (always seen). Ships should avoid all this part.
E.b.N. from the group of small rocks last mentioned, at one mile distant, stands the prominent high rock of All-awash, on each side of which are the principal channels of entry at this part. All-awash is steep to, and may be passed on either side; even a sailing ship, with the assistance of the ebb tide, can work safely out of these channels.
Baliceaux.-The next island to the North is Baliceaux, with a huuse upon it. A 5 fathoms bank extends off its western side, on the edge of which with caution à vessel may anchor ; but the water is never very smooth. It is not, however, dangerous for light draft vessels. The landing is not very good. A few deer exist on this island, the only one of the group on which they are to be found.
Battowia and Rocks.—To the North, not less than half a mile distant, is the bold looking cliffy island of Battowia, with its Bullet, an isolated lump at its North end shaped somewhat like a conical bullet. This cannot he mistaken. North-west of the Bullet, at a cable and a half distant, is a breaker ; but so close to the land that it could scarcely be touched by a ship unless she was keeping unreasonably too near the land. The little channels between Battowia and Baliceaux, on each side of Church Cay, are only fit for very small vessels running. Black Rock, North of Baliceaux, is steep to; between it and Cactus is a shoal of 2 fathoms.
A sugar estate was worked formerly at Battowia. It was to this island that most of the black Caribs were sent when captured in the St. Vincent war, before their final deportation to Rattan and Honduras.
The bank to the eastward of these islands, the edge of which is about four miles from it, continues its northern direction for about 10 miles to the North of Battowia, then turns back close by Bequia, without joining the St. Vincent Bank. The channel between the banks is, however, narrow, and not over 300 fathoms deep. In this channel the tide and current are almost always setting to tbe West near the middle, but the ebb tide makes up to the East, where it feels the ground in less than 70 fathoms. At 6h. full and change the ebb stream begins to run to the East, and advantage may be taken of it to work to windward during its continuance under the lee of Bequia, on the St. Vincent shore, and between Bequia and the weather cays; but a ship bas little chance of making any easting when the flood sets down, combined as it is with the current.
When the ebb stream sets to windward, along the Bequia shore