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were, the stream of history. The latter plan, it appears to me, will be most interesting, as well as most instructive, forit will be more easily remembered. I have, therefore, chosen it; and I cannot but hope we may get not only a little recreation, but also a little instruction from the subject, that may be useful to us hereafter.

Let us go back, then, nearly 2,000 years, and see what this river can say to us. Upon its banks were two hostile forces, the one was the army of the disciplined Romans, the other that of the rude Britons. Upon the side of the Avon where now stands the town of Warwick, a rough earthwork had been thrown up to defend the place where the Britons had made a stand. The Romans were the attacking partythe Britons the defending. The result could scarcely be doubted in such a contest; it would have been next to impossible for any commander, having only the rude Britons for soldiers, to stand any very great length of time against troops like the Romans. The contest was unequal; but in spite of this, the Romans found it no easy matter to drive the defenders from their earthworks, and get possession of the place. These Roman soldiers were commanded by Vespatian, one of the best generals of the age ; but he was opposed by one not by any means his inferior in military genius—the brave Caractacus ; the latter, though not able with the troops he had to defeat the Roman commander, yet was able to keep him at bay, to fight battles on equal terms, to defend the towns through which he passed, and retreat at length safely to his own country.

Who was Caractacus ?-He was the son of Cunobelin, king

of the Brigantes, who ruled over the greater part of the Island of Britain from the Thames to the Humber. Caractacus was made Prince of the Silures, a people living on the banks of the Severn. When Claudius invaded Britain, he defeated and slew in battle Cunobelin and one of his sons. Immediately upon this, Caractacus took the command of the war in which his father and brother had fallen, and commenced a retreat back to his home among the Silures. To Vespatian was committed the task of defeating him. In that retreat, Caractacus having fought thirty battles with the Romans, and defended twenty towns, arrived safely amorig his own people. For nine years he harrassed the Romans, until, trying to intercept one of their generals, Ostorius Scapula, who had penetre

ted into North Wales, he was defeated, almost within sight of this town, at the foot of the hill which bears his name, and afterwards through treachery delivered into the power of his enemies. Warwick was one of the places where he made a stand in that memorable retreat; some considerable earthworks not far from where the castle is built, many years after marked the spot where this native prince carried on one of his unequal contests against the powerful invader.

We pass on for nearly 500 years. Beside the river there rises a rock of no great height, and in that rock is a cave': this cave has been made into a home by a man who has retired there for solitude and meditation : he gathers together week after week the people of the neighbourhood to instruct them in religion. He is a Christian Bishop of the primitive order, teaching the people of the Island the truths of the Gospel, before Augustine set his foot in Kent. We may imagine him telling to those people who assembled to hear, that simple Gospel as received from the first planters of the faith; telling it to them in their own sounding and expressive language-"iachawdwriaeth trwy gras," i.e., Salvation by the grace of God. For Rome had not then introduced her novelties into the Church—her missionaries had not set foot in the island-her grand ceremonial had not clouded the simple truth as it is in Jesus, but from the north to the south of the island, that truth was more or less known, and had become deeply seated in the hearts of many of the people.

In the year 584, however, the Pagan Saxons determined to uproot the religion of Jesus, and a terrible persecution began. Not in one place, but in many it was carried on. The Bishops of London and York had to fly, and Dubritius had to leave his chosen retreat by the Avon, and to escape with the others into Wales. He afterwards became Archbishop of Menevia, and was succeeded in his episcopal office by St. David.

This place was remarkable, also, for being the retreat of another not less illustrious person—the famous Guy, Earl of Warwick—and after him it was named, and bears his name to this day.

This Guy was son of Siward, Baron of Wallingford, and he married Felicia, only daughter of Rohund, the most famous warrior of his day.

In the third year of king Athelstan, 926, the Danes invaded England, and laid siege to Winchester. They brought with them a giant, named Colbrand, and wished to decide the war by single combat, this Colbrand being their champion. King Athelstan and his people were terribly afraid ; and none dare enter the lists against him. We may picture him drawing near, confident in his strength, like Goliath of old, defying the terrified army, and asking for some one to come forth and fight with him. The famous Earl Rohund was dead, or he might have engaged him for he was the most valiant of a thousand. Two others there were, indeed, who might undertake the dangerous task, but they were both away, the king knew not where. The one was Rohund's son-in-law Guy, the stout Earl ; the other Heraud, his faithful servant. Heraud was away seeking his master's son Regburn—the lad had been stolen away by merchants when a child. And Guy himself was away on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. It would seem before he started he received from his wife Felicia a ring, which he was to keep in remembrance of her, and which he was to give back to her on his return, in token of his faithfulness; while she, on his departure, betook herself to prayers for his safe return, and to good deeds.

The king, therefore, was in a great strait-these two valiant knights being away—and he knew not what to do. He therefore ordered a fast to be observed for three days. After this he had a dream. It was to the effect that, standing by the gate of the city, he saw entering there a company of pilgrims : one of them wore a chaplet of flowers, and when he had entered the city, he took it off and saluted the king: When the king awoke he was very much delighted, for he thought this an omen sent of God. He went, therefore, early in the morning to the gate of the city, to watch who should enter. Presently came one resembling the person he had seen in his dream-wearing his chaplet of flowers. On approaching the king, he took off this chaplet and saluted him. The king graciously offered him entertainment, and afterwards asked him to undertake the combat with the Danish giant. But he hesitated on account of his feeble condition, and asked the king where all his valiant knights had gone. The king explained to him how Heraud was gone in search of his


master's son, and how Guy had gone on a pilgrimage, or he should not lack brave knights to do battle for his cause. At this the guest seemed much moved, and said, though he was weak from much travel and fasting, yet "for the love of CHRIST JESUS, the honour of God's Holy Church, and of Guy and Heraud his companions, he would, in fear of GOD, undertake the combat.”

He was then welcomed in the city with great rejoicings, and for three weeks he refreshed himself with good living, after his long fasting, or as we should say went into training” for that time, in order to get up his strength. On the day appointed he went forth with a mighty sword, which is still preserved, mounted on the king's best horse, and was accounted the most proper and well appointed knight ever seen.

Coming to the place of combåt, he awaited the giant's attack. The giant came so heavily armed, his horse would scarcely bear him. He had for his arms a Danish axe, a great elub with knobs of iron, lances, and iron hooks to pull his adversary to him. Colbrand called upon him to surrender, but he was not of that sort-his reply was an

immediate attack. Putting spurs to his horse, and com0; mitting himself to God, in the first onset he pierced the giant's shield, and shivered his own lance.

The giant enraged, smote the horse of his opponent, and with such force, that he severed its head from its body at one blow.

The unhorsed knight, being nimble, was soon on his feet, I and aimed a blow at the giant's helmet, but could only

reach his shoulder. The giant then thinking to crush him, struek at him with full force ; the knight, however, receiving the blow upon his shoulder, attacked the giant with such vigour, that his club fell from his hand. In trying to regain his weapon the giant lost his hand, for the knight lopped it off. A great shout then went up from

the English army, at this suoeess of their champion ; and a great dismay took possession of the other side. But the

battle was by no means over-it was continued through the whole of the day. Defending himself with his remaining hand, and availing himself of his great strength, the giant pressed hard upon his opponent, and strove for the victory. It was not to be, for, fainting from loss of blood, the knight became the conqueror, and cut off the giant's head.

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After this great exploit, the king was very anxious to know who the pilgrim was ; at first he was unwilling to tell him, but he did afterwards, under oath that he would not reveal the secret. He told him that he was Guy the Earl, who had gone on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, and arriving in England had heard what a strait the king was in at Winchester, and had hastened to relieve him. The sword of Guy, with other of his things, are still preserved at Warwick Castle.

After the victory, Guy again resumed the pilgrim's garb, and hastened on to Warwick, to hear if Felicia his wife was still faithful to him. Arriving there, he found her engaged in good deeds, and in prayers for his safety. Among other things she gave alıns every morning to certain poor men, and Guy himself received them from her on three several days. He then retired to the cave in the cliff-since called “Guy's Cliff”—.to spend his life as a hermit in quiet and meditation. Feeling his end approaching, he sent the ring he had received back to Felicia, that she might know where to find him ; so she came, and watched beside him in his last hours, and closed his eyes in death. He died in the year 929.

We may pass onward to the beginning of the 14th century, 1312. We find Edward II. at York, bidding defiance to the opinion of his barons. The difference increased, and broke into an open rupture by the recall from banishment of an obnoxious favourite of the king. This favourite is described (by Hume) as “ endowed with the utmost elegance of shape and person; was noted for his fine mien and easy carriage ; distinguished himself in all warlike and genteel exercises ;, and was celebrated for quick sallies of wit.”

In those times, it was easy for the combination of a few nobles to set at detiance the power of the crown, and on this occasion a confederacy was formed against the king. The leaders of the confederacy were the Earl of Lancaster -the then most powerful subject in the kingdom,—the Earls of Hereford, Warwick, and Pembroke; the Earl Warrenne, and the Archbishop of Canterbury.

The Earl of Lancaster raised an army and marched upon York, where the king and his favourite then were. The king, fearing his approach, retired to Newcastle, taking his favourite with him. The earl pursued them

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