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CHA P. III.

SECT.

1. Man fitted to form arti.

culate sounds.

2. To make them signs of

ideas.

3, 4. To make general signs.
5. Words ultimately derived

from such as signify sensi.

ble ideas.

6. Distribution.

names.

CH A P. II.

Of the signification of words.

SECT.

1. Words are sensible signs

necessary for communica.

tion.

2, 3. Words are the sensible

signs of his ideas who uses

them.

4. Words often secretly re-

ferred, First, to the ideas

in other men's minds.

5. Secondly, To the reality

of things.

6. Words by use readily ex.'

cite ideas.

7. Words often used without

signification.

8. Their signification per.

fectly arbitrary.

Of general terms.

SECT.

1. The greatest part of words

general.

2. For every particular thing

to have a name, is impos.

sible.

3, 4. And useless.

5. What things have proper

6-8. How general words are

made.

9. General natures are no.

thing but abstract ideas.

10. Why the genus is ordina-

rily made use of in defini.

tions.

11. General and universal are

creatures of the under-

standing.

12. Abstract ideas are the es.

sences of the

genera

and

species.

13. They are the workmanship

of the understanding, but

have their foundation in

the similitude of things.

14. Each distinct abstract idea

is a distinct essence.

15. Real and nominal essence.

16. Constant connexion be-

tween the name and no.

minal essence.

17. Supposition, that species

are distinguished by their

real essences, useless,

18. Real

names.

18. Real and nominal essence
the same in simple ideas

CH A P. V.
and modes, different in

Of the names of mixed modes and
substances.

relations.
19. Essences ingenerable and
incorruptible.

SECT.
20. Recapitulation.

1. They stand for abstract

ideas as other general
CH A P. IV.

2. First, The ideas they stand
Of the names of simple ideas.

for are made by the under-

standing.

SECT.

3. Secondly, made arbitra-

1. Names of simple ideas,

rily, and without patterns.

modes, and substances, 4. How this is done.

have each something pe- 5. Evidently arbitrary, in

culiar.

that the idea is often be-

2. First, Names of simple

fore the existence.

ideas and substances, inti- 6. Instances, murther, incest,

mate real existence.

stabbing.

3. Secondly, Names of sim-

7. But still subservient to

ple ideas and modes sig-

the end of language.

nify always both real and 8. Whereof the intranslata.

nominal essence.

ble words of divers lan-

4. Thirdly, Names of sim.

guages, are a proof.

ple ideas undefinable.

9. This shows species to be

5. If all were definable, it

made for communication.

would be a process in infi. 10. II. In mixed modes, it is the

nitum.

name that ties the combi.

6. What a definition is.

nation together, and makes

7. Simple ideas, why unde-

finable.

12. For the originals of mixed

8, 9. Instances, motion.

modes, we look no farther

10. Light.

than the mind, which also

11. Simple ideas, why unde.

shows them to be the

finable further explained.

workmanship of the un.

12, 13. The contrary showed in

derstanding.

complex ideas by instances 13. Their being made by

of a statue and rainbow.

the understanding with

14. The names of complex ideas

out patterns, shows the

when to be made intelligi-

reason why they are so

ble by words.

compounded.

15. Fourthly, Names of sim- 14. Names of mixed modes

ple ideas least doubtful.

stand always for their rcal

16. Fifthly, Simple ideas have

few ascents in linea prædi. 15. Why their names are usu.

camentali.

ally got before their ideas.

17. Sixthly, Names of simple

16. Reason of my being so

ideas, stand for ideas not

large on this subject.

at all arbitrary,

CH A P.

C H A P. VI.

31. But make several essences

signified by the same name.
Of the names of substances.

32. The more general our

ideas are, the more incom-

SECT.

plete and partial they are.

The common names of

33. This all accommodated to

substances stand for sorts.

essence

to the end of speech.

2. The essence of each sort

34. Instance in cassuaris.

is the abstract idea.

35. Men make the species.

3. The nominal and real es-

Instance gold.

sence different.

36. Though nature makes the

4-6. Nothing essential to indi.

similitude.

viduals.

37. And continues it in the

7-8. The nominal

races of things.

bounds the species.

38. Each abstract idea is an

9. Not the real essence, which

essence.

we know not.

39. Genera and species are in

10. Not substantial forms,

order to naming. In-

which we know less.

stance, watch.

11. That the nominal essence

40. Species of artificial things

is that whereby we distin-

less confused than natural.

guish species, farther evi.

41. Artificial things of dis.

dent from spirits.

tinct species.

12. Whereof there are proba. 42. Substances alone have pro.

bly nunberless species.

per names.

13. The nominal essence that

43. Difficulty to treat of words

of the species, proved from

with words.

water and ice.

44, 45. Instance of mixed modes

14-18. Difficulties against a cer.

in kineah and niouph.

tain number of real es. 46, 47. Instance of substances in

zahab.

19. Our nominal essences of 48. Their ideas imperfect, and

substances, not perfect col.

therefore various.

lections of properties.

49. Therefore to fix their

spe-

21. But such a collection as

cies, a real essence is sup-

our name stands for.

posed.

22. Our abstract ideas are to

50. Which supposition is of

us the measure of species.

Instances in that of man.

51. Conclusion.

23. Species not distinguished

by generation.

CHA P. VII.

24. Not by substantial forms.

25. The specific essences are

Of particles.

made by the mind. SECT.

26, 27. Therefore very various 1. Particles connect parts, or

and uncertain.

whole sentences together.

28. But not so arbitrary as 2. In them consists the art of

mixed modes.

well speaking,

29. Though very imperfect. 34. They show what relation

30. Which yet serve for com.

the mind gives to its own

mon converse,

thoughts.

5. Instance

sences.

no use.

nerves.

$. Instance in But.

qualities, which are known

6. This matter but lightly

but imperfectly.

touched here.

15. With this imperfection

they may serve for civil,

CHA P. VIII.

but not well for philoso-

phical use.

Of abstract and concrete terms. 16. Instance, liquor of the

SECT.

17. Instance, gold.

1. Abstract terms not predi. 18. The names of simple ideas,

cable one of another, and

the least doubtful.

why.

19. And next to them, simple

2. They show the difference

modes.

of our ideas.

20. The most doubtful, are

the names of very com.

CH A P. IX.

pounded mixed modes and

substances.

Of the imperfection of words.

21. Why this imperfection

SECT.

charged upon words.

22, 23. This should teach us mo.

1. Words are used for re.

deration in imposing our

cording and communicat.

own sense of old authors.

ing our thoughts.

2. Any words will serve for

recording

3. Communication by words,

C H A P. X.

civil or philosophical.

4. The imperfection of words,

Of the abuse of words,

is the doubtfulness of

SECT.

their signification.

5. Causes of their imperfec-

1. Abuse of words.

tion.

2, 3. First, words without any,

6. The names of mixed modes

or without clear ideas.

doubtful : first, because 4. Occasioned by learning

the ideas they stand for,

names, before the ideas

are so complex.

they belong to.

7. Secondly, because they 5. Secondly, a steady appli.

have no standards.

cation of them.

8. Propriety not a sufficient 6. Thirdly, affected obscu.

remedy.

rity, by wrong applica.

9. The way of learning

tion.

these names contributes 7. Logic and dispute have

also to their doubtfulness.

much contributed to this.

10. Hence unavoidable obscu. 8. Calling it subtilty.

rity in ancient authors.

9. This learning very little

11. Names of substances, of

benefits society.

doubtful signification.

10. But destroys the instrua

12. Names of substances re.

ments of knowledge and

ferred, first, to real essen-

communication.

ces, that cannot be known. 11. As useful as to confound

13. 14. Secondly, to co-existing

the sound of the letters.

12. This

ΟΣ

their meaning.

20. The cause of this abuse, 13. And that three ways.

a supposition of nature's 14. First, in simple ideas by
working always regularly.

synonimous terms,
21. This abuse contains two

showing

false suppositions.

15. Secondly, in mixed modes

22. Sixthly, a supposition that

by definition.
words have a certain and 16. Morality capable of de.
evident signification.

monstration.

23. The ends of language : 17. Definitions can make mo-

first, to convey our ideas.

ral discourses clear.

24. Secondly, to do it with

18. And is the only way.

quickness.

19. Thirdly, in substances, by

25. Thirdly, therewith to con-

showing and defining.

vey the knowledge of 20, 21. Ideas of the leading qua.

things.

lities of substances, are

26–31. How men's words fail in

best got by showing.

all these,

22. The ideas of their powers,

32. How in substances.

best by definition.

33. How in modes and rela. 23. A reflection on the know-

tions,

ledge of spirits.

34.Seventhly, figurative speech 24. Ideas also of substances

also an abuse of language.

must be conformable to

things.

C H A P. XI.

easy to be made so.

26. Fifthly, by constancy in
Of the remedies of the foregoing their signification.
imperfections and abuses.

27. When the variation is to

SECT.

be explained.

1. They are worth seeking

25. Not

BOOK

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