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RETREATS OR ADULT REFORMATORIES

Continued.

Schools in Scotland, 14,876 ; proportion of boys in Reformatories in Scotland greater than in England, 14,877, 14,878 ; thinks liberation of boys on licence not used sufficiently in Scotland, 14,882–14,884 ; considers it disastrous to keep boys longer in Reformatory Schools than needful, 14,883, 14,886-14,889 ; difficulty of disposing of children sentenced to Reforinatory Schools prior to removal, 14,890-14,895 ; some authorities complain that the abolition of the previous term of imprisonment on such has had bad effects, 14,896.

Should be under Government control, 2393, 3656, 10,063,

14,190. Should be small, 2463. Should be under local control, 2522, 2523, 4370. Should be Licensed and Inspected, 2903, 2928, 14,053

14,070. Not more than 4 in Private House, nor 50 in Institution,

2964–2976. Government control, 5020, 7717. Not more than 12 in one Private House, 7191. Should be under local management and Government In

spection, 7885–7894. Three hundred might be treated in one place, 8177.

RITCHIE, Dr PEEL.

Connected with St John's Hill Rescue and Probationary Home, 5228-5229; result not encouraging, 5232-5234 ; points submitted to conference of Rescue Workers, 5235 ; reasons for seeking powers of compulsory detention, 5240, 5251, 5259, 5294, 5339 ; would fix maximum period at two years, 5327-5329, 5340 ; chiefly employed at laundry work, 5245-5246, 5313 ; other occupations, 5246, 53345337 ; proportion of inmates who are inebriates, 5252, 5286-5290 ; analysis of their ages, 5324 ; about one-third remain for full term of eighteen months, 5249 5250, 5321; and with them results more satisfactory, 5261; the others repeatedly come back, 5260 ; supervision after discharge unsatisfactory, 5264 ; no classification of inmates, 5307– 5311 ; Home nearly self-supporting, 5275 ; some cases sent to Home from Police Courts, 5278–5279, 5315-5316 ; investigation as to forination of palate of inmates, 52905292.

RORIE, Dr JAMES.

Physician-Superintendent of Dundee Royal Lunatic Asylum, 13,577 ; considers 16 to 18 per cent. of cases of insanity due to drink, 13,580, 13,615, 13,616 ; does not consider asylum or lunatic ward of poorhouse proper places for treatment of inebriates, 13,581, 13,619, 13,625 ; objections, 13,626 ; but considers it desirable that there should be power to detain in the poorhouse paupers who move between it and the prison, 13,628-13,630 ; thinks there ought to be public institutions for detention of inebriates on similar lines to Lunacy Acts as well as private houses specially licensed, 13,586, 13,623, 13,627 ; minimum period of detention not to be less than twelve months, 13,585 ; would have special institution for treatment of police habituals and vicious class of insane, 13,592, 13,593 ; institutions to be main. tained by public rates, 13,587 ; thinks Parochial Authorities too prone to discharge insane persons from lunatic wards of poorhouses, 13,595–13,600 ; is not sanguine of the results of prolonged detention of dipsomaniacs in institutions, 13,603, 13,618 ; system of liberation of pauper insane on probation, 13,606-13,611 ; personally has found adminis. tration of bitter tonics very beneficial in some cases of dipsomania, 13,612, 13,613, 13,621, 13,622; various forms of drug drinking, 13,631-13,633 ; procedure on como mittal of lunatic to asylum at instance of Fiscal, 13,63413,637 ; thinks inquiry before Sheriff prior to committal of habitual should be private, but would grant public inquiry inquiry if desired, 13,638, 13,629.

ROBERTSON, Mr ALEXANDER.

Agent for Edinburgh Discharged Prisoners' Aid Society, 6014 ; does not take charge of gratuities earned in prison by ordinary prisoners, 6026-6032 ; nature of help given, 6033-6046; average amount, 6061-6071 ; habitual offenders form large percentage of those helped, 6084-6087 ; results of Society's work, 6088-6092, 6096-6099; the disbursing of prisoners' gratuities would lengthen period of Society's supervision, 6293-6295.

ROSE, Mr W. KINNAIRD.

Member of Scottish and Queensland Bars, 6244; appointed Commissioner in Australia to inquire into treatment of prisoners and convicts, 6245 ; sentences for petty offences much alike in both countries, 6248 ; special laws in Queens. land dealing with habitual drunkards, 6250–6253D.; and licensing system, 62531.-6253K. ; restrictions on pawn. brokers in dealing with habituals, 6277 ; number of habit. ual offenders, 6253K., 6255, 6258 ; bill introduced into Parliament to establish inebriate asylums, 6256, 62746274A. ; system of gratuities to prisoners recommended as

of ensuring supervision after discharge, 62596261 ; work of Prison Gate Brigade of Salvation Army in Queensland, 6262-6264, 6275 ; proportion of police to population in Colony, 6272, 6273; treatment of juvenile offenders in Queensland, 6281-6284 ; strongly approves inebriate retreats, 6285 ; where inmates could be put to work, 6289, 6290.

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ROBERTSON, M.A., D.Sc., Rev. J. D.

Represents Edinburgh Presbytery of U. P. Church, 6184 ; results of inquiries by circular within Presbytery bound distinctly favourable to increased powers of dealing with habitual inebriates, 6185-6188 ; thinks the law as to adulteration of drink should be more stringently enforced, and the sale of liquor to children prohibited, 6189; that publicans who supply drink to persons known to have been convicted frequently of drunkenness should forfeit licence, and that a reduction in the number of licences should be effected, 6190 ; institutions for reclamation of inebriates, to be aided by Government grant and voluntary contributions, 6191 ; treatment of inmates to be elaborately graded, 6192 ; thinks public opinion favourable to such proposals, 6194.

ROGERS, Mr HENRY.

Assistant Inspector of Reformatory and Industrial Schools, 14,697 ; gives list of Scotch Schools and their population, 14,698-14,703; with subsequent history of Reformatory school cases showing large percentage of Scotch Protestant Girls whose whereabouts are given as unknown, 14,704, 14,705 ; considers this reflects seriously on management of Glasgow and Dalry Schools especially, 14,706-14,709 ; system of checking returns of subsequent history of scholars, 14,710– 14,718 ; percentage of reclamations, 14,710, 14,719–14,728 ; average annual cost of maintenance, 14,741-14,745 ; total Government contributions in England and Scotland, with amounts recovered from parents, 14, 749-14,760; liability of Parochial Boards for children sent to Industrial Schools by them, and of School Boards for children sent to Day Industrial Schools, 14,761-14,767, 14,869-14,871; subsequent history of children discharged from Industrial Schools, 14,77214,781 ; cost of maintenance, 14,782–14,793 ; inspection of schools very comprehensive, 14,794-14,797 ; educational state-English Code used, 14,798-14,813, 14,873 ; cases of children refused by schools on account of physical infirmity, considers separate institutions required for such, 14,81414,820, 14,845-14,856 ; corporal punishment for breach of rules, 14,832 ; would like to see more Day Industrial

ROSS, M, A., Rev. D. M.

Represents Dundee Presbytery of Free Church, 13,461; returns sent in by whole of ministers show 87 habitual drunkards, mostly non-crimininal, known to them in their pastoral work, 13,462 ; thinks 90 per cent. of them too poor to pay for treatment in Inebriate Retreats, 13,471 ; which considers should be maintained by the State, 13, 472 ; relatives paying where able, 13,485 ; all members of Presbytery approve of compulsory detention of habitual drunkards, 13,475 ; and think any interested party or relative should have power to initiate proceedings for committal, 13,486, 13,487 ; thinks power of compulsory de: tention would deter many from becoming habituals, 13,489 ; and that law regarding the supplying of liquor to persons already intoxicated should be more strictly enforced, 13,49013,495 ; considers public opinion in Dundee favours more stringent measures in dealing with habitual offenders

, 13,497–13,499 ; personally thinks that women preponderate as habitual drunkards, 13,500-13,503 ; and knows that: large number of workmen get drunk on pay-days who do not become habituals, 13,504-13,511.

RUSSELL, Sir JAMES A.

Difference in arrests for petty offences between Glas: gow and Edinburgh accounted for, 1903–1914, 2021; system of liberation on pledge, 2018-19 ; great disparity in sentences imposed for particular offences by Sheriffs and Magistrates, 1917, 1926 ; resulting in many pleading not guilty where Magistrate is known to be severe, and asking adjourument, 1917 ; previous convictions for drunkenness not considered, 1918-1921 ; uselessness of penalties inflicted

on prostitutes, 1926-1931 ; great care exercised in appre- SCHOOL BOARDS. hending prostitutes, 1932–1935, 1995–1998, 2030-2031, 2046-2051; persons importuned seldom appear, 2029-2031 ; Drunken habits account for 50 to 75 per cent. of defaulters, not very many beggars in Edinburgh, 1948; tramp, received into Night Asylum and House of Refuges

Mr W. Mitchell, 152. 1936–1944 ; very few sheltered at police office, 1938; thinks parochial authorities should deal with beggars, 1949 ; details cases of habitual offenders, 1945-1946 ; considers habitual drunkards as semi-lunatics, and would detain such

SCOTCH BURGHS POLICE ACT. compulsorily at public cost, generally for not less than two years, but for life if needed, 1950–1957, 1976–1978,

Heavier penalties of Act not taken advantage of, 5365. 1984–1992, 2010-2014, 2041-2045, 2052–2056 ; difficulty of dealing with workmen who get drunk at paytime but

Clauses anent Vagrancy should be extended to Counties. otherwise sober, 1979; would favour wages being handed Lord Kincairney, 5938. over to wives, if trustworthy, 1980–1981 ; would raise age for committal to reformatory schools as a check on juvenile

; punishment' for juveniles unpopular and imprisonment SCOTT, Mr Andrew. undesirable, 1960–1964, 1975, 1993-1994, 2038-2040; drunkards who do not come before Police Court often dealt Assistant Secretary to Edinburgh Magdalene Asylum, with through Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Children 5485-5487 ; inmates usually brought by missionaries, 5532; and Association for Improving Condition of the Poor, kept for eighteen months and employed chiefly at washing, 2000-2009, 2020-2023; difficulty of restricting pawnbrokers 5486, 5492-5494 ; profit on work, 5491, 5518-5519; in their dealing with habituals, and of convicting publicans amount paid to workers, 5503-5508 ; no power of com: of supplying drink to persons under its influence, 2057–58. pulsory detention, 5499 ; and such only desirable for worst

class, 5605–5608 ; re-admissions, 5509, 5537–5540 ; super. vision after discharge, 5512-5517, 5542; few admit having

been in prison, 5531, 5535, 5556, 5595-5597 ; no classi. RUTHERFURD, Sheriff."

5562-5564, 5604 ; religious instruction, 5522– Explains arrangement under which Sheriff-Substitutes and

5523, 5552-5555 ; amusements, 5565–5581 ; no restrictions

on visits by friends, 5590-5593; considers drink a conMagistrates preside alternately in Edinburgh Police Court, 2702–2709 ; and justifies system of remanding prisoners

siderable factor in lives of inmates, 5608-5610 ; situations pleading not guilty,"2715, 2778 ; and of sentencing those

got for inmates as laundry-maids or general servants in pleading guilty without evidence of accusers, 2720-2721a ;

private houses, 5612-5614; a number retained as servants

in Home, 5622-5624. charging of previous convictions in police cases, 2710-2714, 2790-2796 ; personal attitude towards petty offences, especially importuning for prostitution, 2722–2728, 27812785 ; fears as to police action against prostitutes, 2735

SCOTT, Lieut. A. L. 2738, 2783 ; better class prostitutes rarely prosecuted, 2735, 2740, 2833A ; considers sentences of fourteen or

Captain-Superintendent 'Mars' Training Ship, 8206 ; boys thirty days for importuning oppressive, not reformatory, and liable to reduction by High Court, 2729–2734, 2765–

mainly committed under Sec. 14 of Industrial Schools Act;

cites several sections in extenso, 8208–8215; Government 2766, 2808 ; committal of these women to homes desirable,

grants for boys committed under different sections of Act, 2804–2805 ; maximum penalties for drunkenness and

8216 ; physical requirements, height, &c., 8345–8348, 8365– disorderly conduct in local and general Police Acts, 2744

8367; results of training, 8224, 8225 ; number of boys sent to 2752 ; punishment of juvenile offenders, 2753-2754, 2797

sea, &c., 8233-8238 ; mostly on Norwegian vessels, 83702799, 2806–2807, 2841-2843; imprisonment for such undesirable, 2755-2756, 2797, 2812–2814 ; whipping more

8374 ; system of training, 8241–8261 ; educational statistics,

8261-8271 ; cost of maintenance and sources of revenue, satisfactory, 2757-2762, 2798–2799 ; parents might be 8272–8293 ; Glasgow does not contribute, 8290, 8291 ; put under security for child's conduct, 2800–2801 ; and age advantages of training, 8294–8299 ; percentage of relapses, for whipping should be raised to sixteen years, 2828 ;

8301-8307; punishment for misconduct, 8313-8320; dearth police sentence for drunkenness not reformatory, 2768, of sailors in navy and mercantile marine, 8356-8359 ; 2846; would favour establishing retreats for habitual

powers of detention, 8360-8364. drunkards, 2773, 2827 ; where compulsory detention for long periods might be tried, 2776 ; enquiry before Sheriff should precede all committals to retreats, as under Lunacy Laws, 2824, 2835–2840, 2850-2851 ; number of habituals

SENTENCES. in Edinburgh, 2849 ; complaints of forcible detention of inmates of Queensberry Lodge, 2852-2857.

Have no deterrent effect, 784, 1212, 1653, 1816, 2346,

2561, 2768, 3529, 5889, 6327, 7221, 10,088, 12,324. RUTLEDGE, Mr John.

Should be cumulative, 784. Governor, Aberdeen Prison, 7762 ; number of prisoners Dangers of cumulative system, 2369. previously in Reformatory Schools, 7770,7771 ; thinks short imprisonment often effective with first offenders, but of no

Maximum penalties rarely inflicted, 2121. use on habituals, 7772, 7779 and 7803, 7804 ; considers

Short sentences undeterrent, 3529, 5889, 7716, 7804, 8379. whipping of juveniles ought to be done by parents, 7773, 7811-7813 ; many females prefer prison to rescue homes, Neither deterrent nor reformative, 5376. 7777, 7790 ; females often unjustly imprisoned on charges of importuning, 7781 – 7785, 7808 – 7810, 7816 – 7820 ; Shorter sentences injurious, 5662. gratuities of prisoners disbursed through Discharged Prisoners' Aid Society, 7792 ; recommends long sentences Repetition of short sentences hurtful, 13,218. for adult habituals and treatment in reformatories for juveniles, 7805-7808 ;. results of Reformatory Schools not so Sharper sentences at early stage of career advocated by favourable as could be desired, 7771, 7821.

Bailie J. Walcot, 2372–2383.

Mr W. Geddes, 13,219. SALVATION ARMY EFFORTS TO REFORM Six months after three or four convictions Advocated, 2606. HABITUAL OFFENDERS, 14,297-15,183.

Long sentences frequently effective, 3531.

Cumulative recommended. SAUNDERS, Mr David H.

Mr John M‘Pherson, 6328. Merchant, Dundee, quotes details of experiment by Berlin

Progressive and cumulative. Municipality in dealing with habitual criminals, 13,642; gives statistics of defaulting school children in Dundee, and

Mr Tallack, 13,926. quotes accounts of Berlin system of dealing with orphan children, 13,642 ; recommends (1) prolonged detention of habitual drunkards at hard work in open air, (2) breaking of parental tie where abused, and making cruelty to children

SEPARATE CONFINEMENT FOR LONG severely punishable, and the restoration of parental rights PERIODS. the inducement for well-doing ; (3) boarding out with suitable parties, children so taken ; (4) more drastic method Does not believe has any bad effect. of dealing with one-roomed and insanitary dwellings; (5)

Lieut.-Col. Campbell, 6896. the more liberal and special equipment of schools where half-timers and neglected children are trained ; and (6) Considers it detrimental, 6904. localities having power to control granting of liquor licences 13,642.

Dr M Naughton, 6992, 7010.

SERVITUDE, PENAL.
Not deterrent on account of association.

Lieut.-Col. Campbell, 6798.

SHELTERS FOR TRAMPS.

Mr M`Neill.- Promote vagrancy; are not a substi

tute for English casual wards ; should only receive sick and infirm ; are much abused,

5845-5861. Lord Kincairney.-- Resting places for bona fide should

be provided, 5990. Mr Strang.-Men hired out from Glasgow Charity

Organization Society's Shelter, and paid full wage after deducting keep, 9453.

of maintenance, 15, 202–15,207 ; industries carried on, 15, 209–15, 211 ; and how goods are disposed of, 15,224 15, 226, 15,282-15,286 ; number of inmates having drunken parents, 15,216 ; percentage of illegitimate girls in Homes, 15,259 ; the children of inmates not taken in, 15,27015,276 ; thinks inmates improve both morally and intel. lectually in Homes, 15,260–15,263 ; analysis of those case. who left Home, 15,217 ; operations of similar Homes elses where, 15, 266, 15,267, 15,281 ; thinks the want of powers of detention in workhouse a serious default in Poor Law System, 15, 227, 15, 228 ; very few really respectable poor avail themselves of casual ward, 15,230 ; means of relieving able-bodied persons by work outwith casual wards, 15,24015,258 ; pauper children housed in Cottage Homes, 15,27715,280.

SIBBALD, M.D., F.R.C.P., John.

Commissioner in Lunacy for Scotland, 6197 ; powers of detention exercised by guardians of lunatics privately boarded-out, 6198-6209 ; supervision and visitation of boarded-out patients, 6210-6214; cost of boarding-out pauper lunatics, 6215 ; houses licensed for two, three, and four, 6217 ; no inspection by Board of Lunacy of incipient cases under a six months' certificate, 6230-6232, 6232-6234 ; proportion of cost of maintenance paid by Government, 6225-6227; does not think boarding-out system could be applied to habitual inebriates, 6219 ; proclivity for vice or intemperance unfits, 6222 ; 2500 boarded in private house, 6232.

STATISTICS.

Percentage to population in England, Scotland, and

Ireland by Col. M'Hardy, p. 512.
Returns of apprehensions for offences and crimes in

Cities and Burghs, p. 533, etc.
Details of offences of Habituals in Glasgow, Dundee,

and Edinburgh, pp. 587-594.
Return of persons convicted three times and upwards

during 1893 for five specific petty offences, pp.

614 and 615. Returns of Reformatory and Industrial School

Pupils in Prison during 1894 and their previous prison history, pp. 624, 625, and 626.

STEVENSON, Miss LOUISA,

Member of Edinburgh Parochial Board for ten years, 2999–3000 ; experience of vagrancy, 3001-3005, 3011-3013, 3029-3031 ; power of retention of pauper children given under Custody of Children Act, 1891, practically useless, 3006–3007, 3018–3019, 3049 ; proposed amendments, 3008, 3014, 3024, 3025, 3027-3028, 3032-3034, 3044, 3047-3048, 3053-3055 ; Parochial Boards should also have power to detain paupers, 3010; children often claimed by parents whenever able to earn wages, 3035; vagrant children not dealt with under Industrial Schools Act, 3036-3043 ; proportion of vagrants apprehended, 3055-3058.

SINCLAIR, Mr ROBERT W.

Secretary of Magdalen Institution and Lochburn Home, 990992; moral reclamation of fallen women primary object of homes, 1070 ; teaching habits of industry secondary consideration, 1087-1088 ; homes are entirely unsectarian though Protestant, 1071-1074, 1202, 1174-1176. Fallen women not above thirty years received, 993 ; mostly on voluntary application, 991; Magistrates send some which, as a rule, are unsatisfactory, 994, 1003-1004 ; compulsory powers for detention of such are desirable, 1152, 1184; inmates in probationary home are instructed in sewing as test of sincerity, 992, 996–997 ; after which they are sent to Lochburn Home and kept till expiry of two years, and employed at laundry work and sewing, 1014 - 1017 ; annual receptions about 220, 1114 ; mostly prostitutes addicted to drink, 1007–1008, 1043-1052, 1058-1060, 1158-1159 ; which is often hereditarily acquired, 1166– 1167 ; fallen and unfallen not separated, 1012–1013, 1020, 1090–1092, 1117 ; no compulsory powers of detention, 1053 ; incentives to remain, 1024-1038, 1053-1057 ; no money given while in home, 1030, 1033-1034 ; profits on working, 1064-1065, 1178; no friction with outside in. dustries, 1196 ; no alcohol allowed, 1078 ; religious in. struction, 1072-1076 ; privileges, 1094 ; entertainments, 1076, 1101-1103 ; from fifteen to twenty-five per cent. leave voluntarily or are dismissed, 1021-1022 ; about 70 per cent. turn out well, 1125, 1157 ; gross average earnings per inmate, 1180 ; average premium paid inmates, 1179 ; the matron corresponds with discharged inmates, 1209 ; short sentences given by Magistrates to fallen girls do great harm, 1212.

STEWART, Mr.

One of deputation from Perthshire Committee on Vagrancy
See under Col. WILLIAMSON.

STORY, Mr DANIEL F.

Chairman, Edinburgh City Parochial Board, 3932 ; considers compulsory detention the only cure for vagrancy, 3933 ; and that laws as to begging should be strictly enforced in counties, 3934, 3944 ; thinks Parochial Boards would agree to set aside poorhouse accommodation for treatment of habituals, 3942, 3943.

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SMITH, D.D., Rev. John.

Special missionary experience in Edinburgh, 5627 ; results of temperance work, 5628 ; the need for power of compul. sory detention of habituals, 5629-5630, 5640 ; testified by meeting of reformed drunkards, 5635 ; Municipalities should provide retreats on lines of German Labour Colonies, 5632-5633, 5649–5651 ; would require conclusive and unbiassed evidence before competent authority before com. mittal to Retreat, 5637 ; considers one year's enforced abstinence from drink as likely to bring about recovery, 5638 ; and would distinguish between Habitual and occasional Drunkards, 5643.

STRANG, Mr John TRAQUAIR,

Secretary Glasgow Charity Organization Society, 9375 ; explains scope and working of labour yard where temporary employment is given to men out of work, 9377, 94189444, 9500-9515, 9589-9591 ; and of industrial shelter recently started 'where food 'and lodging are given in exchange for a certain amount of labour next morning, 9380, 9384–9399, 9411-9417, 9445-9452 ; numbers dealt with in each, 9419, 9420, 9394, 9411-9413 ; average earnings in labour yards, 9431, 9436 ; in shelter all earned about 6s. per week, is placed to men's credit and paid on leaving, unless forfeited, 9448, 9449 ; men also hired out from shelter, and paid 'full wage after deducting keep; 9453-9456 ; 'no shelter for women, who are employed at sewing and by ladies auxiliary, 9400, 9487, 9492-9495, 9607–9609 ; a large number of ļrish and American trampş sent home by Society, 9460-9466, 9596-9606; total annual applications for relief, 9467; general character and condition of applicants, 9556-9576, 9592-9596 ; about half the number connected with children's clothing scheme, 9468 ; scope of that scheme, 9531-9537 ; of the remainder others, 9469-9484 ; drunkenness cause of majority of applications, 9530 ; disapproves of children being sent to prison, 9546 ; thinks they should be treated in separate

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institution, 9547 ; society co-operates with Discharged
Prisoners' Aid Society, 9586-9588 ; Glasgow Police and
begging and vagrancy, 9612-9615 ; difficulty in getting
greater variety of work, 9625-9634 ; advocates the sending
to prison for lengthened period habitual beggars and
tramps, 9521-9523, 9638-9641.

Australian Colonies, 13,985-13,989; control of London apprentices by City Chamberlain's Court, 13,989–13,991 ; approves of solitary confinement as generally a better punishment than whipping for juveniles, 13,994-13,999.

TASMANIA.

Act regulating the sale of liquor, p. 622.

STREET VENDING.

Mr D. Miller.—Effect on young girls bad, 4493.

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SUTHERLAND, Mr DONALD.

Chief Constable of Paisley, 11,304 ; thinks smallness of
ratio of arrests due to exceptionally good behaviour of
Paisley community, 11,307–11,315, 11,378, 11,416–11,418;
disposal of drunk and incapables prior to Burgh Police Act,
11,316-11,318; penalties presently imposed, 11,319-11,354;
pledges taken, 11, 327–11,329, 11,335–11,338; total amount,
11,419–11,424 ; illustrative cases of habitual offenders,
11,354–11,359 ; does not think increased powers under
Burgh Police Act have decreased number of drunkards,
11,360-11,365 ; nor leniency shown increased the number,
11,414, 11,415 ; special section of Act dealing with habitual
drunkards not enforced, 11,366-11,368 ; petty offenders not
arrested unless unavoidable, 11,371-11,378; difficulty of
dealing with beggars, 11,369, 11,370 ; penalties usually
severe, 11,379, 11,380; very few prostitutes and no brothels
in Paisley, 11,382-11,392 ; proceedings against publicans
for supplying liquor to drunk persons, 11,393, 11,394 ; and
against shebeeners, 11,395–11,399 ; previous convictions in
cases of petty offences, 11,401-11,404 ; number of first
offenders, 11,405, 11,406; ratio of police to population,
11,407-11,413.

TAYLOR, Mr JAMES.

For thirty-six years in prison service, Governor of Barlinnie Prison for six years, 736, 737, 742, 854 ; majority of commitments are for drunkenness, 739, 754-755, 761 ; great increase in commitments to prison statistics, 744-747 ; this due to the shortening of sentences, 748–750 ; thinks about half of those sentenced go to prison, 751-752 ; daily average population of Barlinnie, about 700-756 ; analysis of their offences and sentences, 757-764 ; cost of transit to and from city, 765–767 ; number of re-committals, 771, 775–781; 10 in one year the highest, 821 ; thinks first committal has often a salutary effect, 768-770, 910; but on habituals present sentences have no salutary effect, 896–899, 911-912 ; suggests graduation of punishment as means of diminishing commitments, 784, 798, 881-883; work of Discharged Prisoners' Aid Society, 792-797, 874 ; police should keep register of apprehensions for drunkenness, &c., 799-802 ; would give alternative of fine in all cases of drunkenness, 803-805 ; number of prisoners previously in Poorhouses, Reformatory, and Industrial Schools, and in penal servitude, 806-809; proportions of married and single, 810-812 ; prisoners' own statements as to drinking habits, 813-818 ; juveniles in prison, greatly reduced since 1882, their ages and sentences, 822-835; juvenile drunkards, 836-839; separation of juveniles, 840–841 ; disapproves of imprisoning very young people, and thinks 16 years young enough, 842–843 ; younger ones should be whipped or sent to Reformatory or Industrial Schools, 844 ; whipping effective with many, 845–851 ; vagrancy and begging not prevalent in Glasgow, 852–853 ; relatively more prevalent in Ayr, where drunkenness much the same as Glasgow, 852-857 ; old and infirm beggars should be sent to poorhouse instead of prison, 858–864 ; definition of habitual drunkard, 865-867, 876 ; number of such in Barlinnie Prison and in Scotland, 868–870 ; seclusion as a cure for drunkenness, 871-873, 876, 907-909, 913 ; persons charged as habituals should be remitted to Sheriff or Justices of Peace, 877–880; women much more frequently convicted of drunkenness than men, 884-888 ; bearing of Summary Jurisdiction Act on the sentences for petty offences, 889-890 ; many habitual drunkards come to prison unfit for prison discipline, 891-895 ; petty theft as à concomitant of drunkenness most frequent with women, 900-902 ; enquiry into antecedents of alleged habituals should be open, and evidence taken from members of families, 880, 903-906.

SUTHERLAND, Mr ROBERT.

Removing Officer, Barony Parochial Board sent by In.
spector with Jane M'Polland, referred to in Mr Motions'
evidence, 594 ; gives information regarding her, 596-606.

TAIT, Rev. W.
One of deputation from Perthshire Committee on Vagrancy.

TEMPLE, Jun., Mr Jas. G.
See under Col. WILLIAMSON.

Newspaper reporter and had considerable experience of
Police Court proceedings in Glasgow, 10,770; considers
teetotal magistrates severest in cases of drunkenness, 10,773;

thinks drunkenness increasing amongst young women, TALLACK, Mr Wm.

10,779, 10,788; sees many before courts 16 years old, 10,780,

women charged with importuning rarely plead guilty; Secretary Howard Association, 13,928 ; thinks it univers.

10,802, 10,803 ; suspicious similarity of police evidence in ally admitted that system of constantly repeated short cases of prostitution, 10,806-10,810; treatment of drunk sentences for habitual offenders is a failure, 13,926 ; advo- and incapables on reception, 10,817-10,819 ; verbatim recates system of progressive sentences, fortnightly cumulation port of police court proceedings on specified date showing for disorderliness and longer for drunkenness, maximum disparity in sentences, nature of evidence and method of to be two years with conditional liberation, 13,926

submitting previous convictions, 10,827-10,900.
13,931 ; says system of progressive detention partly in
force in other countries, 13,932; particulars of such foreign
institutions, 14,009, 14,010 ; financial results, 13,938,
13,942 ; says that long imprisonment combined with work
in Labour Colonies has resulted in diminution of arrests THOMSON, Mr ALEX.
for vagabondage by 41 per cent. in ten years, 13,942;
describes German system of prison labour, 13,944-13,946 ;

Governor of Maxwelltown Prison, explains nature of prison attaches great importance to separation of prisoners,

employments and system of marks, 12,006–12,024; and con13,947 ; considers many prisons in Scotland and England siders that by persistent efforts the laziest prisoner can be too comfortable, and should have some deterrent element to made perform at least the required task, 12,008, 12,076– prevent their becoming attractive, 13,949, 14,003-14,005 ; 12,085 ; punishments imposed for idleness, 12,025-12,030 ; advocates treadmill or whip for incorrigible rutilanly

compares the suitability of different kinds of work, 12,032offenders, 13,950–13,960, 14,000-14,002, 14,006, 14,011- 12,046 ; suggests washing, &c., and sack making for female 14,022 ; results of long sentences on tramps in State of prisoners, 12,047-12,061 ; considers long periods of solitary Connecticut reported good, 13,959; but personally would

confinement detrimental to health, 12,067-12,075. prefer system of liberation on probation, 13,961 ; advocates providing test labour at piece work for unemployed, as at Birmingham, 13,966 ; thinks cure of intemperance would go a great way to cure vagrancy, 13,977, 13,978 ; juvenile THOMSON, Mr JAMES. offenders should be treated separately from adults, 13,979 ; parents being made responsible for them where possible, and Was with Rev. David Macrae a Member of Committee system of liberating on probation more utilized 13,980– investigating Tyson drink cure in Dundee, 8464. For 13,986 ; working of such a system in Massachusetts and evidence see under Rev. David MACRAE,

TINKERS.

Adults all drunkards and quarrelsome.

Mr W. Mitchell, 183–208.

TRESPASS ACT, 1865.
Landlords and tenants should prohibit tinkers camping out.

Mr W. Mitchell, 188.

Dwellings a few sticks and sacks.

Mr W. Mitchell, 189–199.

Registration and inspection of all Movable Dwellings advocated.

Mr W. Mitchell, 192–195.

Children totally uneducated.

Mr W. Mitchell, 182.
Mr John M‘Pherson, 6484–6492.
Major D. F. Gordon, 7660.

Infantile mortality high.

Mr W. Mitchell, 205.

TUKE, M.D., F.R.C.P., J. Batty.

Physician in Edinburgh, other qualifications, 12,669-12,674; connection between lunacy and habitual drunkenness, 12,675; present means of dealing with habitual drunkards entirely inadequate, 12,678 ; would amend the definition of habitual drunkard of Inebriates Act, 12,679–12,681, 12,726–12,728 ; suggests in addition to present voluntary facilities, legal process before Sheriff at instance of interested parties for the committal of habituals to a retreat :-Sheriff to be assisted byassessors and medical testimony to be adduced, 12,682–12,692, 12,729-12,731, 12,749–12,751; would fix maximum period of detention at two years, with earlier liberation on parole if thought proper, 12,693, 12,694, 12, 737; would expect from 10 to 15 per cent. of recoveries, 12,69712,700 ; curators to be appointed on estates of habituals, and habituals liable to re-committal without new trial, if lapsing within one year, 12,701-12,703, 12,738–12,740; does not favour the treating of drunkards in lunatic asylums, 12,704-12,706, 12,741 ; has no faith in the treatment of inebriates by drugs, 12,709-12,712; no disease so thoroughly hereditary as drinking, 12,714 ; would have inebriate retreats under inspection to obviate illegal detention, 12,72012,723, 12,732, 12,733.

Generally honest and orderly, 6333, 6550.

Honest, but beggars and drunkards, 7257.

Wick School-Board on education of children, p. 606.

The Registrar-General on registration of births, p. 628.

p. 620.

UNEMPLOYED. TODD, Mr WM.

Labour test advocated, 13,966.

Result of introduction of test in Glasgow, p. 642. Secretary, Edinburgh Total Abstinence Society, 6155 ; thinks the law against supplying drink to drunken persons is not enforced, 6158 ; number of individuals pledged by Society, 6162 ; and percentage of relapses, 6163 ; nature of various pledges, 6172-6178 ; experience of 'Tyson' cure

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. for drunkenness, 6179-6182.

North Carolina. Treatment of inebriates in State

Hospitals, p. 619.

New York State.—Sketch of Elmira Reformatory and its TRAMPS AND TRAMP SHELTERS.

methods of dealing with young felons, p. 619. Shelter houses for such strongly disapproved of, 4067.

Elmira Reformatory. — Commission of inquiry as to

allegations against the management and decision of Increases vagrancy, 4068.

the Governor of New York State, p. 599–606. No means of keeping deserving tramps, 4158.

Massachusetts.— The State Reformatory conducted on System of passes for honest tramps, 5102.

the indeterminate, sentence plan, p. 619. Its Girls'

Industrial School p. 620. Boston Home of Industry Existing system unsatisfactory, 5109.

and Drunkenness, p. 620. Inebriate Home, San

Francisco, p. 621. Parochial Shelters advocated, 6349, 6352.

Ohio and Minnesota.—Methods of treating drunkards, Majority not bond fide, 6365.

The law in relation to the 'probation Shelter accommodation insufficient, 7500, 7562.

system and the punishment of drunkards, p. 644. German system, 9677. Lodging-Houses should be provided for honest tramps, URQUHART, Dr Alex. REID. 6623.

Physician Superintendent of Murray's Royal Asylum, 7078 ; Habitual tramps should be sent to Prison for a lengthened attempts to deal with habitual drunkards who voluntarily time, 9521, 9638.

submit to control have accomplished nothing, 7081 ;

boarding.out in private houses preferable to sending to Sheltered in Police stations in Renfrew, 11,735.

present institutions, 7084-7086 ; proportion of habitual

drunkards admitted to asylum, 7095-7098 ; classification, Would provide such under Police control, 12,187.

7099, 7204 ; and diseases they suffered from, 7105, 7188 ; Shelters suggested for bonâ fide tramps, 8447, 13,784.

powers of detention over voluntary and insane patients,

7110-7115, 7148–7156, 7163 ; would fix maximum period of Effect of long sentences in Connecticut, 13,959.

detention at 2 years with system of probation, 7120, 7210, 7211; outdoor employment for men and women desirable, 7130-7133 ; other occupations, 7137, 7138, 7164-7168 ; rarity of real dipsomania, 7141'; police habituals should be

sent to reformatories for medical observation and treatment TREATMENT OF HABITUAL OFFENDERS.

and boarded-out if desirable, 7146, 7156, 7157 ; the initia

tion of proceedings against habituals should be open to Present methods useless and not reformative.

friends or public officials, 7178 ; medical testimony also

desirable, 7179 ; drunkards should be kept separate from Bailie S. Chisholm, 79.

insane, 7189, 7190 ; and not more than twelve treated in Mr W. Henderson, 2202.

any one house, 7191 ; imprisonment not calculated to cure Bailie Walcot, 2367.

habitual drinking, 7206 ; treatment at Elmira, 7213-7216. Captain Christie, 2608. Mr Alexander Porter, 4981.

UTILIZATION OF VACANT POORHOUSE ACSuggested Methods. Medical and dietetic treatment for long periods, and

COMMODATION FOR HABITUAL OFFEN

DERS AND POOR INEBRIATES.
outdoor and laundry work.
Dr M Naughton, 6940-6951, 7026.
Medical observation and treatment.

Recommended, 320, 341, 2464, 2504, 2962, 3889,
Dr Urquhart, 7146.

3942, 3892, 5899.
Does not recommend, 3664.

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