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yet the domination of a democracy seems a matter of pastime, a sentiment ancillary to be guarded against. The style of the to their social pleasures, but as their minds statement, too, proves that the strong re-expanded, and the prospect enlarged, ligious sentiment afterwards developed in these same youthful politicians became Geneva existed in the germ before either deep and liberal thinkers, and acted out Farel or Calvin appeared upon the stage. what they thought with unexampled heroThe people went forward from the first in ism. It was their doctrine that Geneva the strength of this celestial confidence. would be saved by their personal sorrows The seven years that had passed since and final sacrifice of life, and this proved Berthelier's head rolled in the dust had true in so much more than a general sense, sufficed to prepare them for a greater that it almost seems a special prophetic than a political revolution, although up to instinct. Finis coronat opis-the object this moment they were themselves uncon- was achieved, the summit of the hill gainscious of the change.
ed, when the execution of Berthelier deWhen the foreign preachers came among molished the anomaly of the bishop-prince, them, it was to find a people prepared for and prepared the Genevan stage for the their emancipating doctrines, by the en- appearance of another class of actors and joyment of political and mental freedom. events, and as the foremost of these, that Those moderns who are jealous of the rather morose than bashful” man, (to progress of public liberty, from fearing its quote Calvin's self-description in the Prefeffects upon their ecclesiastical system, ace to the Psalms,) who was to strike off are wise in their generation. There had other chains and illustrate in his person never been a Calvin in Geneva, had there and history higher principles and nobler not first been a Berthelier; nor was it rights. possible that a Berthelier or a Levrier “ The letter of a Personage of Mark," would have perished, as they did, without Lettre d'un Personage de Marque, in the bringing after them the majestic results Berne MS., refers well to the power which that followed.
opinion, as concentrated and expressed at Long before Calvin appeared, or the Geneva, was about to exert: “On this Reformation properly so named bad at platform appear actors who do not speak tained consolidation in Geneva, the public so loud as great kings and emperors on mind had a strong religious bias. Worthy the spacious theater of their states; but people were these Eidguenots, full of what matters how the speaker is dressed, heart and of good sense, eager for liberty, if he says what he ought?”. The power but fond of law and order. Dr. D'Au- of the Reformers lay in this, that they bigne's pages nobly revive their earlier spoke what they ought. When the utter. memories by a title which, however origi. ance of truth was a novelty in Christennating, has become immortal, and certain. dom, its effects were naturally startling ly the Huguenots of later story have no and universal. reason but to feel proud of the source There was a heroism even in Calvin's from which their appellation comes. Hence- domestic life, and disinterestedness reforth the story of the conflicts which at- garding his personal affairs, that well betended the laying of the foundation-stone fitted the earlier sacrifices of the equally of liberty in Geneva, familiar to old and noble, though less enlightened youth, young, will constitute one of the most over whose exploits upon the Genevan brilliant and stirring pages in the chronicle stage we have cast a hasty glance. When of the great transition era which threw returning to Geneva in 1539, he made open the doors to modern progress. No preparations to receive his wife, Idelette mean place in the gallery of greatness de Bure, who had brought him as her must be reserved for the merry, satirical, only dower “serious piety, watchful tenand yet profound Bonivard; the magnani- derness, and a soul equal to every sacrimous and incorruptible Levrier; the ami- fice." His enemies have reproached him able and fearless Navis; the politic and for want of matrimonial affection, and brave Besançon Hugues; and the im- certainly the Reformer's courtship was petuous and romantic Berthelier. With any thing but romantic. To Farel, who one exception, these were young men was anxious to get him a helpmate, he who in the first instance had chosen their wrote soberly enough upon the matter side from honest impulses rather than in which more or less seriously operates upon tellectual conviction, and made patriotism the utterances of the most sagacious men:
VOL, LX,-NO. 4
"I am not, thou knowest, one of those difficulty of a sullied origin. Instead of lovers who adore even the defects of the this, the political conflict was a basis of women of whom they are enamored. The prestige for the spiritual combat, which only beauty that can please my heart is constituted its complement. There had one that is gentle, chaste, modest, econom- been on one side, during a long course of ical, patient, and finally, careful of her years, the prince-bishops conspiring with husband's health.” A dazzling catalogue, the enemies of the state, and infringing indeed, of wifely virtues! The predomi- the laws and charters of the people. On nating idea in his mind was to find one the other, the Genevan citizens are found, capable of assisting him in the work which not raising any revolutionary cry, but occupied his entire soul. He rejected an always quoting the ancient liberties, franotherwise eligible person, because she did chises, immunities, usages, and customs of not know French and would not stipulate the state, and standing upon these as a sure to learn it. Another had a fortune which foundation of loyal principle. The Genewould have been convenient, but it was van reformation grew out of no anarchial too small to do more than make her proud. movement. No violent social metamorFinally, after for a time giving up all in- phosis suddenly opened a path for the tention of marrying, he changed his mind, ambition of the French scholars and diand gained the hand of the Anabaptist vines. From the first the effort in Geneva widow, who had this special merit in was towards a return to an antecedent Calvin's eyes, that she was prepared to en-condition, and this legal and legitimate dure his lot cheerfully. The Reformer's in- conservatism well agreed with a religious
a come was never more than one hundred and emancipation which also meant no more twenty pounds of our money, with twelve than a restoration to the principles of the measures of wheat added and two casks earlier Christian church. Without bearof wine; and this supposed to be liberal ing those facts in memory, it will be imallowance was only given him in conse- possible to do justice to Calvin, or to unquence of the hospitality he was called derstand the motives that influenced his upon to show to anxious inquirers from attempt to establish a perfect Christian other countries—“supporte grande charge State -the type of what he, shortsightedly de passants.” His effects were of the indeed, had dreamt all others might or most modest description. The state, in- ought to become. The Genevans, when deed, furnished his house, but not very he became acquainted with their track of luxuriously, since, after his death, when thought, had not forgotten or shaken off the authorities resumed possession, and their attachment to the old institution of made an inventory, they found a cupboard a bishop-prince, which was to them in without a lock, a dozen stools, and a high its purity synonymous with liberty and backed walnut chair of joiner's work-the righteous government. They cherished latter being still preserved. Here it was the tradition of an ecclesiastical ruler that Idelette displayed those qualities of who should respect their immunities and patient frugality and continual content privileges, and hold sway with a paternal ment which lend an aspect of true heroism hand. They clung to the theocratic idea, to the home-life of Geneva's greatest citi-. partly with the desire of proving that they zen, and class him in this particular ele were revolutionists in no destructive ment of greatness with the self-disregard-sense. Thus it was that Calvin sought a ing patriots who preceded him.
restoration at Geneva to the principles Patriotism was indigenous in Geneva, and methods of government which he but the Reformation, its consequent, came considered most in accordance at once in with Farel and Calvin. French gen- with the early practice of the church and ius, piety, and honesty, protected by the the instincts of the people. This theory chivalrous Margaret ,supplied the instru- of restoration he imbibed from Farel, and, ment, and Geneva furnished the platform indeed, it belonged to most of the reformfor the momentous revolution about to ers outside Switzerland, and was partly
The two parts of this work har- forced upon them by the libellous accusamonize, and the latter grows out of the tions of their enemies, that they were mere former. Had the political emancipation seditionaries-persons who not only wishof Geneva been less orderly, the subse- ed to overthrow the civil power but to quent religious enfranchisement would deprive the church of all public influence. have had to struggle against the enormous Calvin strove to show that he was no de
stroyer in either sense; and accordingly, voiumes are strictly historical. The forreplying to the speech of Francis I., de- mer may be accepted as an able comment livered with great pomp in 1535, and upon the latter; and without yielding to declaring all the religious malignants the eulogies of either writer, it may justly enemies of the state, Calvin, in the pref | be said that the effect of their labors is to ace to the Christian Institutes, boldly relieve the character of the Reformer addressing the prince, says: “I know from no small part of the opprobrium well with what terrible reports they have ignorantly cast upon it. As respects the filled your ears and heart, namely, that it burning of Servetus, to touch that vexed (the Reformation) tends only to the de- subject in one line only, it appears struction of all rule and policy, the disturb- plain that Calvin endeavored to mitiance of peace, and the abolition of law. gate the severity of the sentence. This
I do not ask without reason, there appears by his letters to Farel, of the fore, that you should please to take entire genuineness of which there can be now no cognizance of this cause." Felix Bun- question. That it was written in calculagener, in his admirable Life of Calvin, ting hypocrisy, is a conclusion foreign to which should be read in conjunction with the character of the man. D’Aubigne's Dr. D'Aubigne's volumes, perceives this work, in addition to its characteristic and key to Calvin's exploits, and explanation perfectly new feature—the story of the of his intolerance and mistakes, but does Genevan patriots—is also valuable for not sufficiently connect the polity of the the fresh particulars which it furnishes of Reformer's time with the previous history, the youthful years and first struggles of habits of thought, and predilections of the the Reformer. As has been the case Genevans. Calvin was, in fact, their with a crowd of great men, Calvin owed parer and nobler bishop-prince, and they much to his tutor, Mathurin Cordier, a admired and obeyed him, not for his man “ of ancient mould.” The thin, doctrine's sake alone but for his perfect pale, diffident Noyon boy became a embodiment of that which the Bastard special favorite with the honest professor and Pierre de Baume were not. To the of fifty, and the youth repaid this esteem Genevans the Reformer became the repre- by a warmer attachment to his preceptor sentative and something more of the than is common even among the generous ancient liberties, which secured inde- natures of the young. When at Monpendence from all foreign control, and taigne College, the visit of his cousin, made the ruler the conservator of faith Olivetan, exerted a great effect on Caland morals; whilst to the world at large vin's mind; but the separate stages of his bis function was different, but still of vast mental struggle are not distinctly marked, importance. To employ the words of an as in the instance of Martin Luther. It enemy, Michelet: “To every people in seems certain that Calvin, on resolving to peril, Sparta, for an army, sent a Spartan. separate himself from the received relig: It was thus with Geneva.
And ion, sought repose and retirement rather now the combat commences. Below, let than action and struggle.
“A hiding Loyola excavate his mines; above, let the place," an "out-of-the-way spot," where gold of Spain and the sword of the Guises he may meditate in peace, is the extent dazzle or pervert! In that narrow in- of his aspirations. But his disposition closure, the gloomy garden of God, blood- was very different from the peace-at-anyred roses bloom under Calvin's hand for price of Erasmus. From the day when the preservation of the liberties of the he published his commentary on Seneca's soul. If in any part of Europe blood and De Clementia, he was committed to a contortures are required—a man to be burnt, flict with the persecutors and superstior to be broken on the wheel—that man tious priests of the age, and he went is at Geneva, ready to depart, giving through with it, never looking back. thanks to God, and singing Psalms to Undeterred by the cruelties of the Sorhim.” Had Calvin taken a course more bonne, he encouraged his companions in accordance with modern views, his with the exclamation: “They who hold work would have been less telling in Ge- up the standard of truth must mount to neva, and less influential abroad.
the assault with unflinching courage.” Felix Bungener's book is a lucid and The opportunity for putting his valor to masterly essay on Calvin - an elaborate the test found him prepared. On All and yet an easy vindication. D’Aubigne's Saints' Day in 1533, the University of
Paris had assembled with great pomp to punished for not sending their children to hear the Rector's address. Cop, who school; but these were only new forms of was a physician, and did not think it well old principles in the local government. A that he should speak as a divine, readily citadel, a church, an ecclesiastical stateconsented to deliver the address which these were the three characteristics of the Calvin wrote, and this document, as now reformed Genevan republic, and in all exhibited to the world for the first time these respects it contributed to the progby Dr. D’Aubigne, who found it in the ress of human liberty, though, in represslibrary of Geneva, inscribed, Hæc Johan- sing abuses and guarding against the renes Calvinus propria manú descripsit et introduction of error, its leaders, men est auctor, is at once a proof of the Re- educated in the maxims of an intolerant former's unexampled boldness, and the creed, naturally put its principles, to a maturity of his doctrine. This remark- certain extent, into practice. The pressable and beautiful composition must have ing presence of dangers made the harsh cost Calvin much labor and thought. It treatment of non-conformists seem only is brief, simple, and yet so constructed as reasonable measures of protection. There to embrace almost every point of the was little time for reflection. The ReChristian philosophy.
former was a bustling actor, as well as a The University were startled when, thinker, and even his superhuman indusbringing the argument to a climax, Cal-try did not find time for more than the vin, through bis spokesman, uttered the demands of the hour. IIad the Instimemorable words, Sola Dei gratia pec- tutes not been prepared before the recata remittit. Professors, priests, monks, sponsibilities of rule came upon him, the students, were all astounded by this dar- world would have lost one of its greatest ing proclamation of a heterodox principle; books. When at Strasburg, Calvin de. but the Rector, as he went on in the dis- livered a professional lecture every morncourse, added, speaking of the Saviour of ing, devoted the forenoon to completing men: Verus et unus apud Patrem inter- the second edition of the Institutes of C'essor. Theologians will find in this Religion, and preached again every evenspeech proof that, even at that period, ing. Moreover, every day brought its Calvin's Christian scheme was perfected quota of fugitives seeking aid and advice, His subsequently compiled Catechism, and young disciples begging counsel and which, it is worthy of remark, does not explanations. Still," he sighed,” the hiscontain a word regarding predestination, torian says, “after the hard life of Genewas but the development of the views va”-a fact worth the notice of “the then expressed. Three years afterwards overworked clergy" of modern times. the same man saw the citizens of Geneva These labors left no time for an effort to swear, in the Church of St. Peter, to take alter the civil system of Geneva, or give the Gospel only for their rule of life, and, a new current to the popular ideas. The thence forward, his life was identified people, besides, had fought and suffered in with theirs. He set himself to draw up, behalf of their old constitution, and faulty not only a confession of faith, but a civil though it was in principle, they were atcode, in accordance both with the Scrip- tached to it profoundly. That it fell in tures and their own existing republican with Calvin's predilections, also, is abunand ecclesiastical system. Some of the dantly clear; still, he did not create it, Genevan regulations, which sound to us and is bardly responsible for all the difas the most strained and ridiculous, and ficulties which its maintenance, after the opposed to Christian liberty, had existed introduction of the Reformation, engenbeforehand, and were only turned to a dered. Stained as the Geneva of Calvin more spiritual use. An obstinate gambler may be, however, with the crime of in. is set in the stocks for an hour, with his tolerance, a great career with one blot is playing cards round his neck. The au- more honorable than a life of trifling and thor of a base masquerade is con- unheeded sinning. But, whatever estidemned to sue for pardon in the cathe- mate is made of the noble Picardin, whose dral, upon his knees. A perjurer is life and labors are alike the heritage of raised on a ladder, fixed to the top, and the church and civil society, however prej. suspended in that position for several udice may question his greatness, or parhours. An adulterer and his accomplice tiality contrive apologies for his grave are paraded publicly, and parents are l offenses, no one can read the early story
of the Genevan struggle without admir- These patriots, the very opposite of giddy ing the disinterestedness, gallantry, and revolutionaries, appealed, at every stage, devotion of the patriots, whose resistance to legal rights. Even their religious reto foreign intrusion and domestic tyranny formation was rather a restoration, and taught them to appreciate an emancipa- this peculiarity "vastly enhances the intion of a higher kind, which they were terest of the story which the chronicler also destined to hold forth as an example has freshly derived from the Genevan for nations still enchained and depressed. I archives.
Τ Η Ε
ARCHBIS II O P
DR. WHATELY, Archbishop of Dublin, schools, and an anxious observer of the died on Thursday, in the seventy-seventh progress of the system. His pen was ever year of his age. Earl Grey, in 1831, made ready to repel the attacks made upon it. Dr. Whately, an Englishman, who had not In his addresses at public meetings, in the been previously elevated to the episcopal charges to his clergy, and in numerous rank, Archbishop of Dublin, on the death pamphlets, he defended its principles and of Archbishop Magee. One strong induce-exposed the misrepresentations of its opment with the government in making the ponents with a power of reasoning that selection was that it was about to com: nothing could withstand. He also commence the great experiment of national posed several manuals of instruction for education, based upon the principles of the use of schools on “Money Matters,” religious equality, from which should be on “Reasoning,” on the “Evidences of excluded every thing liable to even the Christianity," and on the “British Consuspicion of proselytism. And it was es-stitution," in which he displayed his exsential that the new Archbishop of Dub- traordinary, capacity for rendering prolin should take an active part in working found truths intelligible to the young. out the experiment, as one of the princi- His manly independence, his liberal pal members of the Board of Education. views, and his scrupulous impartiality seFor a long time Archbishop Whately cured the entire confidence of the Roman was an object of dislike and suspicion to Catholic members of the Board. One of the majority of his clergy on account of these, Sir Thomas Redington, stated that what they regarded as his heterodox in the absence of Dr. Murray Archbishop views respecting the law of the Sabbath, Whately was ever ready to protect the the inspiration of the authorized version rights of Roman Catholics; and he was of the Bible, the authority of the Atha- accustomed to say: "We have no security nasian Creed, and other matters. Some for the system being impartial as regards zealots in the cause of Scriptural educa- ourselves unless we afford the same protion went so far as to denounce him as a tection to others.” One of the last acts Socinian. But, not heeding personal at- which preceded the close of Dr. Murray's tacks, he set to work with great earnest- life, when he was eighty-three years of ness in combating and refuting the errors age, was to assist at a meeting of the that prevailed around him. He was in Board. defatigable in his efforts to advance what Archbishop Whately did not long rehe believed to be the truth, and to free main a member of it after his venerable the Protestant religion in Ireland from colleague had been removed by death. the odium brought upon it by the spirit The policy of conciliation died with him. of intolerance.
Dr. Cullen, who had resided for many Archbishop Whately was appointed one years in Rome, was appointed by the of the first Commissioners of National Pope as his successor, having set aside Education in Ireland. He was constant the three names submitted to him, accordin his attendance at the meetings of the ing to custom, by the parish priests of the Board, a frequent visitor at its model ! diocese. To his interference are to be as.