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cribed the changes which led to the retire. in the case of the late Lord Primate, ment of the Archbishop of Dublin and whose great wealth enabled him to surtwo other members of the Board, the late pass every one in princely munificence. Baron Greene and Mr. Blackbure, now The Archbishop of Dublin's income conLord Chief Justice of Appeal. This con- sisted almost entirely of the revenues of test between Archbishop Whately and bis diocese, and it may be truly said that, the Roman Catholic party did much to according to his means, his bounty was conciliate the evangelical clergy, and unparalleled, and that in bis character he raised him much higher in the estimation presented the rare combinations of great of the Protestants of Ireland generally. intellectual power, profound learning, and From that time a better understanding extraordinary public spirit, with an exand a more cordial state of feeling existed tremely kind and sympathetic heart. His between him and the majority of the generosity, however, was not impulsive, clergy of his own diocese. These ami. but well regulated and discriminating.
. cable relations were strengthened by the He once boasted in the House of Lords zeal and activity of Mrs. Whately and her that there was one thing with which he daughters in establishing and conducting could not reproach himself, he had never ragged schools and supporting the Irish relieved a mendicant in the streets.
He Church Mission to Roman Catholics. The took care so to administer relief as not to Archbishop took no part in these prosely- encourage idleness and vice. When he tizing movements, though he looked kind- gave away considerable sums of money to ly on the efforts of those who were engag- relieve deserving persons in temporary ed in them. There never was a more dis difficulties, he was accustomed to get interested prelate, or one more munificent, them to sign a document promising to reaccording to his means, than the late pay the amount whenever they were Archbishop. He had but one son. He is able to persons similarly circumstanced. a clergyman of many years' standing and Among the monuments of his liberality, superior ability, and yet all that his father which he has left behind him, is the did for him was to give him the small Whately Professorship of Political Econparish of St. Werburgh, in Dublin, worth omy, which he endowed in the Dublin only £300 or £400 a year. This self-denial University. His grace was fifty-ninth contrasts favorably with the excessive Archbishop of Dublin, and fifty-fifth nepotism of some of the most evangelical Bishop of Glendalough, and succeeded and pious of our bishops, who have given as eighty-ninth Bishop of Kildare in the best livings in their diocese to their 1846, (that see having been prospectively young sons and sons-in-law and nephews, united to Dublin under the Church Temwhile able and excellent men, who had poralities Act,) on the death of Dr. Charles grown up gray in the service of the Lindsay. He was Visitor of Trinity Colchurch, were left to drag out the remnant lege, Dublin; Prebendary ex officio of of their existence on their miserable sti- Cullen in St. Patrick's Cathedral; Vicepends as curates. The liberality of Arch- President of the Royal Irish Academy, bishop Whately in assisting the destitute and Chancellor of the Order of St. Patrick. families of clergymen and others, especial- Mrs. Whately, wife of his grace, died on ly during the tithe war and the famine the twenty-fifth of April, 1860.- Esami. years, was unexampled in Ireland, except I ner, Oct. io.
It falls to the lot of few men in any age / matter, lest his pathway up the Nile and or country to become kings, potentates, across the isthmus should be closed. The or emperors, invested with supreme pow- Crimean War was but a fierce fight in er, sitting upon thrones and wearing the advance for the expected spoils of the decrowns of empire. Such high imperial caying empire. But the time is not yet.
. personages are generally the objects of The powers of Western Europe like skillinterest and observation in person and ful physicians have combined to guarantee character. Among this number, thus fill-awhile longer the integrity of the Ottoing an exalted station, is the present ruler man empire, and keep in motion the vital of Turkey, Abdul Aziz, Sultan of the currents in the body politic for unknown Ottoman Empire, whose fine portrait will years to come. be found as an embellishment at the head It is too long a journey to travel back of the present number of The ECLECTIC. to remote ages and follow down along the The general appearance of the portrait, stream of centuries till the present time his grave aspect, and the expression of the origin and history.of the great family his countenance indicate the conscious of Turks over which Abdul Aziz is now dignity of his high station. The portrait the ruler and sovereign. And yet it is has just been admirably engraved by Mr. this high antiquity of the Turkish race George E. Perine from a recent photo- which imparts an added interest to the graph received from Constantinople, and portrait and its original. The career of is believed to be a very accurate likeness. the Turks is marvelous. We have only
The imperial lineage of Abdul Aziz runs room for the briefest outline. Five cenfar back into by-gone ages. The throne turies before the Christian era the Turks of the Ottoman empire has been occupied were nomad dwellers upon the northern with a long line of sultans of greater or slopes of the Altai range and along the less renown. The history of this empire valleys of the Tang-nu mountains, between fills many pages in the annals of the past. the Irtish and Yenisei rivers, on the conA venerable antiquity rests upon it. It fines of Siberia and China. In the second is among the old empires of the world, and century before the Christian era the emlike many others in former centuries it is pire of the Turks extended from the Sea tending to decay, and long ago began its of Japan to the Volga, and embraced the funeral march to the grand graveyard and whole of Central Asia and a considerable mausoleum of buried empires.
portion of Siberia. They intermarried The governments of Continental Europe with the imperial family of China and have long been watching the progress of held the Chinese nation as vassals. Pliny decay and disintegration of this once co- alludes to them under the name of Turcæ. lossal empire. For more than half a cen. Some of their tribes penetrated into tury the Russian Bear has looked with the mountainous regions of Asia Minor longing eyes, fierce appetite, and extend in the early ages of the Christian era. ed paws to seize its full share of the spoils In 569 they formed an alliance with Jusin all the regions around the Dardanelles. tin II., then Emperor of Constantinople. The French Eagle, soaring aloft in impe- For several centuries onward, to 744, there rial flight, has also long been looking down were eight distinct Turkish tribes or nawith its eagle eyes and mighty talons out- tions in Central Asia. But the invasion spread ready for the descent. The British of Genghis Khan, so great were the Lion also has long kept an eye in that di- changes and revolutions, overthrew the rection, and now and then roars around last remains of the Turkish empire in the shores of the Mediterranean to indicate Asia. But the Turks in the sixth and his presence to those other beasts of prey, seventh centuries were in possession of and his deep commercial interest in the extensive regions in what is now Asiatic Turkey. In the ninth and tenth cen- ulemas and mollans, in robes of green, turies the reigning dynasties in Egypt violet, or gray, richly embroidered with were Turks. In the eleventh century the gold, and with white or green turbans Turkish dynasty held sway from the fron- with broad gold bands encircling them. tiers of China to the vicinity of Constan. Then the sons-in-law of the late sovereign, tinople. The Turkish empire in Europe blazing with gold and jewels; the minisdates from the overthrow of the Byzantine ters, with large stars on the front of the empire in the fifteenth century. "In 1451 fez; the Sheikh-ul-Islam, in robe of white Amurath II. was succeeded by Moham- and gold, and the grand vizier. med II., who in 1453 took Constantinople, For a moment there was a break in the and established the Osmanli throne on the procession. Then came six more led ruins of the palace of the Roman emperors. horses, with stirrups of gold and saddle On this throne thus established now sits cloths sparkling with diamonds, followed Abdul Aziz, the successor of a long line of by a large body of officers on foot, walking sultans and sovereigns who have during in parallel lines, on each side of the road, the intervening centuries wielded the and leaving an open space in which soon scepter of the Ottoman empire. We need appeared about forty or more pages in not enumerate them. Among the more crimson velvet and gold, with large plumes recent sultans was Selim III., who reigned in their caps, and glittering halberds in from 1789 to 1807. He was then deposed their hands. In the midst of this gor. in consequence of the reforms he had intro- geous pageant rode the sultan himself
, duced. Mustapha IV. was sultan for only wearing the rich and gaceful imperial one year, when in 1808 he was succeeded cloak of his predecessors, with its diamond by Mahmoud II., at whose death in clasp, (see the cloak and clasp in the en1839, Abdul Medjid succeeded, then but graving,) the plume and diamond aigrette sixteen years of age, who ascended the in his fez, and the jeweled sword by his throne, which he continued to occupy till side. his death, June 25th, 1861, when by the The chamberlains, secretaries, and other laws of the empire, Abdul Aziz, the origin officers of the palace, with a troop of nal of our portrait and brother of the late cavalry, and a mob of wild-looking indi. sultan, ascended the throne of the Otto- viduals, who made a rush for the newman empire.
coined money that was thrown by handAbdul Aziz was born February 9th, fuls among them, closed the procession. 1830, at Constantinople, and is therefore The sultan was every where greeted by thirty-three years old. Up to the time of the crowd with half- audible prayers and his brother's death, (Abdul Medjid,) Ab- blessings, and hopes for an energetic reign. dul Aziz remained a stranger to public “ May his sword cut sharp!” said one affairs, and he was seldom seen in public. who stood near. “ Amin!” was the In his education he was under the instruc- hearty response from all. tion of a French professor, and is well On reaching the mausoleum of Mah. versed in the language, literature, laws, moud II., the sultan dismounted and and manners of France.
prayed at the tomb of his father; he then Abdul Aziz was crowned Sultan of returned to the palace of Top Capou, Turkey July 4th, 1861. The coronation where he received the homage and conceremony of “girding on the sword of gratulations of his officers, and at five Othman” was performed in the Mosque o'clock, amid salvos of artillery and loud Eyoub, amid great rejoicings. The cele huzzas, he returned by caique to the brated warrior and standard bearer of the palace. Prophet, Nakoub Eshref, performed the His majesty is a vigorous-looking man ceremony within the tomb of Eyoub, or of thirty-three years, somewhat portly, Job. As soon as the ceremony was over, and with the proud bearing of his father. Abdul Aziz returned from the tomb into He has already shown something of the the mosque and recited his prayers. Im- energy of Mahmoud in the sweeping work mediately after this the grand procession he has made in his brother's palace. was formed. At the head of it came eight Thirty-five thousand pounds of silver were led horses, richly caparisoned, followed by at once sent to the mint to be coined into the generals and colonels of the army, money; four hundred horses from the and the civil officers, all on proud and royal stables were attached to the cavalry prancing chargers. Next came the chief service, and myriads of useless servants forced into the army. The sultanas and have but one. His only son, a child of other women of the palace, to the number four years, who was saved by the fidelity of one thousand, were shut up in the of his nurse from the usual fate of royal seraglio. They were obliged to surrender infants, he has, since his accession to the all their jewels, and prohibited from visit throne, brought from its retreat and ing Pera or the other suburbs of the city acknowledged publicly before his nobles. without special royal permits. The sons- Some pretend that Abdul Aziz shares all in-law of the late monarch have been told the prejudices, all the resentments of the that they must admit the sultanas who are old Turks, and that his policy will be antimothers of their wives into their own Christian and anti-European. Others say harems, so that the royal expenses will be that these assertions are entirely false. greatly curtailed in this respect. The “Abdul Aziz appears energetic, and Valide Sultana, the mother of the two forms a striking contrast to the lazy sons of Abdul Medjid, has alone a palace habits of his elder brother.” The same assigned to her, and a pension of fifty persons add that he has only one wife, of thousand piasters a month.
Circassian origin. He is busily engaged The sultan himself has or had but one in agricultural improvements - a wife, and has signified his intention to I thing in Turkey.
the St. James's Magazine.
A FEW INTERVIEWS WITH SNAKE S.
BY CAPTAIN DRAYSON, R.A.
It is rare indeed to find any person who to my imagination as are those which has not an instinctive horror of snakes. I afterwards occurred during encounters have, however, known one or two people with monsters twenty feet in length. who could make pets of these creeping Whilst residing in various parts of Suscreatures, which they would allow to sex and Hampshire I very frequently en
. crawl over them, and to nestle their cold, countered snakes, adders, and that harmclammy coils against their hands, or even less reptile-yet one so dreaded by the neck. These people, however, were in- ignorant country people—viz. : the blindvariably those who themselves possessed worm or deaf adder. A sight of the dark a sort of moist, clammy skin, not unlike chain of spots, the distinctive characterthat of the serpent tribe, and thus possibly istic of the poisonous adder, was invarithere was some fellow - feeling between ably followed by endeavors to destroy the the two. For my own part, I have a venomous reptile; whilst the yellowish or great antipathy to all sorts of snakes, mackerel-like back of the common snake, lizards, and other reptiles, and when when seen, would not call so prominently brought into proximity with them, a into action the organ of destructiveness. strange creeping feeling commences at Something like a dozen adders were dethe pit of my stomach, and gradually stroyed by me during a period of six steals upwards and downwards, until the months in Hampshire alone. ends of my toes and fingers, and the crown “ Pas op! Pas op !" (take care! take of my head, sympathize strongly with the care !) was the shout that announced to first-mentioned region. Possessing this me the dangerous proximity of some idiosyncrasy, which I believe is not a very creature whilst I was walking along a singular one, I may consider it unlucky narrow pathway near the Berea bush at that I should have been brought so fre- Natal. My companion, a Dutchman, had quently and closely into contact with va observed on the sloping trunk of a dead rieties of the serpent race; yet such has tree a large snake, which, seeing us apbeen my fate, as the following facts will proach, uncoiled itself, and was preparing show. I had arrived at the full-blown to descend from its elevated position. It dignity of jackets and trowsers before I was really a very beautiful creature, of a made the acquaintance of a real live pale green color, about eight feet long, snake. The interview occurred in the and not very stout. My experienced county of Sussex.
friend announced that it was a “ tree It was on a very warm summer's day snake,” perfectly harmless, except to small that I was walking across a meadow, birds, lizards, and such like, which it could when my attention was called to a moving catch and destroy. It was allowed to object in the newly-cut grass about two escape. Not so was the creature near two yards in front of me. Armed with a which I shortly after found myself. stick, I carefully approached the spot, and Hunting in the dense bush which exinstantly saw a snake fully three feet long. tends up the greater part of the shore on Without waiting to consider the conse- the eastern coast of South Africa, I, with quences, I killed it, although it was mere- my Kaffir companion, oppressed by the ly a harmless reptile, and a destroyer of heat, seated ourselves on the ground in a nothing larger than frogs or toads. Still, little open glade. Scarcely had we sat in consequence of being alone, and this down a minute, and before the little cirbeing the first live snake that I had seen, cular snuff gourd had yielded any portion the circumstances are as vividly present lof its contents into the hollow on the up