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ject to military duty, within their respective companies, regiments, or battalions.

ARTICLE VIII.— Taxation and Revenue. No greater amount of tax or revenue shall be levied, than may be required for the necessary expenses of government. A regular statement of the receipts and expenditures of all the public moneys shall be published annually, with the laws of the General Assembly.

ARTICLE IX. This article provides for the taking of the census every ten years, of the inhabitants of the State; and that to the whole number of free white inhabitants shall be added three-fifths of the number of slaves; and that the representatives shall be equally apportioned in the different counties, according to such enumeration : each county shall have at least one representative, and increase in a uniform ratio of population. The State is divided into sixteen senatorial districts: each district shall be entitled to at least one senator; the number of senators shall not be less than one-fourth, nor more than one-half, of the whole number of representatives, and chosen in the same manner.

ARTICLE X.- Education. The proceeds of all lands granted by the United States, for the use of schools, shall remain a perpetual fund—the interest of which shall be used for the benefit of said schools, and for no other purpose.

ARTICLE XI. This article makes it the duty of the General Assembly to provide for the safety, security, and appropriation of the proceeds of the public lands. And it also provides for the encouragement of such internal improvements as are essential to the development of the resources of the country.

ARTICLE XII. This article refers only to the extent of the jurisdiction of Florida, embracing the territory ceded to the United States in 1819.

ARTICLE XIII.-Banks and other Corporations. No act of incorporation shall be passed, or altered, except by the assent of two-thirds of each branch of the Legislature. No bank charter shall be granted for more than twenty years, nor shall it be extended, or renewed. The capital of a bank shall not exceed one hundred thousand dollars; nor shall a dividend be made exceeding ten per cent. a year. Stockholders shall be individually liable for the debts of the bank; and no note shall be issued for less than five dollars. The credit of the State shall not be pledged in aid of any corporation whatsoever.


No convention of the people shall be called, nnless by the concurrence of two-thirds of each house of the General Assembly. No part of the Constitution shall be altered, unless the bill to alter first be read three times in each house, for three several days, and agreed to by two-thirds of each house; the same to be published six months previous to a new election for members of the House of Representatives.

ARTICLE XV. The seat of government shall remain at Tallahasse for the term of five years; the General Assembly then shall have the power to remove it to some other point for five years.

ARTICLE XVI.-General Provisions. Sec. 1. The General Assembly shall have no power to


laws for the emancipation of slaves.

2. They shall have no power to prevent emigrants to this State from bringing with them such persons as may be deemed slaves by the laws of any one of the United States: provided they shall have power to enact laws to prevent the introduction of any slaves who may have committed crimes in other States.

3. The General Assembly shall have power to pass laws to prevent free negroes, mulattocs, and other persons of color, from immigrating to this State, or from being discharged from on board any vessel in any of the ports of Florida.

4. Treason against the State shall consist only in levying war against it, or in adhering to its enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason, unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or his confession in open court.

5. Divorces from the bonds of matrimony shall not be allowed but by the judgment of a court, as shall be prescribed by law.

6. The General Assembly shall declare by law, what parts of the common law, and what parts of the civil law, not inconsistent with this Constitution, shall be in force in this State.

7. The oaths of officers, directed to be taken under this Constitution, may be administered by any judge or justice of the peace of the territory or State of Florida, until otherwise prescribed by law. ALABAMA.


This State was first included in the territorial limits of Georgia, except a small part which belonged to Florida. In 1802 Georgia ceded to the United States all her territory lying west of the Chatahooche river and extending to the Mississippi river. In 1817 it was constituted the Mississippi territory. In 1820 it became an independent State, and was admitted into the Union. Alabama adopted its Constitution in 1819.

Area, 46,000 sq. m. Pop. in 1850, 771,671-of whom 342,894 are slaves. Free colored, 2,250.


ARTICLE I.-Declaration of Rights. That the general, great, and essential principles of liberty and free government may be recognized and established, we declare:

SEC. 1. That all freemen, when they form a social compact, are equal in rights; and that no man or set of men are entitled to exclusive, separate public emoluments or privileges, but in consideration of public services.

2. All political power is inherent in the people, and all free governments are founded on their authority, and instituted for their

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benefit : and, therefore, they have at all times an inalienable and indefeasible right to alter, reform, or abolish their form of government, in such manner as they may think expedient.

3. No person within this Štate shall, upon any pretence, be deprived of the inestimable privilege of worshiping God in the manner most agreeable to his own conscience; nor be compelled to attend any place of worship; nor shall any one ever be obliged to pay any tithes, taxes, or other rate, for the building or repairing any place of worship, or for the maintenance of any minister or ministry.

4. No human authority ought, in any case whatever, to control or interfere with the rights of conscience.

5. No person shall be hurt, molested, or restrained in his religious profession, sentiments, or persuasions, provided he does not disturb others in their religious worship

6. The civil rights, privileges, or capacities of any citizen, shall in no way be diminished, or enlarged, on account of his religious principles.

7. There shall be no establishment of religion by law; no preference shall ever be given by law to any religious sect, society, denomination, or mode of worship: and no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under this State.

8. Every citizen may freely speak, write, and publish his sentiments on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of that liberty.

9. The people shall be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and possessions, from unreasonable seizures or searches ; and no warrant to search any place, or to seize any person or thing, shall issue without describing them as nearly as may be, nor without probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation.

10. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused has a right to be heard by himself and counsel ; to demand the nature and cause of the accusation, and have a copy thereof: to be confronted by the witnesses against him: to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and in all prosecutions, by indictment or information, a speedy public trial by an impartial jury of the county or district in which the offence shall have been committed : he shall not be compelled to give evidence against himself, nor shall he be deprived of his life, liberty, or property, but by due course of law.

11. No person shall be accused, arrested, or detained, except in cases ascertained by law, and according to the forms which the same has prescribed : and no person shall be punished, but in virtue of a law, established and promulgated prior to the offence, and legally applied.

12. No person shall, for any indictable offence, be proceeded against criminally, by information ; except in cases arising in the land and naval forces, or the militia when in actual service, or, by leave of the court, for oppression or misdemeanor in office.

13. No person shall, for the same offence, be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall any person's property be taken or applied to public use, unless just compensation be made therefor.


14. All courts shall be open, and every person, for an injury done him, in his lands, goods, person, or reputation, shall have remedy by due course of law, and right and justice administered without sale, denial, or delay.

15. No power of suspending laws shall be exercised, except by the General Assembly, or its authority.

16. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel punishments inflicted.

17. All persons shall, before conviction, be bailable by sufficient securities, except for capital offences, when the proof is evident, or the presumption great: and the privilege of the writ of " habcas corpus' shall not be suspended, unless when, in case of rebellion, or invasion, the public safety may require it.

18. The person of a debtor, where there is not strong presumption of fraud, shall not be detained in prison, after delivering up his estate for the benefit of his creditors, in such manner as shall be prescribed by law.

19. No ex post facto law, nor law impairing the obligation of contracts, shall be made.

20. No person shall be attainted of treason or felony by the General Assembly. No attainder shall work corruption of blood, nor forfeiture of estate.

21. The estates of suicides shall descend or vest as in cases of natural death; if any person shall be killed by casualty, there shall be no forfeiture by reason thereof.

22. The citizens have a right, in a peaceable manner, to assemble together for their common good, and to apply to those invested with the powers of government for redress of grievances, or other proper purposes, by petition, address, or remonstrance.

23. Every citizen has a right to bear arms in defense of himself and the State.

24. No standing army shall be kept up without the consent of the General Assembly; and, in that case, no appropriation of money for its support shall be for a longer term than one year; and the military shall, in all cases, and at all times, be in strict subordination to the civil power.

25. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

26. No title of nobility, or hereditary distinction, privilege, honor, or emolument, shall ever be granted or conferred in this State; nor shall

any office be created, the appointment of which shall be for a longer term than during good behavior.

27. Emigration from this State shall not be prohibited, nor shall any citizen be exiled.

28. The right of trial by jury shall remain inviolate.

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