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rather than exchange, for demurrage charges

CITIES. on cars held by exchange.-Id. That rule of coal exchange enabled railroad

See Municipal Corporations, to charge demurrage on cars not actually detained held not to render_tariff rule affecting

CITIZENS. demurrage unreasonable.-Id.

See Aliens.

3 (U.S.C.C.A.Vt.) Member of Mongolian (K) Discrimination and Overcharge. race, born in United States of parents subw 200 (U.S.D.C.N.Y.) Shipper, making no re- ject to its jurisdiction, is "citizen" of United quest for rates between points constituting States.--Soo Hoo Yee v. U. S., 3 F.(20) 592. most direct route, as to which there was no 9(U.S.D.C.N.Y.) Later of two statutes on published tariff, not entitled to refund of freight same subject-matter prevails.-U. S. y. Tod, 3 charges in excess of reasonable rate on shorter F.(20) 836. route.--Swift & Co. v. New York Cent. R. Co., Feeble-minded child, permitted to enter coun3 F.(20) 826.

try temporarily under bond, not "dwelling" in

country within naturalization statute.-Id. IV. CARRIAGE OF PASSENGERS. (D) Personal Injuries.

CIVIL RIGHTS. Gw280(1) (U.S.C.C.A.Mass.) Care required of See Constitutional Law, C90. railroad to nassenger under law of Costa Rica stated.-Page v. United Fruit Co., 3 F.(20)

CLASS LEGISLATION. 747. emo 284(2) (U.S.C.C.A.Mass.) Passenger

See Constitutional Law, 229-251. train in Costa Rico held not to have assumed risk of being shot by soldiers searching for

CLEARING HOUSES. revolutionists.-Page v. United Fruit Co., 3 F.(20) 747.

See Banks and Banking, m319, 320. 318(1) (U.S.C.C.A.Mass.) Evidence held to warrant finding railroad in Costa Rica negli

COLLISION. gently failed to inform officers of troop train of harmless character of occupants of passen

VII. VESSELS AT REST, AT ANCHOR, OR

AT PIERS. ger train.–Page v. United Fruit Co., 3 F.(20) 747.

cm 68 (U.S.C.C.A.N.Y.) It is a fault for & CERTIORARI.

barge to be without an anchor.-The Red Eagle,

3 F.(2d) 541. I. NATURE AND GROUNDS.

70 (u.S.C.C.A.N.Y.) Master of stakeboat Pol (U.S.D.C.Wash.). Scope of remedy:-U. not under duty to look after fastenings of boats S. v. Elliott, 3 F.(20) 496.

moored to it.-The Red Eagle, 3 F.(20) 341.

71 (3) (U.S.C.C.A.N.Y.) Rendering of lines

of barges moored to stakeboat, causing flotilla II. PROCEEDINGS AND DETERMINATION.

to drift, held proximate cause of collision with 37 (U.S.D.C.Wash.) Court cannot enjoin other vessels. The Red Eagle, 3 F.(2d) 541. strangers to the action.-U. S. v. Elliott, 3 Om71(3), (U.S.D.C.Wash.) Anchorage of log F.(20) 496.

raft, in harbor without written permit not a CHANCERY.

bar to recovery of damages.-The Libby Maine,

3 F.(20) 79. See Equity.

VIII. LIGHTS, SIGNALS, AND LOOKOUTS. CHATTEL MORTGAGES.

Om75 (U.S.D.C.N.J.) Rule of International 1. REQUISITES AND VALIDITY.

Rules of Navigation requiring stern light on

vessel being overtaken by another is manda(A) Nature and Essentials of Transfers of Chattels as Security,

tory. The Augusta G. Hilton, 3 F.(20) SOS.

Ouws79 (U.S.D.C.N.J.) Evidence held to prove Om 5 (U.S.D.C.Fla.) Instrument held chattel

owner of schooner at fault because of failure mortgage.-In re Farmers' Co-op. Ass'n of

to maintain stern light, while being overtaken Marion County, Fla., 3 F.(20) 708.

by respondent's steamship.-The Augusta G.

Hilton, 3 F.(20) 808. (D) Validity. Curs 74 (U.S.D.C.Va.) Mortgage void to

IX. FOG OR THICK WEATHER. part of property covered held void in entirety. M81 (U.S.D.C.Wash.) A log raft is a "res-U. S. y. Lankford, 3 F.(20) 52.

sel,” subject to the rules as to fog signals.-The

Libby Maine, 3 F.(20) 79.
V. RIGHTS AND REMEDIES OF CRED-
ITORS.

Ca82 (2) (U.S. D. C. Wash.) Vessel entering Cum 190(1) (U.S.D.C.Va.) Provision authoriz- anchored flotilla of logs.-The Libby Maine,

harbor in fog held in fault for collision with ing mortgagor to sell and take the profits ren

3 F.(20) 79. ders mortgage void.-U. S. V. Lankford, 3 F.(20) 52.

X. NARROW CHANNELS, HARBORS, RIV

ERS, AND CANALS.
VII. REMOVAL OR TRANSFER OF PROP-
ERTY BY MORTGAGOR.

On 90 (U.S.C.C.A.N.Y.) Buttermilk Channel is

a "narrow channel.”—The Dauntless, 3 F.(20) (A) Rights and Liabilities of Parties.

529. Ew 219 (U. S. D. C. Va.) Rendered invalid as C95(4) (U.S.C.C.A.Md.) Steamer held solely against creditors by sales by mortgagor with in fault for collision with tow at night. The knowledge of mortgagee.-U. S. y. Lankford, 3 Lizzie M. Walker, 3 F.(20) 921, F.(2d) 52.

95 (4) (U.S.C.C.A.N.Y.) Tug held solely in

fault for collision for violation of rules.--The IX. FORECLOSURE.

Dauntless, 3 F.(20) 529. On 262(1) (U.S.C.C.A.N.Y.) Rules as to auc- Om 104 (U.S.C.C.A.Md.) Where fault of one tion sales do not apply literally to sales by chat. vessel is gross, contributory fault must be tel mortgagees in New York.-In re Packard clearly shown.- The Lizzie M. Walker, 3 F.(20) Press, 3 F.(20) 232.

921.

as

For cases In Dec.Dig. & Am.Dig. Key-No.Series & Indexes see same topic and KEY-NUMBER
XI. SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES AND ER-

COMMUNITY PROPERTY.
RORS IN EXTREMIS.

See Husband and Wife, On 257-276.
106 (U.S.C.C.A.N.Y.) Lighter leaving pier
and passing vessels all held in fault.–The Pen-

COMPROMISE AND SETTLEMENT. oles, 3 F.(20) 761.

See Accord and Satisfaction.
XII. SUITS FOR DAMAGES.

Om6(2) (U.S.C.C.A.S.C.) Adjustment of dis(D) Damages.

pute between seller and buyer by abatement in Om 126 (U.S.D.C.Pa.) Damages recoverable price held to constitute accord and satisfacconsidered. --The Benjamin A. Van Brunt, 3 F. tion.-Woodside Cotton Mills Co. v. Kaustine (20) 655.

Co., 3 F.(20) 523. en 128 (U.S.D.C.Pa.) Measure of damages for loss of vessel.—The Benjamin A. Van Brunt,

CONDITIONAL SALES. 3 F.(20) 655.

See Sales, no 445. Loss of vessel; loss of profits of future charter not an element of damages.-Id.

CONSPIRACY. om 133 (U.S.D.C.Pa.) Measure of damages for loss of vessel is market value, if that can

II, CRIMINAL RESPONSIBILITY. be shown.-The Benjamin A. Van Brunt, 3 F.

(A) Offenses. (20) 655.

uw 28 (U.S.C.C.A.Ohio) Persons not bankrupts Where the cost of repairing an injured vessel exceeds her market value, that value is from trustee in bankruptcy.-Israel v. Ü. S.,

may be guilty of conspiracy to conceal goods the measure of damages.-Id.

3 F.(20) 743.

One may be guilty of conspiracy, though inCOMMERCE.

capable of committing the crime itself.-Id. II. SUBJECTS OF REGULATION.

Persons may be guilty of conspiracy to con

ceal goods from trustee, though overt acts On 27(6) (U.S.C.C.A.Tenn.) Outgoing trip to committed four months before bankruptcy.-Id. distribute empty cars, and return trip to pick cm 28 (U.S.C.C.A.Tenn.) Essentials of convicuploaded ones held separate, though made tion for conspiracy to commit crime stated.pursuant to one order.-Grigsby v. Southern Williams v. U. S., 3 F.(20) 933. Ry. Co., 3 F.(20) 988.

33 (U.S.C.C.A.Tenn.) Legality of seizure of C27(7) (U.S.C.C.A.Ohio) Employee killed automobile immaterial as respected existence when moving car to make up train held em- of conspiracy to defraud the United States.ployed in "interstate commerce."-Pennsyl- Cagle v. U. Š., 3 F.(20) 746. vania R. Co. v. Morrison, 3 F.(20) 986.

Possession of garage keeper held sufficient m27 (7) (U.S.C.C.A.Ohio) Brakeman held possession of United States to sustain proseemployed in "interstate commerce" when in- cution for conspiracy to defraud United States. jured.-Baltimore & O. R. Co. v. Darling, 3 -Id. F.(20) 987.

Defendant held guilty of conspiracy to deWork of brakeman when injured held a part fraud the United States of title and possession of interstate commerce.--Id.

of automobile seized by marshal.-Id. em 27 (7) (U.S.C.C.A.Tenn.) Brakeman, while em 40 (U.S.C.C.A.N.J.) Persons who were not switching, held not employed in interstate government officers could be convicted of con. commerce" at time of death.-Grigsby v. spiracy with government officers to commit Southern Ry. Co., 3 F.(20) 988.

crime against government.-Downs v. U. S., 3 27(8).(U.S.C.C.A.Ala.) Railroad in- F.(20) 855. spector held employed in "interstate commerce" when killed.-St. Louis-San Francisco Ry. Co. (15) Prosecution and Punishment. v. Mills, 3 F.(2d) 882.

On 43(2) (U.S.C.C.A.Pa.) Indictment charging Em 27(8) (U.S.D.C.Wash.) Railroad employee, conspiracy held sufficient.-A. Guckenheimer & helping to dismantle engine, held not employed Bros. Co. v. U. S., 3 F.(20) 786. in interstate commerce when injured.-Connol- Cm 43(6), (U.S.C.C.A.N.J.) Indictment chargly v. Chicago, M. & St. P. Ry. Co., 3 F.(20) ing, conspiracy to commit offense against the 818.

United States held sufficient to show official 40(1) (U.S.D.C.Ga.) Taking orders capacity in which defendants acted.-Downs v. which contracts are made and executed in an- U. S., 3 F.(20) 855. other state is not "interstate commerce." On 43(6) (U.S.C.C.A.Tenn.) Indictment for Fenner v. Boykin, 3 F.(20) 674.

conspiracy to violate National Prohibition Act

held sufficient.-Williams v. U. S., 3 F.(20) 933. III. MEANS AND METHODS OF REGULA- On 43(6) (U.S.D.C.Del.) Indictment for conTION.

spiracy to unlawfully possess liquors held suffiwww50 (U.S.D.C.Pa.) Pennsylvania act requir- cient.-U. S. y: Bockol, 3 F.(20) 197. ing inspection of mattresses, etc., held constitu- Emo 43(10) (U.S.C.C.A.Tenn.) Allegation that tional.--Palmer Bros. Co. v. Weaver, 3 F.(20) United States was in actual possession of sub333.

car

on

ject of conspiracy held unnecessary.-Cagle v. Cm74 (U.S.D.C.Ohio) Computation of excise

U. S., 3 F.(20) 746. tax under state statute held to impose burden

Cm 47 (U.S.C.C.A.Ohio) Existence of conspirain interstate commerce.-Air-Way Electric Ap- cy may be shown by inference.-Israel v. U. pliance Corporation v. Archer, 3 F.(20) 669. S., 3 F. (20) 743.

47 (U.S.C.C.A.Pa.) Not necessary to prove IV. INTERSTATE COMMERCE COM- accused knew and participated in every action

of every other conspirator:-A. Guckenheimer 085 (U.S.D.C.N.Y.) Commission without au

& Bros, Co. v. U. S., 3 F.(20) 786. thority to allow shipper a refund.-Swift &

Evidence held sufficient to warrant conviction Co. v. New York Cent. R. Co., 3 F.(20) 826.

for conspiring to obtain bonded whisky by

forged permits and subsequent sale and delivCOMMERCIAL PAPER.

ery thereof.-Id.

47 (U.S.C.C.A.Tenn.) Circumstantial eviSee Bills and Notes.

dence sufficient.-Williams v. U. S., 3 F.(20)

933. COMMISSIONERS.

Evidence held to sustain conviction for con

spiracy to violate National Prohibition Act. See Public Service Commissions.

-Id.

MISSION.

Om 48 (U.S.C.C.A.N.J.) Existence of conspir- mm 296(!) (U.S.D.C.Pa.) Pennsylvania act reacy to ask for and receive bribe for not re- quiring inspection of mattresses, etc., held conporting liquor found in search under 'warrant stitutional.-Palmer Bros. Co. v. Weaver, 3 F. held for jury.-Downs v. U. S., 3 F.(2d) 855. (20) 333. Om 48 (U.S.C.C.A.Ohio) Evidence held suffi- Ora 298(!) (U.S.C.C.A.N.Y.) Statute limiting cient for submission of case to jury in prose- attorney's charges for services rendered benecution for conspiracy to conceal goods from ficiary under War Risk Insurance Act held trustee in bankruptcy.-Israel v. U. S., 3 F.(20) valid.-Margolin v. U. S., 3 F.(20) 602. 743.

301 (U.S.C.C.A.Ala.) Statute authorizing Om48 (U.S.C.C.A.Wis.) Evidence held suffi- punitive damages for wrongful death held not cient to raise issue whether accused's interested unconstitutional, as denying due process.-U. in unlawful manufacture and transportation of S. Cast Iron Pipe & Foundry Co. v. Sullivan, beer.-Kasuba v. U. S., 3 F.(20) 270.

3 F.(20) 794.

Om 318 (U.S.D.C.Wash.) Administrative proCONSTITUTIONAL LAW.

ceedings as due process dependent on authori. See Statutes, 64.

ty of Congress to_confer power exercised.

Dukich v. Blair, 3 F.(20) 302. For validity of statutes relating to particular Enforcement of taxes under National Prohibi

subjects, see also the various specific topics. tion Act by administrative proceedings held II. DISTRIBUTION OF GOVERNMENTAL

violation of due process clause.--Id.

Oma319 (U.S.D.C.Colo.) City has police power POWERS AND FUNCTIONS.

to regulate fares and service of street railway, (A) Legislative Powers and Delegation

but cannot fix confiscatory rates.-Westinghouse Thereof.

Electric & Mfg. Co. v. Denver Tramway Co., 3 55 (U.S.D.C.Ga.) Presumptions cannot be F.(20) 285. made sufficient evidence of crime.-Fenner v. Boykin, 3 F.(20) 674.

CONTRACTS. (B) Judicial Powers and Functions.

See Bills and Notes; Compromise and SettleOm74 (U.S.D.C.III.) Court may exercise ju

ment; Frauds, Statute of; Guaranty; Rerisdiction in aid of investigations by administra

lease; Sales; Specific Performance; Stipula. tive bodies.--Railroad Labor Board v. Robert

tions; Vendor and Purchaser. son, 3 F.(20) 488.

I. REQUISITES AND VALIDITY. V. PERSONAL CIVIL AND POLITICAL

(A) Nature and Essentials in Genera). RIGHTS. 90 (U.S.D.C.Mo.) Freedom of the press

Gaw 10(4) (U.S.C.C.A.S.C.) Plaintiffs' statement violated by limitation on publication of income shipments held insufficient basis for binding

that they "hoped" to be able to make certain tax returns.-U. S. v. Dickey, 3 F.(20) 190.

contract to accept such shipments.-Meade IX. PRIVILEGES OR IMMUNITIES, AND

Fibre Co. v. Varn, 3 F.(20) 520.
CLASS LEGISLATION.

Om 10(4) (U.S.D.C.Tex.). Agreement to fill orm 205(7) (U.S.D.C.Colo.) Perpetual

ders at certain prices, without obligating buy

er to place orders, held void for want of muments to street railway held_not violative of Constitution.-Westinghouse Electric

tuality.—Texarkana Casket Co. v. Binswang

Mfg. Co. v. Denver Tramway Co., 3 F.(2d) 285.

er & Co. of Tennessee, 3 F.(20) 611. X. EQUAL PROTECTION OF LAWS.

(B) Parties, Proposals. and Acceptance. w229(1) (U.S.D.C.Ohio) State tax statute

m20 (U.S.C.C.A.N.Y.) Failure to accept offer held not invalid, as discriminating against for

constitutes rejection.-Columbia Malting Co. v. eign corporations.--Air-way Electric Appliance

Clausen-Flanagan Corporation, 3 F.(2) 547. Corporation v. Archer, 3 F.(20) 669.

23 (U.S.C.C.A.N.Y.) Acceptance must not Cm 240(1) (U.S.D.C.Pa.) Pennsylvania act re

change, add to, or qualify terms of offer.quiring inspection of mattresses, etc., held con

Columbia Malting Co. v, Clausen-Flanagan Corstitutional.–Palmer Bros. Co. v. Weaver, 3 F. poration, 3 F.(28) 547. (20) 333.

Ou24 (U.S.C.C.A.N.Y.) Introduction of new

term into offer constitutes counter proposal.XI. DUE PROCESS OF LAW.

Columbia Malting Co. y. Clausen-Flanagan CorO251 (U.S.D.C.Wash.) “Due process” defin

poration, 3 F.(28) 547. ed.—Dukich v. Blair, 3 F.(20) 302.

(D) Consideration. 258 (U.S.D.C.Okl.) Due process of law requires criminal statutes to have definite, ascer

m47 (U.S.C.C.A.Cal.) Agreement by em. tainable standards of guilt.-General Const. Co. ployee to deferred payment of salary held unv. Connally, 3 F.(20) 666.

enforceable as without consideration.-Banque Om 275(2) (U.S.D.C.Okl.) State statute pro

Russo-Asiatique v. Dolch, 3 F.(20) 266. hibiting payment of less than current rate of wages to laborers on state contracts held vio

(E) Validity of Assent. lative of due process clause.-General Const. Om93(4) (U.S.D.C.Ga.) Parties are bound by Co. v. Connally, 3 F.(20) 666.

written contract, regardless of differences in Ouw 278(1) (U.S.D.C.Ga.) Provision of Federal their understanding of its terms.-Swift & Co. Reserve Act held not to deprive bank of prop- v. Bullard & Son, 3 F.(20) 814. erty without due process of law.-Pascagoula Nat. Bank v. Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, (F) Legality of Object and of considera3 F.(20) 465.

, en 283' (U.S.D.C.Wash.) Due process in tax- fm 103 (U.S.D.C.Or.) Contract tending to ination cases does not require judicial procedure. terfere with enforcement of law, or offering -Dukich v. Blair, 3 F.(20) 302.

temptation to violate law, or indemnifying em 290(1) (U.S.D.C.Tex.) Legislature may de- against consequences of illegal act, void.-Fideltermine benefits from construction of public ity & Deposit Co. of Maryland v. Moore, 3 road, and determination not violative of due F.(20) 652. process unless palpably arbitrary.—Browning 108(1) (U.S.D.C.Or.) Power declare v. Hooper, 3 F.(20) 160.

contracts void as against "public policy" should Em295 (U.S.D.C.Ga.). Statute prohibiting mar- be exercised only where case free of doubt.gin contracts not denial of due process.-Fen- Fidelity & Deposit Co. of Maryland v. Moore, ner v. Boykin, 3 F.(20) 674.

3 F.(20) 652.

ease

to

For cases in Dec.Dig. & Am.Dig. Key-No.Series & Indexes see samo topic and KEY-NUMBER en 141(1). (U.S.D.C.Or.) Presumed parties in- Emergency Fleet Corporation.-Providence Entend legal contracts, where subject-matter gineering Corporation v. Downey Shipbuilding thereof not illegal.-Fidelity & Deposit Co. of Corporation, 3 F.(20) 154. Maryland v. Moore, 3 F.(2) 652.

IX. REINCORPORATION AND REORGANII. CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION.

IZATION. (A) General Rules of Construction.

574 (U.S.C.C.A.Wis.) Stockholders estop143 (U.S.C.C.A.Ohio) Law will not lightly ped to disavow reorganization plans, as against

creditors of newly organized corporation.-In subject parties to code governing relations dif.

re Union Food Stores Co., 3 F.(2d) 736. ferent from code they have deliberately agreed on.-Stark v. Bauer Cooperage Co., 3 F.(20)

X. CONSOLIDATION. 214. O 147 (!) (U.S.D.C.S.C.) Intention governs.

en 583 (U.S.C.C.A.Wis.) Consent of every -S. B. McMaster, Inc., v. Chevrolet Motor Co.,

stockholder not necessary to transfer of as3 F.(20) 469.

sets to other corporation.-In re Union Food Om 147 (2) (U.S.D.C.S.C.) Intention determin

Stores Co., 3 F.(20) 736. ed from contract terms.-S. B. McMaster, Inc., v. Chevrolet Motor Co., 3 F.(20) 469.

XII. FOREIGN CORPORATIONS. cm 154 (U.S.C.C.A.Wyo.) Will not be given un- m 642 (412) (U.S.C.C.A.S.C.) Nonresident reasonable construction contrary to intent of corporation, maintaining agents within state to parties.-Richardson v. Western Oil, Coal & purchase pulpwood, held doing business within Investment Co., 3 F.(20) 403.

state.-Meade Fibre Co. v. Varn, 3 F.(20) 520. em 176(1) (App.D.C.) Legal import of con- OM 642 (4/2) (U.S.D.C.S.C.) Contract held not tract as to terms of which there was no dispute to create agency.-S. B. McMaster, Inc., v, was question of law for court.-Turner v. Mertz, Chevrolet Motor Co., 3 F.(20) 469. 3 F.(20) 348.

cm 668 (4) (U.S.C.C.A.S.C.) It is competent

for state, within lawful bounds, to designate (D) Place and Time.

agent on whom process may be served.-Meade 212(1) (U.S.C.C.A.Cal.) Agreement by em- Fibre Co. v. Varn, 3 F.(20) 520. ployé to wait for his salary held to bind him www668(10) (U.S.C.C.A.S.C.) Agency held not only for reasonable time.-Banque Russo-Asia- such as to render unreasonable holding that tique v. Dolch, 3 F.(20) 266.

service on agent was binding on nonresident

corporation.-Meade Fibre Co. y. Varn, 3 F. V. PERFORMANCE OR BREACH.

(2d) 520. 0318 (U.S.D.C.N.Y.) Forfeitures not favored

Om668(15) (U.S.C.C.A.S.C.) That agent for in equity.--Hazeltine Research Corporation v.

nonresident corporation may be found within Freed-Eisemann Radio Corporation, 3 F.(20) jurisdiction does not make it suable therein, 172.

unless it is there doing business.-Meade Fibre

Co. v. Varn, 3 F.(20) 520.
CORPORATIONS.

668(15) (U.S.D.C.S.C.) Foreign corporaSee Banks and Banking: Carriers; Gas; Mu- tions held not to be "doing buisness” in state

nicipal Corporations; Public Service Commis- as to be subject to service.-S. B. Mcsions; Railroads; Street Railroads; Tele Master, Inc., v. Chevrolet Motor Co., 3 F.(20) graphs and Telephones.

469.

COUNTIES. 1.' INCORPORATION AND ORGANIZATION. 30(6) (U.S.D.C.Ga.) Corporation's agree

III. PROPERTY, CONTRACTS, AND

LIABILITIES. ment to pay liabilities of partnership taken over by it held to include additional excess prof

(B) Contracts. its tax assessed after corporation organized.

Om 124 (2) (U.S.D.C.Tenn.) County cannot In re W. J. Marshall Co., 3 F.(20) 192.

ratify void action.-First Nat. Bank v. Obion Rule in Georgia that corporation taking over

County, Tenn., 3 F.(20) 623. assets of partnership not necessarily liable for partnership debts.-Id.

IV. FISCAL MANAGEMENT, PUBLIC DEBT, Common-law rule that corporations taking

SECURITIES, AND TAXATION. over partnership business liable for partner

Om 167 (U.S.D.C.Or.) General indorsement ship debts held general rule.--Id. Effect of corporation's taking over assets

carries title to paper.-Nyssa-Arcadia Drainage of partnership determined by general rather

Dist. v. First Nat. Bank, 3 F.(20) 648.

Paper indorsed "for collection,". "for acthan local law.-Id.

count," etc., remains property of indorser.

--Id. IV. CAPITAL, STOCK, AND DIVIDENDS,

Om 173(1) (U.S.D.C.Tenn.) County without (C) Issue of Certificates.

power to issue bonds except as expressly auSama 98 (U.S.C.C.A.Mass.) Measure of damages thorized by state Constitution and statutes.for breach of contract to deliver stock stated. First Nat. Bank v. Obion County, Tenn., 3

- New England Oil Refining Co. v. Wiltsee, 3 F.(20) 623. F.(20) 424.

Laws authorizing counties to issue bonds

strictly construed.-Id.. (E) Interest, Dividends, and New Stock. em 174 (U.S.D.C.Tex.) Texas statute authorEm 151 (U.S.D.C.Md.) “Undivided profits" de- izing. issuance of bonds by counties and road fined.--Chesapeake & Potomac Telephone Co. districts held constitutional and valid. -Brownof Baltimore City v. Whitman, 3 F.(20) 938. ing 1: Hooper, 3 F.(20) 160.

Om 183(1) (U.S.D.C.Tenn.) County bonds isVII. CORPORATE POWERS AND LIABILI

sued without statutory authority are void. TIES,

First Nat. Bank v. Obion County, Tenn., 3

F.(20) 623. (D) Contracts and Indebtedness.

Validity of bonds determined by law as set448(1) (U.S.C.C.A.Mass.) Corporation held tled at time of issuance.-Id. bound by contract made in its behalf before 183(3).(U.S.D.C.Tenn.). County estopped organization.--New England Oil Refining Co. to deny recital in bond that it was issued under v. Wiltsee, 3 F.(20) 424.

statute giving the county authority.-First Nat. 478 (U.S.D.C.N.Y.) Trust deed of corpora- Bank v. Obion County, Tenn., 3 F.(20) 623. tion, covering all property, held to include em 184 (U.S.D.C.Tenn.) Bonds issued by counclaims, against United States Shipping Board ty of Tennessee for benefit of drainage disjudgment without regard to technical errors held

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trict not obligations of county-First Nat. (D) Jurisdiction Dependent on Amount or

Value in Controversy. Bank v. Obion County, Tenn., 3 F.(20) 623.

m328(2) (U.S.D.C.Ala.) Amount involved VI. ACTIONS,

held within jurisdiction of court.-Wright v. ww223 (U.S.D.C.Tenn.) Evidence that county Mutual Life Ins. Co. of New York, 3 F. (20) records do not show election authorizing issu- 328 (9) (U.S.D.C.Ala.) Matter in contro, ance of bonds, and that they were issued under special statute for benefit of drainage district, jurisdiction on ground of diverse citizenship.

must exceed $3,000 to confer federal held competent.-First Nat. Bank Obion

Wright v. Mutual Life Ins. Co. of New York, County, Tenn., 3 F.(20) 623.

3 F.(20) 501.

Om329 (U.S.D.C.Tex.) Jurisdiction shown by COURT RULES CITED.

pleadings not lost because proof before master Equity rules 18, 22, 23.-3 F.(20) 913.

shows want of jurisdictional amount.--SouthEquity rule 39.-3 F.(20) 819.

western Telegraph & Telephone Co. v. Walker

Grain Co., 3 F.(20) 819. Equity rule 58.-3 F.(20) 198.

Allegation of jurisdictional amount, in good Equity rule 59.-3 F.(20) 926.

faith, gives federal court jurisdiction.-Id.

Finding on the merits held not to deprive COURTS.

the court of jurisdiction.-Id. See Criminal Law, 97; Judges; Removal of Causes.

(E) Procedure, and Adoption of Practice

of State Courts. I. NATURE, EXTENT, AND EXERCISE OF Ow332 (U.S.C.C.A.Tex.) Equity rule held not JURISDICTION IN GENERAL.

to deprive court of power to refer cause inem 12(2) (U.S.D.C.N.Y.) Scire facias not

volving investigation of complicated transacavailable to make foreign executrix party to

tions.-Walker y. Wilkinson, 3 F.(20) 867. action at law.-Heath v. Santa Lucia Co., S. A.,

en 337 (U.S.C.C.A.Tenn.) Federal courts not 3 F.(20) 326.

bound by state practice or_statute in conduct of cases.-Cagle v. U. S., 3 F.(20) 746.

340 (U.S.D.C.S.C.) Procedure prescribed VII. UNITED STATES COURTS.

by federal statute excludes that of state prae(A) Jurisdietion and Powers in General. tice.-S. B. McMaster, Inc., v. Chevrolet Motor

256 (U.S.D.C.III.) Jurisdiction to compel Co., 3 F.(20) 469. attendance of witness before Labor Board not

Om 344 (U.S.D.C.N.Y.) Service of summons limited to court of district where witness re- and complaint on defendant in another district sides.-Railroad Labor Board v. Robertson, 3 invalid.-Gioia v. Clyde S. S. Co., 3 F.(20) F.(20) 498.

822, Court may exercise jurisdiction in aid of in- Service on transportation agent of railroad vestigations by administrative bodies.-Id. within district held sufficient; state Practice en 257 (U.S.D.C.III.) Application by Labor Act not being applicable to federal District Board to compel attendance of witness is judi- Court under Conformity

Act.-Id. cial proceeding:- Railroad Labor Board v. Rob. 349. (U.S.C.C.A.Cal.) Competency of wit. ertson, 3 F.(20) 488.

nesses in criminal trials in federal courts gorOn 264(1): (U.S.D.C.Tenn.) Jurisdiction of erned by common law.–Parker v. U. s., 3 court extends to_matters incidental to main F.(20) 003. issue.- First Nat. Bank v. Obion County, Tenn., 351 (U.S.D.C.Cal.) Interrogatories should 3 F.(20) 623.

be of character that answer will state or illusm279 (U.S.D.C.Ga.) Basis of equity jurisdic- trate material fact.--Miller & Pardee v. Lawtion of federal court should be positively aver- rence A. Sweet Mfg. Co., 3 F.(20) 198. red.--Emerson v. Baker, 3 F.(20) 830.

Om 35142 (U.S.C.C.A.Utah) Dismissal of suit Jurisdiction of injunction to restrain deduc- on the ground of prior jurisdiction of state tions from army officer's pay held not suffi- court held error as to parties and issues not ciently averred.--Id.

involved in state suit.-Boston Acme Mines 279 (U.S.D.C.N.Y.) Allegation that defend- Corporation v. Salina Canyon Coal Co., 3 ant was doing business within district indis- F.(20) 729. pensable to jurisdiction of federal District 352 (U.S.C.C.A.Tex.) Objection that apCourt under federal Employers' Liability Act. pointment of special master was void under --Gioia v. Clyde S. S. Co., 3 F.(20) 822. equity rule 59, made for first time to master on

hearing, held too late.-Smith v. Brown, 3 F. (B) Jurisdiction Dependent on Nature of

(20) 926. Subject-Matter.

352 (U.S.C.C.A.W.Va.) Statutes and court em 284 (U.S.C.C.A.Tex.) Action on bond take

rules relating to transfer of cases held remeen pending hearing in District Court held to

dial, and to be liberally construed.--Fidelity & arise under laws of United States.-In re Walk- Casualty Co. of New York v. Glenn, 3 F.(20)

913. er Grain Co., 3 F.(20) 872. 293 (U.S.D.C.Ala.) State's suit against cor

355 (U.S.D.C.N.Y.) Federal District Court poration organized under special act of Con

without authority to order supplementary progress held within jurisdiction of District Court, ceedings to enforce decree in admiralty, in abas "arising under laws of United States."

sence of District Court rule.-The Sagamore, State of Alabama v. Acacia Mut. Life Ass'n, 356 '(U.S.C.C.A.ind.) Statute providing for 3 F.(20) 697.

applicable to common-law actions tried without (C) Jurisdiction Dependent on Citizenwhip, Residence, or Character

jury.-Muentzer v. Los Angeles Trust & Sayof Parties.

ings Bank, 3 F.(2d) 222. Om 303 (2) (U.S.D.C.Ga.) Suit to enjoin institution of criminal prosecution not a suit against

(F) State Laws as Rules of Decision. the state.--Fenner v. Boykin, 3 F.(20) 674. w359 (U.S.C.C.A.N.Y.) Law of state in which Om 323 (U.S.C.C.A.Porto Rico) Evidence held contract made and performed governs decision sufficient to warrant finding plaintiffs not of federal courts.-Cudahy Packing Co. v. Narzidomiciled in Porto Rico, giving United States senfeld, 3 F.(20) 567. District Court jurisdiction.-Porto Rico Ry., m 366(1) (U.S.C.C.A.Ark.) Federal courts Light & Power Co. v. Cognet, 3 F.(20) 21. follow state court's construction of state Con

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