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their rights of voting. The Bill conceded that the freedom of those boroughs which were not placed in schedule A, should reserve those rights perpetually which they had held since ever Parliament was established. He had before said that he knew two places, namely, Oxford and Bristol, where this disfranchisement was regarded as most odious, and he had stated that this part of the Bill was not understood.—Mr. Shaw observed, that with respect to Dublin, the number of voters at present was about 4000, and according to the present measure, they would be increased to about SO,000, the greater part of whom were Roman Catholics. He could see no ground, therefore, for the objection of Mr. Shiel.— Mr. Labouchere was rather surprised, when such a great alteration was to be made in the Constitution, that something more was not done for the satisfaction of Ireland.— Mr. Hume was happy to express his approbation of the principle of the measure proposed by the Government; but he must join with the Member for Louth, and the other Members for Ireland, in regretting that some measures had not been adopted to put an end to the complaints of the people of that country. He feared much, indeed, that the passing by the claims of Ireland to an enlarged representation, would give inveterate offence to the people. — Lord John Russell having briefly replied, leave was given to bring in the Bill, which was also read a first time.
Dec. 15. Mr. Stanley moved for the appointment of a select committee to inquire into the state of the law respecting Tithes in Ireland. The mo'ion, after a few remarks from Sir Robert Peel, Mr. Shaw, Mr. Leader, eVc. was agreed to, and a committee appointed.—Mr. VVarburton obtained leave to bring in a Bill for the regulation of Schools of Anatomy. He said that it instituted certain inspectors of the schools of anatomy, to be appointed by the Home Secretary, and to make reports to him from time to time on any objectionable matters that might come under their view. He likewise stated that, with respect to the mode in which the schools were to be supplied, his measure would apply both to the rich and poor.
Dec. 16. Lord Althorp moved the second reading of the Reform Bill.—Lord Porchester said, in the present circumstances of the country he should not oppose a measure of Reform, by which a compromise could be effected between the opponents and the friends of a change in the representative system; but Ministers had done nothing to enable the mildest of their opponents to return his sword to its scabbard.—Sir E. B. Sugden considered the present Bill more democratic in principle than the former. Mr. Allwood and the Birmingham Union had pronounced that opinion. It was calculated to produce a wild and universal change, and to make the Political Unions masters of the country. Ireland would not be contented.—Mr. E. L. Bulwer supported
the Bill Lord Malum said, that though he
was by no means opposed to all Reform, he could not vote for die second reading of this Bill, which he considered ill-calculated to restore that peace and confidence in the government of which it was contended the country stood so much in need.—Mr. T. B. Macauley contended that the wishes of the people must be met by the legislature, or the most disastrous consequences must ensue. Whatever opposition might be made to it, Reform must eventually be carried. True wisdom would dictate to throw open . the gates to a force, which would otherwise enter at a breach. Well would it be if that constitution, which, however corrupted by decay, was nevertheless one of the proudest works of human wisdom—one of the noblest blessings of which any nation could boast, in
stead of being left to be overturned by wild revolution, were repaired by pacific and lawful Reform.—Mr. Croker opposed the motion; and concluded a speech of considerable length, by assuring the House he had urged nothing but from an imperious sense of the danger of the country—a danger he knew not how to remedy, but which he knew he could tremendously increase by the passing of the Reform Bill.—The debate was adjourned.
Dec. 17. The debate on the Reform Bill was resumed.—Sir R. Inglis, Mr. Stuart Wortley, Colonel Sibthorpe, Mr. Cust, Mr. Baring Wall, Mr. Cresset Pelham, Mr. Praed, Colonel Lindsay, Sir Charles Wetherell, and Sir Robert Peel spoke in opposition to the Bill, and Colonel Wood, Sir H. Willoughby, Mr. Slaney, Sir John Burke, Lord John Russell, and Mr. Stanley in support of it.
The House divided on the motion for the second reading; Ayes, 324, Noes,162 ; Majority,162.—On the motion of Lord Althorp, the House adjourned to the 17th January.
The Committee of Trade and Manufactures at Quebec have presented a report, showing that its trade and commerce were gradually improving. A comparative statement had been published of the number of vessels, &c. that had entered Quebec for the last five years, which gave the following results :—In the year 1827, there arrived in the port of Quebec 602 vessels, of the aggregate tonnage of 152,764 tons, and 16,862 emigrants. In 1828, 701 vessels arrived, of 183,141 tons, and having on board 12,697 emigrants. In 1829, there arrived out 638 vessels, of the aggregate tonnage of 234,301 tons, and 13,357 emigrants. In 1830, the vessels which arrived out amounted to 857, of the tonnage of 225,138 tons, and having on board 24,391 emigrants. In the present year, up to the end of October, 962 vessels had arrived out, of the aggregate tonnage of 249,125 tons, with 49,500 emigrants. Much anxiety prevailed in Canada as to the course likely to be adopted by Ministers relative to the timber duties.
The " Hobart Town Colonial Times," of the 6th of July, describes the Swan River Settlement as in a distressed and discontented state. Fresh meat was selling at two shillings per pound, and other provisions in proportion. Mr. Peel, who obtained a grant of 250,000 acres, and took out with him property to the amount of 40,0001. and 400 mechanics, farming men, and labourers, dared not move out of his house, for he was continually beset by numerous poor people,
who execrate him for having induced them to go to a settlement where they have met with nothing but starvation and disappointment. All sorts of English goods are stated to be rather cheap at Swan River. The distress prevalent in their money market is also described as becoming daily more and more alarming. Private letters confirm the above unfavourable account. From Sydney, the advices are of a much more favourable nature. The Australian Fisheries were proving successful, and the number of ships increasing. The whalers belonging to Sydney, and worked by Colonial capital, amounted in number to 18, and in tonnage to 3800; those belonging to London, with agents in Sydney, to 4, and the tonnage to 878; and those to London sailing from Sydney to 4, and the tonnage to 1059; making a total of 5737 tons.
[A circular has been issued by the Commissioners of Emigration, stating that an advance of 20/. will, under certain regulations, be made to any workman in the ordinary mechanical arts, desirous of emigrating to New South Wales or Van Dieman's Land, provided he be married and intends to take his wife with him.]
The following is an extract of a letter from Rungpore of August 7th, published in the Bombay papers:—" The inundations have come down with a vengeance this year, the river being now higher by a foot than it was at any period the preceding year, and, of course, most of the indigo plant is under water; and we never have witnessed such weather. We had a shock of an earthquake yesterday." There are authentic accounts that an incursion had been made into Cutch by a body of about five or six hundred marauders from the north, sweeping the country at large. A wing of the second Bombay light cavalry had been ordered into Culch to protect the inhabitants."
W } - I INDIES.
In Guiana island (Tortola) an extensive conspiracy of the slaves broke out in Sep
tember, owing, it is supposed, to disappointment, being assured from England that the King had emancipated them; and finding that their emancipation had not arrived, they concluded that it was nefariously withheld, and they rose to execute vengeance. They were happily discovered, and by active measures their guilty designs were frustrated. The principal conspirators were mostlyslaves, wholly unsuspected, and those who had been most trusted and best treated.
The following has been received at the India House from China via San lilas.—
"The new rules and regulations for conducting foreign trade at China have the sanction of imperial authority, dated Pekin, May 22 ; consequently the Select Committee have revoked their order to suspend British trade. Although these new regulations are most restrictive and harassing, and his Celestial Majesty and his Ministers have countenanced these acts of aggression, the President and Select Committee are anxious to establish English intercourse upon a firm and respectable basis. They wisely remain passive until aid and counsel is received from Lord William Bentinck, GovernorGeneral of Bengal. The China Governor 'Le' was expected to reach the city of Canton in a few days."
The majority in the Chamber of Deputies, upon the motion for the perpetual exclusion of the elder branch of the Bourlxms, was 182, there being for the Bill 251, and against it only 69. The proposition was adopted in the modified shape in which it was presented by the Committee, stripped of the capital penalty of death, as the punishment of an infraction of its ordinances. It extends to the ex-King Charles X. his descendants, and the husbands and wives of his descendants, who are for ever banished from the soil of France, declared incapable of inheriting or acquiring any property within it, and compelled, under the fear of ultimate sequestration, to dispose of whatever property they may possess in France within six months, where the title was undisputed, but subject always to the claims of creditors in France. The family of Napoleon have been gainers by this discussion, as, in consequence of an amendment proposed by M. Comte, though resisted ineffectually by Ministers, all the sanguinary enactments of the law of 1816 are repealed, as respects their entering upon the soil of France.
The city of Lyons was, on the 20th and 21st of November, a scene of the most deplorable disorder, originating, however, in he distress of the workmen employed in the Jan.—Vol. xxxvi. xo. exxxm.
silk manufactures, and having little or no political object. Their formidable and alarming character depended on the numbers of the mutineers. After preluding by some disturbances on the 20th, they descended on the 21st from the higher town, called the Croix Rousse, to the amount of 10,000 or 12,000, some of them armed with muskets, and many of them wearing the uniform of the National Guard. The number of regular troops in the garrison was inadequate to quell such a tumult. The National Guard of the higher classes was called out to disperse the rioters, but the latter, so far from yielding to the summons of the authorities to retire to their homes, fired upon the Guard. Several discharges took place on both sides, and occasioned great slaughter. Immediately on the intelligence reaching Paris, the Duke of Orleans and Marshal Soult, at the head of a large army, were ordered to proceed and subdue the disaffected city. Upon entering Lyons they were received with enthusiasm, and public tranquillity was speedily restored. The young Prince reviewed the troops, and after reprobating the military of Lyons, for their timidity during the riots, he dismissed from the French service, with every mark of disgrace, some of the officers who were supposed to have yielded too easily to the people, and even whole corps of the soldiery have not been exempted from his censures. The Duke of Orleans and Marshal Soult have returned to the capital; and for the present, at least, it would appear that the insurgent workmen have entered upon their usual occupations.
A letter from Napoli di Romania, dated October 31, states that the assassin of the late President of Greece was condemned to be shot, which sentence was carried into execution. He was quite collected and firm, and (after taking leave of his father, a prisoner in the fortress, who witnessed the execution of his son) he opened his arms to the soldiers, desiring them to take deliberate aim, exclaiming that he died a victim to his country. The people were greatly affected. His attitude was noble and commanding, and his costume rich and elegant.
A ukase of the Emperor Nicholas, dated Moscow, Nov. 2, on the subject of Poland, has been issued. After a sufficient preliminary appeal to Divine Providence, to prepare one for a more than ordinary exercise of his own peculiar kindliness of feeling for the bodily and spiritual welfare of the unfortunate Poles, he thus proclaims their fate: "I. A complete and unconditional amnesty is granted to all those of our subjects in the kingdom of Poland who have returned to their obedience. None of those included in this amnesty shall now, or at any future time, be condemned or prosecuted for his actions or political opinions done or expressed duiing the whole time of the insurrection.—II. The following are excepted: 1. The authors of the bloody insurrection of the 29th of November 1830; those who on that evening repaired to the Belvedere Palace, with a view to take away the life of our beloved brother, the deceased'Cesarewitsch; the murderers of the Generals, and of the Russian and Polish officers.—2. The authors of the horrors which occurred in Warsaw on the 15th of August last.—3. Those who, since the 25th of January inst. have at diffeient times been considered as Chiefs or Members of the Government lately established in the kingdom of Poland, and who had not sent in their submission previously to the 13th of September, as v^ell as those who, after the subjection of Warsaw, formed an illegal Government at Zackroczym, and
thereby forfeited all claims to our mercy.
4. The Members of the Diet who proposed or supported the Act of Deposition of the 25th of January—5. The officers belonging to the corps of Romarino, Rozycki, Kaminski, and Rybinski.—6. The subjects of the VVestern Governments who may have participated in the Polish insurrection."
In Turkey a substantial revolution in manners seems to be steadily, though silently, pursued. The Sultan, who really belongs to other latitudes than that of a Grand Seignior, spares no pains to introduce European modes of acting and thinking amongst his subjects. We have occasion to notice the establishment of a newspaper, in the French language, at Constantinople, and every arrival affords additional evidence of the Sultan's exertions in the cause of Turkish reform. In these attempts he has, as may be expected, to struggle against the fixed and obstinate prejudices of his subjects; and it is impossible to regard the ex
traordinary efforts he is making without being concerned for his own safety, lion AXE. The Dutch ultimatum in regard to the treaty with Belgium has been received. The King of Holland's chief objections relate to the right of internal communication, by the roads and canals of Holland, which is given to Belgium by the treaty; and which, it is contended, was not called for by the circumstances, nor could the imposition of it be justified by any principle of the law of nations. Objections are also urged to other parts of the treaty, such as the division of territory, but more particularly to the distribution of the debt between the two countries; but they are of a minor description, compared with the question of the internal communication.
Don Pedro's preparations for a descent on Portugal appear to have been carried on with alacrity and spirit. A morning newspaper states that " The land forces already in Terceira and the other islands amount to 6000 disciplined troops, and 2000 recruits, which force, it is expected, will be augmented by about 2000 foreign soldiers. The naval force now at the islands consists of one schooner, of twelve guns; one ditto, with swivel; one corvette, of twenty-six guns, from Rio; and one brig, of eighteen guns, also from Rio. The naval force about to proceed to Terceira consists of one frigate, of one thousand two hundred tons, carrying fifty-four guns ; one ditto, of nine hundred tons, and forty-four guns ; one ditto, of eight hundred tons, and thirty-six guns; one corvette, of six hundred tons, and eighteen guns; one schooner, of two hundred tons, and six guns, and three steamboats, of four hundred tons each. For this naval force, provisions and pay for four months, from the 1st of January, have been provided.'
An extraordinary " Gazette," of the 8th instant, states that Count Torrijos, with, from fifty to sixty men, who had been forced to quit Gibraltar in consequence of the persecution which the revolutionary parly was exposed to in that place, put to sea on the night of the 30th of November, but being closely pursued by the coast-guard vessels, they were under the necessity of landing, and surrendered to the troops sent in their pursuit on the 8th of December. They were shot almost immediately afterwards.
A Visit to the South Seas, in the United States' ship Vincennes, during the years 1829 and 1830, including Scenes in Brazil, Peru, Manilla, the Cape of Good Hope, and St. Helena. By C. S. Stewart, A.M. Chaplain in the United States' Navy. 2 vols.
Judicious and enlightened missionaries possess nioMTou* and peculiar opportunities fur enlarging liw boundaries of general knowledge; while in the integrity and uprightness of their character we have the beet guarantee of the truth and fidelity ot' whatever they communicate. Their sketches of men anil manners have, likewise, this advantage, that they are usually formed under a careiul and continued observation. They are not Ifke hasty voyagers, touching at various places, which they have not time to examine; nor ate I hey biassed by the prejudiced and partial representations of interested or mendacious reporters. If their first impressions mislead their judgment for a moment, they have the means of correcting them by diligent inquiry and a closer ins|>ection. It is a singular fact, that to gentlemen of this class we ire mainly indebted for all the accurate information we possess of the islands of the Pacific and their inhabitants. From others we have had romances ami fictions in abundance; but it was reserved for such writers as Mr. Stewart to bring us acquainted with men as they are in these ditUnt and hitherto unexplored regions, and with the moM important facts that illustrate their characters and customs. If the volumes of Tyreman and Ben net, of Ellis ami Stewart, were annihilated, what should we really know of the present condition of Polynesia 1 C* plain Beechey was never in a situation to state any thing but ou hearsay, and that derived from the most incompetent sources. The book of Captain Von Kotzebue contaius errors of the grossest kind, which even the slightest personal observation might have enabled him to avoid. The volumes of Mr. Stewart are valuable, not only as they corroborate, in all essential particulars, the narratives of Messrs. PJlis, Tyreman, and Rennet, but as they convey a great deal of additional information respecting places which they never visited, as well as those which they have so miuiitely described. Mr. Stewart informs us, that domestic circumstances compelled him to relinquish a missi- nary life, and that, in selecting a sphere for the exercise of his professional duties, he was Induced to direct his attention to the United States' Naval Service ; that in the year 1828 he was appointed Chaplain to the Guerriere, which, with the St. l^ouifi, was ordered to relieve the squadron in ibe Pacific Ocean, one vessel from which, the corvette Vincennes, would visit the Sandwich Islands, and return to America by the Cape of Good Hope. As he had a strong desire to visit the islands which, lor several years, had been the field of his missionary labonts, the Government kindly allowed him to bo transferred from the C.uerriere to the Vincennes, which look place off Callao, in Peru, July 4th, 18*9. He left Washington in the Guerriere on the 10th ot the preceding February. From the latter period bis narrative commences, which is written in an epistolary form to his wife. We shall not attempt
any connected account of his progress, but content ourselves with extracts', which not only possess an intrinsic value, but are important as they are calculated to set at rest the question now so warmly agitated respecting the character of the missionaries, and the nature of the changes they have introduced in the Sandwich and Tahitean Islands, where they have succeeded in establishing the profession of Christianity. In both these views the volumes of Mr. Stewart will be read with deep interest by a very large portion of the Christian public in Great Britain ami America; and we congratulate the publishers on the wide circulation which these circumstances alone will secure to the work, which, indeed, on many accounts, is entitled to the patronage it cannot (ail to obtain.
The Washington Islands, the beautiful and picturesque abodes of a race of savages, differing from all others that have been visited by Europeans, are a groupe in the vicinity of the Marquee de Mendoca's, and frequently included with them under the general appellation of the Marquesas. They are three in number, and were discovered so lately as 1701, by Captain Ingrahira, of Boston, and in the succeeding year visited by Captain Roberts, of the same place, who gave them the name by which they are now generally designated, ami to which, by established usage in such cases, they are justly entitled. Tbey are individually distinguished by their respective names, Huahuka, Nukuhiva or NunhivH, and Uapon, forming a triangle by their relative position to each other, the points of which are included within the parallel of 8. 38. and 00. 32. south latitude, and 130. '20. and 140. 10. west longitude from (Jrccuwich. Huahuka is the most eastern of the three. Nukuhiva lies about twenty miles directly west of it, aud IJapou thirty miles south of the central parts of Nukuhiva. Nukuhiva, twenty miles in length, and of nearly the same breadth, and having three or four good harbours on its coast, is much the largest and most important of the three, and that alone which ships have frequented. Mr. Slewartdescribes the natural scenery of this island, ami it is indeed of surpassing beauty. His rambles on shore are among the most interesting portions of his narrative. One of these excursions was to witness a dance in the interior, of which Mr. Stewart gives a highly graphic account. The letter which succeeds the one we have referred to, is entitled ** Form of Government and Civil and Religious Distinctions:" it affords much curious information, and though it presents idolatry tinder its degrading influence, its aspect is less hideous than it was found to be in some of the other islands of Polynesia. Infanticide is unknown; but human sacrifices prevail. The inhabitants appear to be less treacherous than their fellow savages in other parts of the world. Polygamy exists, but is a polygamy which gives a plurality of husbands, and not of wives. Mr. Stewart's visit to Tahiti, Raiatea, aud the Sandwich Islands, which he had left only a lew years before, shows the astonishing progress which they are all making in civilization; and the tut- he states, and the calumnies he refutes, will irresistibly establish the conviction in every candid mind, that the greatest bencfac