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to a division in the Committee, which was not now conceded in the present Bill.—The Marquis of Chandos wished that more conciliation were shown on both sides, knowing; that in other quarters the question was likely to meet with a different reception. He still hoped the Bill might pass both Houses of Parliament in such a shape as to give satisfaction to the country at large, and not as now solely advocated by oue party, although he admitted it to be a large one. He held himself called upon to make these observations, because he felt that they were deliberating at a moment when there were other Houses of Parliament assembled in the country, having a power which none but the Commons of England ought to possess. —Mr. Hunt disapproved of the Bill, as it would exclude nine-tenths of the male adult population of the country from any share in the representation.—Sir C. Forbes disapproved of the Bill as much as the last.— Lord Ebrington thought the Bill, to every good purpose, epual to the last. — Mr. Baring hoped that a spirit of conciliation would pervade all parties. Such excitement had been caused by the expectations held out by Ministers, that it was their duty to look at the existing state of things, to take the wishes and opinions of the people into consideration, instead of only considering what was abstractedly due to the Constitution, and what would abstractedly be the best for the country.—Mr. Shiel complained that the number of Irish Members had not been increased when so numerous an addition of Members had been made to England. According as he understood the principle of the Bill, all those who had votes in corporations now, whether derived from freedom or servitude, were to be preserved in perpetuity. If that provision were to be extended to Ireland, and the freemen were to be preserved, he wished to know if the 40». freeholders were to be also preserved in towns ? — Lord Clive had heard Lord John Russell's speech with great satisfaction. The alterations in the Bill would certainly make it more acceptable than before. He trusted that the conciliatory spirit evinced by the Noble Lord would be met by a corresponding disposition.—Mr. Portman was glad to observe that the Bill was generally received by the late Opposition in a spirit of conciliation. He congratulated the House and the country at the prospect of a speedy settlement of the question.—Sir Charles Wetherell, though not slow in expressing gratitude, saw nothing in the new Bill which should excite great satisfaction in his mind. The great point was, that there was to be no disfranchisement of freemen; or, in other words, such corporations as were to be spared by the disfranchising clause were also to be allowed to retain
their rights of voting. The Bill conceded that the freedom of those boroughs which were not placed in schedule A, should reserve those rights perpetually which they had held since ever Parliament was established. He had before said that he knew two places, namely, Oxford and Bristol, where this disfranchisement was regarded as most odious, and he had stated that this part of the Bill was not understood.—Mr. Shaw observed, that with respect to Dublin, the number of voters at present was about 4000, and according to the present measure, they would be increased to about 50,000, the greater part of whom were Roman Catholics. He could see no ground, therefore, for the objection of Air. Shiel— Mr. Labouchere was rather surprised, when such a great alteration was to be made in the Constitution, that something more was not done for the satisfaction of Ireland.— Mr. Hume was happy to express his approbation of the principle of the measure proposed by the Government; but he must join with the Member for Louth, and the other Members for Ireland, in regretting that some measures had not been adopted to put an end to the complaints of the people of that country. He feared much, indeed, that the passing by the claims of Ireland to an enlarged representation, would give inveterate offence to the people. — Lord John Russell having briefly replied, leave was given to bring in the Bill, which was also read a first time.
Dec. 15. Mr. Stanley moved for the appointment of a select committee to inquire into the state of the law respecting Tithes in Ireland. The mo'ion, after a few remarks from Sir Robert Peel, Mr. Shaw, Mr. Leader, &c. was agreed to, and a committee appointed.—Mr. Warburton obtained leave to bring in a Bill for the regulation of Schools of Anatomy. He said that it instituted certain inspectors of the schools of anatomy, to be appointed by the Home Secretary, and to make reports to him from time to time on any objectionable matters that might come under their view. He likewise stated that, with respect to the mode in which the schools were to be supplied, his measure would apply both to the rich and poor.
Dec. 16. Lord Althorp moved the second reading of the Reform Bill.—Lord Porchester said, in the present circumstances of the country he should uot oppose a measure of Reform, by which a compromise could be effected between the opponents and the friends of a change in the representative system; but Ministers had done nothing to enable the mildest of their opponents to return his sword to its scabbard.—Sir E. B. Sugden considered the present Bill more democratic in principle than the former. Mr. Allwood and the Birmingham Union had pronounced that opinion. It was calculated to produce a wild and universal change, and to make the Political Unions masters of the country. Ireland would not be contented.—Mr. E. L. Bulwer supported
the Bill Lord Malum said, that though he
was by no means opposed to all Reform, he could not vote for die second reading of this Bill, which he considered ill-calculated to restore that peace and confidence in the government of which it was contended the country stood so much in need.—Mr. T. B. Macauley contended that the wishes of the people must be met by the legislature, or the most disastrous consequences must ensue. Whatever opposition might be made to it, Reform must eventually be carried. True wisdom would dictate to throw open . the gates to a force, which would otherwise enter at a breach. Well would it be if that constitution, which, however corrupted by decay, was nevertheless one of the proudest works of human wisdom—one of the noblest blessings of which any nation could boast, in
stead of being left to be overturned by wild revolution, were repaired by pacific and lawful Reform.—Mr. Croker opposed the motion; and concluded a speech of considerable length, by assuring the House he had urged nothing but from an imperious sense of the danger of the country—a danger he knew not how to remedy, but which he knew he could tremendously increase by the passing of the Reform Bill.—The debate was adjourned.
Dec. 17. The debate on the Reform Bill was resumed.—Sir R. Inglis, Mr. Stuart Wortley, Colonel Sibthorpe, Mr. Cust, Mr. Baring Wall, Mr. Cresset Pelham, Mr. Praed, Colonel Lindsay, Sir Charles Wetherell, and Sir Robert Peel spoke in opposition to the Bill, and Colonel Wood, Sir H. Willoughby, Mr. Slaney, Sir John Burke, Lord John Russell, and Mr. Stanley in support of it.
The House divided on the motion for the second reading; Ayes, 324, Noes,162 ; Majority,162.—On the motion of Lord Althorp, the House adjourned to the 17th January.
The Committee of Trade and Manufactures at Quebec have presented a report, showing that its trade and commerce were gradually improving. A comparative statement had been published of the number of vessels, &c. that had entered Quebec for the last five years, which gave the following results :—In the year 1827, there arrived in the port of Quebec 602 vessels, of the aggregate tonnage of 152,764 tons, and 16,862 emigrants. In 1828, 701 vessels arrived, of 183,141 tons, and having on board 12,697 emigrants. In 1829, there arrived out 638 vessels, of the aggregate tonnage of 234,301 tons, and 13,357 emigrants. In 1830, the vessels which arrived out amounted to 857, of the tonnage of 225,138 tons, and having on board 24,391 emigrants. In the present year, up to the end of October, 962 vessels had arrived out, of the aggregate tonnage of 249,125 tons, with 49,500 emigrants. Much anxiety prevailed in Canada as to the course likely to be adopted by Ministers relative to the timber duties.
The " Hobart Town Colonial Times," of the 6th of July, describes the Swan River Settlement as in a distressed and discontented state. Fresh meat was selling at two shillings per pound, and other provisions in proportion. Mr. Peel, who obtained a grant of 250,000 acres, and took out with him property to the amount of 40,0001. and 400 mechanics, farming men, and labourers, dared not move out of his house, for he was continually beset by numerous poor people,
who execrate him for having induced them to go to a settlement where they have met with nothing but starvation and disappointment. All sorts of English goods are stated to be rather cheap at Swan River. The distress prevalent in their money market is also described as becoming daily more and more alarming. Private letters confirm the above unfavourable account. From Sydney, the advices are of a much more favourable nature. The Australian Fisheries were proving successful, and the number of ships increasing. The whalers belonging to Sydney, and worked by Colonial capital, amounted in number to 18, and in tonnage to 3800; those belonging to London, with agents in Sydney, to 4, and the tonnage to 878; and those to London sailing from Sydney to 4, and the tonnage to 1059; making a total of 5737 tons.
[A circular has been issued by the Commissioners of Emigration, stating that an advance of 20/. will, under certain regulations, be made to any workman in the ordinary mechanical arts, desirous of emigrating to New South Wales or Van Dieman's Land, provided he be married and intends to take his wife with him.]
The following is an extract of a letter from Rungpore of August 7th, published in the Bombay papers:—" The inundations have come down with a vengeance this year, the river being now higher by a foot than it was at any period the preceding year, and, of course, most of the indigo plant is under water; and we never have witnessed such weather. We had a shock of an earthquake yesterday." There are authentic accounts that an incursion had been made into Cutch by a body of about five or six hundred marauders from the north, sweeping the country at large. A wing of the second Bombay light cavalry had been ordered into Cutch to protect the inhabitants."
In Guiana island (Tortola) an extensive conspiracy of the slaves broke out in Sep
tember, owing, it is supposed, to disappointment, being assured from England thai the King had emancipated them; and finding that their emancipation had not arrived, they concluded that it was nefariously withheld, and they rose to execute vengeance. They were happily discovered, and bv active measures their guilty designs were frustrated. The principal conspiratorswere mostlyslaves, wholly unsuspected, and those who had been most trusted and best treated.
The following has been received at the India House from China via San Bias.—
"The new rules and regulations for conducting foreign trade at China have the sanction of imperial authority, dated Fekin, May 22 ; consequently the Select Committee have revoked their order to suspend British trade. Although these new regulations are most restrictive and harassing, and his Celestial Majesty and his Ministers have countenanced these acts of aggression, the President and Select Committee are anxious to establish English intercourse upon a firm and respectable basis. They wisely remain passive until aid and counsel is received from Lord William Bentinck, GovernorGeneral of Bengal. The China Governor • Le' was expected to reach the city of Canton in a few days."
The majority in the Chamber of Deputies, upon the morion for the perpetual exclusion of the elder branch of the Bourlxms, was 182, there being for the Bill 251, and against it only 69. The proposition was adopted in the modified shape in which it was presented by the Committee, stripped of the capital penalty of death, as the punishment of an infraction of its ordinances. It extends to the ex-King Charles X. his descendants, and the husbands and wives of his descendants, who are for ever banished from the soil of France, declared incapable of inheriting or acquiring any property within it, and compelled, under the fear of ultimate sequestration, to dispose of whatever property they may possess in France within six months, where the title was undisputed, but subject always to the claims of creditors in France. The family of Napoleon have been gainers by this discussion, as, in consequence of an amendment proposed by M. Comte, though resisted ineffectually by Ministers, all the sanguinary enactments of the law of 1816 are repealed, as respects their entering upon the soil of France.
The city of Lyons was, on the 20th and 21st of November, a scene of the most deplorable disorder, originating, however, in he distress of the workmen employed in the Jan.—Vol. xxxvi. No. Cxxxiii.
silk manufactures, and having little or no political object. Their formidable and alarming character depended on the numbers of the mutineers. After preluding by some disturbances on the 20th, they descended on the 21st from the higher town, called the Croix Rousse, to the amount of 10,000 or 12,000, some of them armed with muskets, and many of them wearing the uniform of the National Guard. The number of regular troops in the garrison was inadequate to quell such a tumult. The National Guard of the higher classes was called out to disperse the rioters, but the latter, so far from yielding to the summons of the authorities to retire to their homes, fired upon the Guard. Several discharges took place on both sides, and occasioned great slaughter. Immediately on the intelligence reaching Paris, the Duke of Orleans and Marshal Soult, at the head of a large army, were ordered to proceed and subdue the disaffected city. Upon entering Lyons they were received with enthusiasm, and public tranquillity was speedily restored. The young Prince reviewed the troops, and after reprobating the military of Lyons, for their timidity during the riots, he dismissed from the French service, with every mark of disgrace, some of the officers who were supposed to have yielded too easily to the people, and even whole corps of the soldiery have not been exempted from his censures. The Duke of Orleans and Marshal Soult have returned to the capital; and for the present, at least, it would appear that the insurgent workmen have entered upon their usual occupations.
A letter from Napoli di Romania, dated October 31, states that the assassin of the late President of Greece was condemned to be shot, which sentence was carried into execution. He was quite collected and firm, and (after taking leave of his father, a prisoner in the fortress, who witnessed the execution of his son) he opened his arms to the soldiers, desiring them to take deliberate aim, exclaiming that he died a victim to his country. The people were greatly affected. His attitude was noble and commanding, and his costume rich and elegant.
A ukase of the Emperor Nicholas, dated Moscow, Nov. 2, on the subject of Poland, has been issued. After a sufficient preliminary appeal to Divine Providence, to prepare one for a more than ordinary exercise of his own peculiar kindliness of feeling for the bodily and spiritual welfare of the unfortunate Poles, he thus proclaims their fate: "I. A complete and unconditional amnesty is granted to all those of our subjects in the kingdom of Poland who have returned to their obedience. None of those included in this amnesty shall now, or at any future time, be condemned or prosecuted for his actions or political opinions done or expressed duung the whole time of the insurrection.—II. The following are excepted: 1. The authors of the bloody insurrection of the 29th of November 1830; those who on that evening repaired to the Belvedere Palace, with a view to take away the life of our beloved brother, the deceased Cesarewitsch; the murderers of the Generals, and of the Kussian and Polish officers—2. The authors of the horrors which occurred in Warsaw on the 15th of August last.—3. Those who, since the 25th of January inst. have at diffuent times been considered as Chiefs or Members of the Government lately established in the kingdom of Poland, and who had not sent in their submission previously to the 13th of September, as v-elf as those who, after the subjection of Warsaw, formed an illegal Government at Zackroezym, and
thereby forfeited all claims to our mercv
4. The Members of the Diet who proposed or supported the Act of Deposition of the 25th of January.—5. The officers belonging to the corps of Romarino, Rozycki, Kaminski, and Rybinski.—6. The subjects of the Western Governments who may have participated in the Polish insurrection."
In Turkey a substantial revolution in manners seems to be steadily, though silently, pursued. The Sultan, who really belongs to other latitudes than that of a Grand Seignior, spares no pains to introduce European modes of acting and thinking amongst his subjects. We have occasion to notice the establishment of a newspaper, in the French language, at Constantinople, and every arrival affords additional evidence of the Sultan's exertions in the cause of Turkish reform. In these attempts he has, as may be expected, to struggle against the fixed and obstinate prejudices of his subjects; and it is impossible to regard the ex
traordinary efforts he is making without being concerned for his own safety.
The Dutch ultimatum in regard to the treaty with Belgium has been received. The King of Holland's chief objections relate to the right of internal communication, by the roads and canals of Holland, which is given to Belgium by the treaty; and which, it is contended, was not called for by the circumstances, nor could the imposition of it be justified by any principle of the law of nations. Objections are also urged to other parts of the treaty, such as the division of territory, but more particularly to the distribution of the debt between the two countries; but they are of a minor description, compared with the question of the internal communication.
Don Pedro's preparations for a descent on Portugal appear to have been carried on with alacrity and spirit. A morning newspaper states that " The land forces already in Terceira and the other islands amount to 6000 disciplined troops, and 2000 recruits, which force, it is expected, will be augmented by about 2000 foreign soldiers. The naval force now at the islands consists of one schooner, of twelve guns; one ditto, with swivel; one corvette, of twenty-six guns, from Hio; and one brig, of eighteen guns, also from Rio. The naval force about to proceed to Terceira consists of one frigate, of one thousand two hundred tons, carrying fifty-four guns ; one ditto, of nine hundred tons, and forty-four guns; one ditto, of eight hundred tons, and thirty-six guns; one corvette, of six hundred tons, and eighteen guns; one schooner, of two hundred tons,and six guns, and three steamboats, of four hundred tons each. For this naval force, provisions and pay for four months, from the 1st of January, have been provided.'
An extraordinary "Gazette," of the 8th instant, states that Count Torrijos, with from fifty to sixty men, who had been forced to quit Gibraltar in consequence of the persecution which the revolutionary party was exposed to in that place, put to sea on the night of the 30th of November, but being closely pursued by the coast-guard vessels, they were under the necessity of landing, and surrendered to the troops sent in their pursuit on the 8th of December. They were shot almost immediately afterwards.
A Visit to the South Seas, in the United States' ship Vincennes, during the years 1829 and 1830, including Scenes in Brazil, Peru, Manilla, the Cape of Good Hope, and St. Helena. By C. S. Stewart, A.M. Chaplain in the United States' Navy. 2 vols.
Judicious am) enlightened missionaries possess namerous and peculiar opportunities for enlarging the boundaries of general knowledge; while in the integrity and uprightness of their character we have the best guarantee of the truth and fidelity of whatever they communicate. Their •ketches of men and manners have, likewise, this advantage, that they are usually formed under a ca.etul and continued observation. They are not like ha«ty voyagers, touching at various places, which they have not time to examine ; nor are they biassed by the prejudiced and partial representations of interested or mendacious reporters. If tbeir first impressions mislead their judgment for a moment, ihey have the means of correcting tht-ni by diligent inquiry and a closer inspection. It is a singular fact, that to gentlemen of this class vr* qre mainly indebted for alt the accurate information we possess of the islands of the Pacific mud their inhabitants. From others we have had romances and fictions in abundance; but it was reserved for such writers as Mr. Stewart to bring o* acquainted with men as they are in these distant and hitherto unexplored regions, and with tbe most importaut facts that illustrate their characters and customs. If the volumes of Tyreman and Benuet, of Ellis and Stewart, were annihilated, what should wc really know of the present condition of Polynesia 1 Captain Beechey wu never in a situation to state any tiling hut on hearsay, ami that derived from the most incompetent sources. Tbe book of Captain Von Kotzebue contains errors of the grossest kind, which even tbe slightest personal observation might have enabled him to avoid. The volumes of Mr. Stewart are valuable, not only as they corroborate, iu all essential particulars, the narratives of Mwrs. Ellis, Tyreman, and Bemiet, but as they convey a great deal of additional information respecting places which they never visited, as well as those which they have so minutely described. Mr. Stewart informs us, that domestic circumstances compelled him to relinquish a misH< nary life, and that, in selecting a sphere for the exercise of his professional duties, be was induced to direct his attention to tbe United States' Naval Servicf- ; that in the year 18*** he was appointed Chaplain to the Guerriere, which, with the St. Louis, was ordered to relieve the squadron in the Pacific Ocean, one vessel from which, the corvette Vincennes, would visit the Sandwich Islands, and return to America by the Cupe of Good Hope. As he had a strong desire to visit tbe islands which, tor several years, had been the field of his missionary labours, the Government kindly allowed him to be transferred from the Guerricre to the Vincennes, which took place off Callao, in Peru, July 4th, 1829. He left Washington in tbe Guerriere on the lOih of the preceding February. From the latter period his narrative commences, which is written in an epistolary form to his wife. We shall not attempt
any connected account of his progress, b:it content ourselves with extracts', which not only possess an intrinsic value, but are important as they are calculated to set at rest the question now so warmly agitated respecting the character of the missionaries, and the nature of the changes they have introduced in the Sandwich and Tahitean Islands, where they have succeeded In establishing the profession of Christianity. In both these views the volumes of Mr. Stewart will be read with deep interest by a very large portion of the Christian public iu Great Britain and America; and wc congratulate the publishers ou the wide circulation which these circumstances alone will secore to the work, which, indeed, on many accounts, is entitled to the patronage it cannot fail to obtain.
The Washington Islands, the beautiful and picturesque abodes of a race of savages, differing from all others that have been visited by Europeans, are a groupe in the vicinity of the Marqnes de MendocVs, and frequently included with them under the general appellation of tbe Marquesas. They are three in number, and were discovered so lately as 1791, by Captain Ingraham, of Boston, and in the succeeding year visited by Captain Roberts, of the same place, who gave them the name by which they are now generally designated, ami to which, by established usage in such cases, they are justly entitled. They are individually distinguished by their respective names, Hnahuka, Nukuhiva or Nnnhiva, and Uapon, forming a triangle by their relative position to each other, the points of which are included within the parallel of 8. 38. and 1)0. 32. south latitnde, and 139. 20. and 140. 10. west longitude from Greenwich. Huahuka is the most eastern of the three. Nukuhiva lies about twenty miles directly west of it, and Uapon thirty miles south of the central parts of Nukuhiva. Nukuhiva, twenty miles iu length, anil of nearly the same breadth, and having three or four good harbours on its coast, is much the largest and most important of the three, and that alone which ships have frequented. Mr. Stewart describes the natural scenery of this island, ami it is indeed of surpassing beauty. His rambles on shore are among the most interesting portions of his narrative. One of these excursions was to witness a dance in the interior, of which Mr. Stewart gives a highly graphic account. The letter which succeeds the one we have referred to, is emitted "Form of Government and Civil and Religious Distinctions :*' it affoids much curious information, and though it presents idolatry under its degrading influence, its aspect is less hideous (ban it was found to be in some of the other islands of Polynesia. Intrtnticide is unknown; but human sacrifices prevail. The Inhabitants appear to be less treacherous thin their fellow savages in other parts of the world. Polygamy exists, bnt is a polygamy which gives a plurality of husbands, and not of wives. Mr. Stewart's visit to Tahiti, Raiatea, and the Sandwich Islands, which he had left only a few years before, shows the astonishing progress which they arc all making in civilization; and the facts he states, and the calumnies he refutes, will irresistibly establish the conviction in every candid mind, that the greatest benefac