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family, to be cultivated by hand management entirely, and on the following, and such farther conditions as may be thought necessary: — every thing to be sown or planted in rows, and not less than nine inches- apart. Not more than one-half of each to be potatoes the first year; nor more than one-third afterwards. Not more than one-half to be wheat in any year. Onefourth in each plot to be worked as fallow every year. The rent to be 6s. free of tithe and poor-rates, to be paid half-yearly. Occupation to begin at Lady-day next, to continue for a year, and so on, subject to the usual notice to quit. To encourage variety of produce, rewards will be offered for different crops of seeds and vegetables, and occasional assistance given in procuring lime and other manure. Of grain, wheat, beans, peas, and vetches, are most desired. Of vegetables, turnips, both common and Swedes, cabbages, winter greens of all kinds, carrots, onions, mangel wurzel, and clover. One great object being to increase the means of keeping and taking proper care of a pig, all such variety as shall best contribute to that end will be most desirable. And lastly, as the greatest object in view in the proposed arrangement, is the enabling families to assist themselves, and not be burdensome to others, the greatest forbearance in regard to this, and the most steady
and judicious industry, will be the most noticed and the most encouraged."
To Restore Frosted Potatoes—This is partially done by steeping potatoes, or any other frosted vegetables, in cold water till thawed. A better and more effectual method has been discovered by a Cumberland gentleman. This method is simply to allow the potatoes to remain in the pits after a severe frost, till the mild weather has set in for some weeks, and allowing them to recover gradually. If once exposed to the atmospheric air, no art will recover frosted potatoes.
[It may be well to caution farmers that carts laden with manure are allowed to pass through toll-gates, according to the provisions of a recent Act of Parliament, toll free. There is one specific clause, however, not generally known, which may lead to trouble and vexation, if not attended to; it is to this effect:—the owner of an empty cart, which is going for a load of manure, is bound to pay the toll, taking a ticket; upon the return of the cart with manure, the money is returned by the bar-keeper, on the ticket being produced. This appears to be an equitable clause, but from ignorance Of it, a tradesman of Boston was lately summoned to the Police-office, and compelled to pay all the expenses incurred.]
New Lamp In the course of the first
meeting, at York, of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, the Rev. W. Vernon Harcourt exhibited a lamp constructed upon a new principle, and explained the nature and construction of it. He gave it the name of an oil gas lamp; not because it was lighted by gas formed at , a temperature below that of flame, (for this was common to all lamps,) but because, as in the gas-lights of the streets, the gas issued from a reservoir, and owed the perfection of its combustion, not to an ascending current of hot air, but to the force with which it was propelled fiom the reservoir, and carried the air along with it. It differed, however, from the common gaslights in these points; that the reservoir formed part of the burner; that the gas was formed as it was consumed; and that it was propelled, not by a til a tergo, and in a state of condensation, but by the expansive force of its own heat. In consequence of this circumstance, the current of the gaseous jet was more rapid in proportion to the quantity of matter contained in it than in the common gas-lights, whilst it was also at a much higher temperature, so that it could
issue with a greater velocity without being liable to blow itself out. The practical difficulty of the construction consisted in the obtaining a steady supply of oil, especially with the cheap oils. This difficulty had been in a great measure surmounted; but the instrument was still imperfect, and had been charged by some accident that evening with a vegetable oil, from which a clear light could not be obtained.
Curious Clock. — The Journal of Geneva gives the following description of a clock, exhibited in that city, and executed by M. Bianchi, of Verona. This machine, which is especially remarkable on account of its extreme simplicity, is composed only of a pendulum, a large wheel, two escapements, and a quadrature: such are the visible parts. YVe must, however, suppose that a pinion and a wheel make the communication between the great wheel and the quadrature, though we cannot see them. The pendulum at each vibration causes one of the escapements to advance the great wheel one tooth, which, after this movement, has a pause marking the dead second. As there is no metallic moving power to set the machine going, we find, on examining what keeps up the motion, that the pendulum, which is almost out of proportion with the clock, descends into a case, and there, at each vibration, the ball or bob, that is furnished with a conductor, approaches alternately two poles, to which voltaic piles supply their portion of electricity. So that the pendulum, when once put in motion, retains it by means of the electricity alternately drawn from the two poles. This machine, which is equally simple and ingenious, is worthy of the attention of the artist. Perhaps other interesting results may be obtained by employing the electric fluid as a moving power, however slight the force snch an agent may seem capable of communicating.
Improvement in the Manufacture of Paper.—The instrument used in this case is common, simple, and efficacious. It is composed of three brass rings or hoops, pierced with a number of holes in their flat sides, to receive as many rods of wood, which make the three rings into a suit of drum. The rings have spokes or radii, uniting in a centre nut of iron, which forms the busk of a spindle or axis, on which the drum is to revolve. This drum being covered with wire-cloth, and made to work in the pulp-cutting machine, becomes by name and profession a strainer—and in character an improved strainer. It is connected with a pipe which carries off the dirty water; its motion is rapid, and the meshes of its wirecloth cover, are small, so that the lesser particles of the pulp-wheel, which hitherto have been apt to slip away with the dirty water, to the great injury of the paper-maker, and for the peculiar property of the rag merchant, are now saved from their sudden exit, and promise to become stationary as the well regulated material of the paper manufacture ought to be. We are quite sure that no difficulty will be experienced in the perfect comprehension of this plan. The old strainer works away in the machine at the same time witli the new one, but not on the same spindle. The consequence is, that the pulp is forced by the action of the old strainer, in the direction of the tumbril wc have described, and by that sent back again to the old strainer, so that between them, the pulp is kept in rapid circulation and continuous action.
The above invention improves the preparation of pulp; another is intended to improve the paper. The machine of many rollers with the endless wire-cloth is well known to paper manufacturers; and equally well known and appreciated are the barrels and winders on which the paper is received and coiled. Now, the present invention lies between those instruments. The object of the inventor (Mr. Joquier) is to make any length of wire-wove paper with longi
tudinal wire marks, both sides alike, and without transverse bars or water-marks.
The machine in common use, the rollers, the wire-cloth, &cc. are to be maintained as at present, and the vibration of the machine which causes the even spread of pulp, and the equal substance of the paper, is as essential as ever: but when the paper quits the wire-cloth and the long series of equidistant rollers over which it has been taken and shaken, the inventor proposes to receive it on an endless blanket or felt of unequal fineness, in order to strain it, and gloss it, and prevent the transverse bars which are caused by the reception of the paper on to the hand-frame. His apparatus is chiefly this endless felt cloth, and the rollers or cylinders over which it moves, and between which it is pressed. There are three in addition to the usual series; they are of much greater diameter and power, and are every way calculated to improve the surface of the paper. A brush is ingeniously applied to the cloth so as to brush out any unnecessary remains of water, and to clear away any remnants of pulp, or any other obstruction. The brush as well as all the machinery revolve by the endless chain rolling round a large cylinder near the primum mobile. The paper, often passing over these cylinders, conducted by this cloth, and having suffered all these brushings, and bruisings, and washings, and wipings, is received as if from the hand-frame, and carried forward to the roller, round which it is wound up as usual.
Zinc plain for the roofing nf Buildings. —Zinc rolled into large plates is now a good deal employed as a substitute for lead and slates, in the roofing of buildings, both in Britain and on the Continent. The great advantage is in their lightness, being only about one-sixth of the weight of lead. They do not rust, which is another great advantage, and has led to the employment of zinc pipes both for cold and hot water. No covering is better adapted for verandas and summer-houses.
[Steam Carriages.—A Bill for regulating the tolls to be levied on steam-carriages has just been printed. It states in the preamble that, by some local acts excessive tolls have been imposed, while in others no toll whatever has been contemplated; it repeals the former, and enacts, that in all places in the United Kingdom where toll is at present leviable on carriages drawn by horses, the following rate of tolls shall be levied, after noon of the 1st of July next, on all steam or other mechanical carnages. When the passengers are not more than six, the same toll as a four-wheel carriage with four horses; double tolls to be levied when the wheels are less than three and a half inches in width, or have a greater convexity than half an inch. Carriages for goods to be charged the same as a cart with one horse for each ton, or part of a ton, of which the load consists; the engine carriage, if separate, is not to be charged, and each carriage in the train, after the first, is to be charged half of the single toll. The exemptions from toll are, carriages belonging to, or in the employment of his Majesty, or the
Royal Family; carriages conveying mails, King's stores, officers or men in the army, yeomanry, or volunteers, or the navy, &c.; agricultural produce, persons going to or from church, or a funeral, or a county election, in conveying the surveyor of the ioad, or in the transmission of vagrants. A penalty of 5/. is attached to the toll-taker demanding a larger toll than allowed in the act.]
PATENTS LATELY GRANTED.
George Freeman, of Tewkesbury, in the county of Gloucester, lace manufacturer, for improvements in machinery for ornamenting and pro* ducing devices upon lace net.
Alexander Bcattie Shankland, of Liverpoolstreet, in the City of London, for a new method of cutting, working, and planing of wuod, minerals, and metals, by means of machinery. Communicated by a foreigner, resident in America.
William Crofts, of Linton, in the county of Nottingham, frame smith, for improvements in machinery for making lace or net, commonly called bobbin net lace.
Ralph Watson, of York Place, Portman square, in the county of Middlesex, Esq., for the invention of a certain improved lamp. Communicated by a foreigner, residing abroad.
Thomas Dc La Rue, of Crown street, Finsburysquare, in the county of Middlesex, card maker, for improvements in making or manufacturing, and ornamenting playing cards.
William Church, of Bordesley Green, near Birmingham, In the county of Warwick, gentlemau, for his improvements in machinery for making nails.
Samuel Walker, of Millshaw, near Leeds, in the county of York, clothier, for improvements In gig machines for dressing woollen cloths.
John Joyce, of Portland Road, in the parish of Saint Mary lc Bone, and county of Middlesex, gentleman, for a certain improvement or improvements in machinery for making nails of iron, copper, and other metals. Communicated by a foreigner, residing abroad.
Charles Beard, of Coggeshall, in the county of Essex, ironmonger, for his improvement in the construction of cocks or taps for drawing off liquids.
George Oldland, of Hillsley, in the parish of Hawkesbury, in the county of Gloucester, cloth worker, for Improvements in machinery or apparatus for shearing, dressing, and finishing of wool* len cloths, and other fabrics.
William Wells, of Manchester, in the county of Lancaster, machine maker, for a new and improved mode of making and constructing gig ma* chines, otherwise called raising machines, or machines for raising the nap or pile of, and brushing and dressing woollen and other cloths.
Thomas Petherick, of Peopelleck, in the parish ofTydwardreoth, in the county of Cornwall, mine agent, and John Fillmore Kingston, of Ilsington, in the county of Devon, gentleman, for improve* ments in certain machinery and apparatus for separating copper, lead, and other ores from earthy and other substances with which they are or may
be mixed, the said improvement being applicable to the machinery for which a patent was granted by his late Majesty, to the petitioner Thomas Petherick, bearing date the 2Sth of April, 1830.
Frederick Collier Bakewell, of Hamp-te.nl, in the county of Middlesex, gentleman, for certain improvements In machinery or apparatus for making or manufacturing soda water, and other aerated waters or liquids.
Joseph Gibbs, of tbe Kent Road, in the county of Kent, engineer, and William Chaplin, of the Adelphi, in the county of Middlesex, coach maker, for Improvements in wheeled carriages and in the means of constructing the same.
Henry Warner, of Looghborough, in the county of Leicester, hosier, Charles Hood, of the same place, frame smith and setter up, and Benjamin Abbott, also of the same place, frame-work knit* ter, for their improvements upon machinery for making stockings, stocking net, or frame-work knitting, warp, web, warp net and point net.
John Day, of Birmingham, in the county of Warwick, brass founder, for an improvement in the manufacture of cocks used for stopping and drawing off gas and witer, and for other purposes for which cocks are now used.
Henry Brewer, of Surrey Place, Old Kent Road, in the parish of St. George, Sonthwark, in the county of Surrey, wire weaver, for his improvements in machinery or apparatus for making paper.
John WalmBley, of Manchester, silk winder, for a machine for cutting off the fur or hair from beaver and other skins.
Matthew Towgood, of Dartford, in the county of Kent, paper maker, for his improvements in cutting paper.
William Day, of Gate street, Lincoln's-InnFields, in the parish of Saint Giles in the Fields, in the county of Middlesex, lithographic printer, for his improvements in the construction of printing presses.
Bennet Woodcroft, of Manchester, in the county Palatine of Lancaster, printer, for his improvements in the construction and adaptation of a revolving spiral paddle for propelling boats and other vessels on water.
William Alexander Brown, of Liverpool, in the county of Lancaster, merchant, and Herman Hendricks, of Passz, near Paris, in the kingdom of France, but now residing in Russell street, Covent-Garden, In the coanty of Middlesex, gentleman, for an improved method or methods of manufacturing the pr nisi ate- of potash and soda, and the prussiate of iron; also for the construction of certain apparatus, vessels, or machinery to be used in the Mid manufacture, and a new or improved method or methods of employing the said prussiate of iron, or other prusaiates of iron, as a substitute for indigo in dyeing all sorts of wools, whether in the fleece, skin, spun, or woven into cloth, staffs, or otherwise; also in dying silks, cottons, linens, and, in fact, all other sorts and descriptions of textile or other substances fit for the purpose of receiving colour of a blue, blue black, black, bronze, or any other colours for which indigo has hitherto been ascd, cither as a ground-work or auxiliary; and also for an improved arrangement of certain utensils and ma
chinery to be used in the said dyeing process* Communicated by a foreigner residing abroad.
Benjamin Cook, of Birmingham, in the county of Warwick, brass founder, for au improvement in the application of a material hitherto unused in the manufacture of paints, varnishes, and for various other purposes.
Feter Young, of Fenchurch- street, in the city of London, rope and sail maker, for a new mode of manufacturing mangel wurzel for the purpose of producing certain known articles of commerce. Communicated by a foreigner residing abroad.
LIST OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.
Memoirs of Sir James Campbell of Ardkinglas, written by Himself, 2 vols. gvo. 1/. 4t.
Valpy'a Classical Library, No. XXVIII Plutarch. Vol. VI. 4a. Od.
Antobiograpby, Vol. XXXIII.—Memoir of William Sampson, Esq. demy 18mo. 3s. Gel.; royal ISmo. 6s.
Memoir of the Rev. Matthias Bruen, 12rao. 7s.
Edinburgh Academy Latin Delectus, with a Vocabulary, 12nio. 3a.
Hickie's Livy, Books I. to V. royal 12mo. Ss. 6d.
Jem.nr's Treatise on Languages, 12mo. 3s. 6d.
Davis's Exercises on the Anabasis of Xenopbon, 12mo. 2s. 6d.
Thorgar's Genders of the French Nouns, 12mo. 2s. 6d.
Marin de la Voye's Melange, English and French, royal 18mo. 5s. Od.
Ernesti's Institutes, by the Rev. C. H. Terrot, 12mo. 5s.
Lardner*s Cyclopaedia, Vol. XXIX Spain and Portugal, 3 vols. Vol. I. as.
Hume and Smollett's History of England, 1 vol. imperial 8vo. 1/. 5s.
History Philosophically Illustrated, by Dr. Miller, 4 vols. 8vo. 2f. 2s.
Parry's History of Woburn, &c. 8vo. 7s.; India proofs, 10s.
Southey's History of the Peninsular War, Vol. III. 4to. il. 10s.
Powell on Wills, Executors, and Administrators, 12mo. 3s. 6d.
Austin's Province of Jurisprudence, 8vo. 12s.
Rajah Rammohun Roy's Exposition of the Judicial aud Revenue Systems of India, 8vo. Gs.
King on Lithotrity and Lithotomy, 8vo. 10s. Grecnhow on Cholera, 8vo. Gs. Dr. Townsend's Chart of the Stethoscope, fcp. 3a. Dickson on Cholera, 8vo. 5s. Ingleby on Uterine Haemorrhage, 8vo. 12s. Scott on Lavements, royal 12rno. 7s. Hills on Cupping, 18mo. 3s. 6d. Stafford on the Spine, 8vo. 10». 8d.
NOVELS, TALIS, &C.
Tales of the Early Ages, by the author of "Brambletye House," &c. 3 vols, post 8vo. If. lis. (Id.
Stanley Buxton, by John Gait, Esq., 3 vols. 8vo. II. lis. 6d.
Roscoe's Novelist's Library, Vol. X.—Vicar of Wakefield and Sir Lanncelot Greaves, fcp. Ga.
The Jesuit, 3 vols, post 8vo. U. 12s. Od.
Country Houses, a Novel, 3 vols. Svo. 1/. lis. Od.
Waterloo, a Poem, 8vo. 5s.
The Easter Gift, a Religious Offering, by L. E. L. Os.
Bird's Achmet's Feast, and other Poems, 8vo. 7s. Od.
Rodolph, a Dramatic Fragment, Ilium. 2s. Od.
Bowring's Cheskian Anthology, fcp. 8vo. 7s.
The Druid, a Tragedy, by Thomas Cromwell, 8vo. 5s.
Poland, Homer, and other Poems, fcp. 4s. Od.
Christian Experience, by the Author of " Christian Retirement," 12mo. 6s.
Lay Testimony to the Truth of the Sacred Records, fcp. 5s. Od.
Sacra Poesis, by M. F. D., royal 32mo. 2s. Gd.
Mission in South Africa, 18mo. 2s. Od.
Rev. Henry Brougham's Sermons, 12mo. 4s.
Cattermole's Sermons, post 8vo. 7s.
Rev. M. J. Wynyard's Sermons, Svo. 12s.
Rev. C. Girdlestone's New Testament, with a Commentary, Part I.—Matthew and Mark, Svo. Os.
Rev. G. S. Killer's Apostolicity of Trinitarianism, 2 vols. Svo. 26s.
Jowett's Sermons, 12mo. 7s.
Robinson's Christian's Privilege, 12mo. 3s. Od.
Timpson's Church History, 12mo. 7s.
Juvenile Sunday Library, Vol. I. 4>.
Private Devotions for every Day in the Week, abridged from the New Manual by the Rev. E. Berens, ISmo. Is. 3d.
Biblical Cabinet, Vol. I.
Tornbull'a Laws of Christ, 12mo. 5s.
Martin's Christian Philosopher, 18iuo. Os.
Dr. Park on Prophecy, &C. 8vo. 7a.
VOYAGES AND TRAVELS.
Bouchette'sTopographical Dictionary of Canada, 4to. II. SB.
British Dominions in North America, 1 vols, llo. 3/. 16s.
Landers' Journal, forming Vols. XXVIII., XXIX., XXX. of the Family Library, 18mo. 15s.
Captain Basil Hall's Fragments of Voyages and Travels, Second Series, 3 vols. 18mo. 15s.
Vigne'a Six Months in America, 2 vols. Svo. 1/.
Further Strictures on Napier's Peninsular War, 8vo. 0s.
(Jell's Pompeiana, Second Series, S volt, royal 8vo. 67.0s.; imperial 8vo. 71. 10s.; demy 4to. 101. 16s.; proofs and etchings, 18/. 18s.
Coleman on the Mythology of the Hindu?, 4to. 3/. 2a.
Annand's Brief Outline of the Government of India, 4to. 12s.
Martineau's Illustrations of Political Economy, No. 111. Is. 6d.
Something New, 18mo. 2a.
Latrobe's Pedestrian, 8vo. 12a.
Phillips* Million of Pacts, 8vo. Ss.
Bibliophobia, a Sequel to Bibliomania, demy 8vo. 4s. 6d.; royal Svo. 8s. 0d.
Optn Sesame, or tbe Way to get Money, lSrno. li.
Ballingairs Improvement of the Mercantile Navy, Svo. 12*.
A Tale of the Tories, 18mo. 2a. fid.
M'Culloch's Commercial Dictionary, Svo. 21. 101.
Gordon on Locomotion, plates, Svo.
D'Agullar's Officer's Manaal, ISmo. 5a.
Young's Elements of Mechanics, !2mo. 10s. 6d,
The Bee and the Wasp, plates by G. Cruikshank, 18mo. Is.
Hastings' British Archer, royal 4to. 10a.
The Little Girl's Own Book, by Mrs. Child, 4s. Od.
The New Gallomania, Svo. Ss. 6d.
Lady Sandford's Stories from tbe History of Rome, 18mo. 2*. Gd.
Parker's Villa Ruslica, royal 4to. XL 6a.
Mr. Washington Irving will immediately publish a new Sketch Book, to be entitled " The Alfaambra."
"A Highland Tale," by Mr. Eraser, author of "Tbe Persian Adventurer," is in tbe press.
Mr. Morier, author of" H:ijji Baba," Is about to produce an Oriental Romance, to be entitled « Zohrab."
A series of Siories of different countries and times by Mr. Arnold, Jan. son of the proprietor of the English Opera-house, will soon appear.
Mr. Roscoe, having already given to the world Specimens of the Germnn and Italian Novelists, is on the point of producing " Specimens of the Spanish Novelists."
"Lights and Shadows of American Life," a series of Transatlantic stories and sketches, edited by Miss M it ford, may be shortly expected.
A new edition, comprising additional personal sketches, of " Cavendish, or the Patrician at Sea," is jost ready.
"Memoirs and Correspondence of the late Sir David Baird," will appear in the course of the month.
"Tbe Anniversary Calendar, Natal Book, and Universal Mirror."
"Lectiones Latins; or Lessons in Latin Literature, in Prose and Verse, from the Writings of Celebrated Latin Authors, with Translations." By J. Rowbotham.
"The Excursion, or a Trip to Margate; with Hamorous Illustrations." By Robert Crnikshank.
"A General, Historical, and Practical Treatise upon Elemental Locomotion." By Alexander Gordon, Esq. Civil Engineer.
"Popular Zoology," in one small volume, containing tbe Natural History of tbe Quadrupeds and Birds in the Zoological Gardens, with numerous authentic Anecdotes; intended as a Manual for Schools and Families, and a complete Guide for Visitors. The book will contain upwards of 100 embellishments, including figures of the principal Animals, drawn from life.
In Jane will be published " Tbe Literary Pancratium; or a Series of Dissertations on Theological, Literary, Moral, and Controversial Subjects."
"Travels of an Irish Gentleman in search of Religion, wilh Notes, by the Editor of ' Captain Rock's Memoirs.'"
"Elements of Greek Grammar." By tbe Rev. S. Connor.
The Rev. J. Fletcher, D.D. is encaged in preparing a Life, &c. of the late Rev. W. Rohy, of Manchester.
"Select Library," Vol. VI.—lives of Celebrated Missionaries. By John Came, Esq. Author of" Letters from the East."
BIOGRAPHICAL PARTICULARS OF CELEBRATED PERSONS, LATELY DECEASED.
Although we shall elsewhere have occasion to speak of the illustrious individual whose loss to literature is lamented throughout Europe, some particulars relative to his life belong to this department of our Magazine. We are indebted for them to various sources, but chiefly to the excellent weekly paper " the Examiner."
John Wolfgang von Goethe was born at Frankfort on the 28th of August, 1749, and died at Weimar on the 22nd of March, 1832, aged eighty-two years and seven months. Like his illustrious coeval, Bent* ham, he was a sickly child, and consequently participated but little in children's pastimes. Habits of reflection, and an independence on others for amusement or