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may be immediately considered. His Excellency's answer states that the Factory, or liarbarian Hall, had been much enlarged, and buildings added and land taken, without authority from the Chinese Government; that all these encroachments were commanded to be destroyed by a secret order of the .Emperor, which was done with as few excesses as possible. The whole of the misunderstanding is thrown upon the Hong merchants. No insult, it is alleged, was offered to the picture of the King of England. That, to sum up all, the British have traded to Canton for 100 years—that they have looked up with gratitude to the great Emperor, for his abundant liberality and profound benevolence in stooping down to bestow compassion on them—that all the people in authority imitate the Emperor's tenderness; but that it is necessary that the English merchants should be selected in future from intelligent classes. His Excellency then orders the English Captain to take advantage of the north wind, and fly with his reply.
The " Moniteur" has published the convention between France and the United States, alluded to in the King's speech at the beginning of the session, for settling the claims of their respective subjects on each other for captures made during the late war, or under the authority of the anti-commercial decrees of Napoleon. France advances to the Government of the United States 25,000,000f. (or 1,000,000'.) in satisfaction of all these claims; and the United States reciprocate by an advance of l,500,000f. (or about 60,0001.) When it is considered that many of those claims were created by captures made in 1806 and 1807, the perseverance of the United States' Government in its endeavours to obtain satisfaction for its subjects is above all praise. The convention stipulates for a commercial intercourse between the two countries, in which the duty on French wines is reduced by the Americans, in exchange for the reduction on American cotton wool by the French.
A Royal Ordinance has been issued appointing Count Montalivet Minister of the Interior, (but leaving the Presidency of the Council open, on the contingency of M. Perier's recovery,)* and M. Girod de l'Ain, lately President of the Chamber of Deputies, to the office of Minister of Public Instruction. M. Montalivet, in his new ca
* Although the death of M. Cassimir Perier has since taken place, his successor has not yet been appointed.
pacity as Minister of the Interior, has addressed a circular to the Prefects of the Departments, in which he avows his adhesion to the principles and policy of the preceding Government, and refers them entirely to the instructions which they received from it for the rule of their future conduct.
The Russian ratifications of the Treaty of the 15th of November with Belgium have been exchanged at the Foreign Office, Downing-street. It remains now to be seen what effect the unanimous decision of the Five Great Powers of Europe will have on the disposition of the Dutch King. The King of Belgium is now as legitimate a Sovereign as the King of Holland, having obtained the recognition of the same Powers who placed William on the throne.
The accounts from Warsaw are very melancholy; that city, formerly so full of activity, is now, as it were, desolate. Besides the Russians, who alone have money to spend, hardly any men except cripples are seen in the streets. Equipages are rarely met with, because the nobility, who, from the complete indigence of the lower classes, have to bear almost exclusively the whole weight of the taxes, confine themselves to what is indispensably necessary. In the country the misery and poverty are still greater.
Don Miguel has published a long manifesto against the pretensions of Don Pedro. It concludes thus—" The clergy of the whole kingdom, the firm supporters of religion and the throne, renew the noble example they have at all times given. The nobility are in the ranks of the army, and the numerous and valiant troops hasten to arms. Every moment his Majesty receives proofs of their fidelity. Lastly, the whole nation rises like one man ready to defend itself; and as it took a solemn oath to me by its representatives in the Three Estates, I have to perform that which I took before the same Estates; and the promise of the Assembly made to the holy King Don Alphooso llenriques, on the plains of Ourique, will continue to be fulfilled, and to save these kingdoms from impiety and anarchy."
The Sultan proceeds in his course of adopting European institutions and usages —having made Hussein Pacha a field-marshal, he has appointed a council of war to attend him, who are to try offences by courtmartial, so that the commander-in-chief will no longer have the power of inflicting punishment by his own arbitrary will.
Principles of Geology, being an Attempt to explain the former Changes of the Earth's Surface, by reference to Causes now in Operation. By Charles Lyell, Esq. F.R.S. &c. Vol. II.
The first volume of the Principles of Geology attracted, as it deserved, a considerable share of public attention. Professor Lyell's work is the nearest approach towards establishing geology as a science, of any thing we have met with. Yet many unproved positions are assumed as principles; and the Professor has occasionally betrayed a wildneisof speculation which sets him in needless hostility to the cosmogony of Moses, without advancing his claims as a philosopher. It is troe, we have, in our last number, stated our opinion, that the questions involved in the principles of geology no more bear npon the truth of Revelation than does the Newtonian theory of the planetary system. That is, it formed no part of the design of Revelation to instruct mankind in human science, or to check the faculties of the mind by discoveries which would render the exertion of those faculties unnecessary on subjects which are within the range of inquiry, and belong exclusively to reason and philosophy. Yet we confess that it would not tend to strengthen our belief of the truth of Revelation, if where it has spoken out, where it has made unequivocal statemenu involving its chronology, and some of the most important facts in ill history, it was fairly contradicted and disproved by the inductions of philosophy. Geology, as a science, is even yet in a too chaotic state to be considered as affecting these questions in the slightest degree; and where writers have attempted to bring the two into collision, they have not well understood either the one or the other. We are persuaded, even If it were established by the most cogent evidence that there were pre-Adaraite worlds, and that the epochs of each could be distinctly marked, and their chronology made as clear as that which traces its date from the Mosaic account, that the truth of the Pentateuch would remain unimpaired; that the question as to Divine Revelation would be untouched, and as safe as if no such discoveries had ever been made. But we think, if these discoveries can be reconciled with the Scriptural narrative of the Deluge, and the phenomena which preceded it, and which have in a succession of a»es arisen from it, that something is gained in the form of corroborative testimony, and one great occasion for scepticism removed out of the way. Now Mr. Granville Peno, and the very learned and ingenious Author of " The Truth of Revelation Demonstrated," have laboured, and, as it appears to us, with more than probability in theirfavour, toshow, that there has yet been no evidence adduced that the earth existed before the period stated by Moses, and that it is mere assumption, and contrary to many stubborn and conclusive facts, to assert, that the chinges which the earth has certainly undergone were anterior to that period; that its different strata were formed at various times, and that each marks what geologists have denominated a geological cycle. We are extremely glad that
Jm/wv— VOL. XXXVI. NO. (XX XVIII.
the controversy between the sceptical philosophers on the one hand, and the advocates of Revelation on the other, is creating an interest on the subject which will be highly beneficial to the cause of science, and, as we are likewise convinced, to that of revealed truth. If we make Christians philosophers, and philosophers Christians, by free and fearless discussion, it will be the noblest triumph that reasou ever gained over prejudice. We earnestly recommend that the work to which we have now referred, and of which We gave % critical notice in onr last number, "The Truth of Revelation Demonstrated," may be read In connexion with the volumes of Professor Lyell, which form a judicious arrangement of valuable and interesting facts. The first, as our readers ■re probably aware, treats of the changes which have taken place in the inorganic work! within the historical era; the second is devoted to an inquiry into those now in progress in the animate creation. Could we devote sufiicient space, we would with pleasure give an analysis of this very amusing and Instructive work. We are obliged, however, to content ourselves with the Author's dcvelopement of his general plan. The first treats of species, and the vicissitudes to which they are subject; and this leads htm to inquire, among other topics, first, whether species have a real and permanent existence in nature, or whether they are capable of bciug indefinitely modified in the course of a long series of generations? Secondly, whether if species have a real existence, individuals composing them have been derived originally from many similar stocks, or each from one only, the descendants of which have spread themselves gradually from a particular point over the habitable lands and waters? Thirdly, how far the duration of each species of animal and plant Is limited by its dependence on certain fluctuating and temporary conditions iu the st.ite of the animate and inanimate world? Fourthly, whether there be proofs of the successive extermination of species In the ordinary course of nature; and whether there be any reason for conjecturing, that new animals and plants are created from time to time to supply their place?
The second grand division of the subject commences with chapter twelve, and is an inquiry conducted through the six succeeding chapters, "into the effects produced by the powers of vitality on the state or the earth's surface, and on the material constituents of its crusts."
"By the effects produced on the surface," observes the Professor, " we mean those modifications in physical geography of which the existence of organic beings Is the direct cause; as when the growth of certain plants covers the slope of a mountain with peat, or converts a swamp into dry land ; or when vegetation prevents the soil. In certain localities, from being washed away by running water.
■* By the agency of the power of vitality on the natnral constituents of the earth's crust, we mean those permanent modifications in the composition and structure of new strata which result from the embedding therein of animal and vegetable remains."
Nature and romance have alike their favourite haunts; and as on some spot nature lavishes all that beauty which made the prophet exclaim of Damascus, " It is toodclightfnl 1" soon tin; other, will be assembled those memories of war, love, and sorrow, that make " a divinely haunted place," ami the natural loveliness yields in interest to the acquired. Nowhere are the associations more poetical or more picturesque than those which belong to the Moslem reign in Spain. Granada w.is an European Bagdad, with ail the magnificence, "barbaric pearl and gold," which made the history of the eastern capital like that of some enchanted city, with all the deeper feeling, the more exalted creed, and the greater refinement of the later age of chivalry. The Alhambra is the poetry of architecture, both in its former state, when
• carven cedar doors
Flang inward over spangled floors,
and now, when the ivy creeps around Its lattices, and " the bat builds in its towers," to the memory of former splendour it adds lingering beauty and actual ruin. The fancy of most readers will take part with the present writer when he says :— '* From earliest boyhood, when, on the banks of the Hudson, I first pored over the pages of an old Spanish story about the wars of Granada, that city has ever been a subject of my waking dreams, and often have I trod in fancy the romantic halls of the Alhambra." The greatest compliment we can pay Mr. Irving Is to say that be deserved to tread tbem. He has entered the desolate and destroyed, but still lovely halls, with eyes turned towards the past, and full of that enthusiasm which alone can understand the melancholy and the beautiful. To onr taste, these are two moat delightful volumes. The sketches of Spanish scenery and peasants are full of life and animation; the descriptions of the Alhambra " painted in rich words;" and the ancient legends told in a style worthy of the days when the story-teller sat on an embroidered carpet, while the music of a falling fountain accompanied his recital. We suspect these legends owe as much to Mr. Irving as "The Arabian Nights" did to Mr. Galland: but if these fairytales be " plus Arahe qu'en *■■Irahie," we ought scarcely to complain If he who found the silk, has also wrought ft into " graceful broiderie." This has been the mistake of all the late doers into English of Arabian fiction: they have only given tts the raw material, and then boasted of their accuracy—as if accuracy in a fairy tale could *ver be asked by any but an antiquary. Mr. Irving, on the contrary, narrates equally fancifully and playfully, with a vein of quiet humour admirably suited to this age of disbelief. We
know no more exquisite specimens of their kind than the " Rose of the Alhambra" and *« The Three Beautiful Princesses." If any of our readers can, we advise them to go and visit the Alhambra themselves; if not, let them give full reins to their imagination, read these pages, and fancy themselves at once in the Hall of Lions.
A Description of a singular Aboriginal Race inhabiting the Summit of the Neilgherry Hills, or the Blue Mountains of Coimbatoor, in the Southern Peninsula of India. By Captain Henry Harkness, of the Madras Army.
This is a well written narrative. The singular tribes, whose manners and habits it ponrtrays, are specimens of human nature, but of a character deeply to excite our interest and astonishment. Front whence they came, and how, in the situation they occupy, tbey can be so different from all around them, are questions which may well perplex the moral philosopher. Idolaters without idols, superstitious without temples, and devoted to ceremonies, of the origin, nature, and reason of which they are totally ignorant, exhibit, them as a peculiar race. We refer exclusively to the Tudas who inhabit the Neilgherry Hills. These hills are said, and according to Mr. Harkness, "not improperly, to form the nucleus of the Eastern and Western Ghauts, lying between the parallels of 11 and 12 deg. north latitude, and 76 and 77 deg. east longitude; bounded by the Table Land of Mysore, the Carnatic, the provinces stretching towards the Western Sea, whence the distance is only about fifty miles; they partake of the monsoons of both coasts, a circumstance which gives them an equability of temperature which can but rarely be enjoyed in any other part of the globe. The scenery which tbey command is sublime and beautiful: bnt the greatest wonder which they present is their inhabitants. Mr. Harkness describes them as generally ** above the common height, athletic, and well made; their bold bearing and open and expressive countenances lead immediately to the conclusion, tbat they must be of a different race to their neighbours of the same hue ; and the question," he says, ** naturally arises,who can they be? They never wear any covering to the head, whatever the weather may be, but allow the hair to grow to an equal length of about six or seven Inches; parted from the centre, or crown, tt forms into natural bnshy circlets all round, and at a short distance more resembles tome artificial decoration than the simple adornment of nature. The hair of the face also is allowed a similar freedom of growth, and in every instance, except from the effect of age. It is of jet black, and of the same degree of softness as that of the natives of the low country. A large, full, and sparkling eye, Roman nose, fine teeth, and pleasing contour; having occasionally the appearance of great gravity, but seemingly ever ready to fall into the expression of cheerfulness and good humour, are natural marks, prominently distinguishing them from all other natives of India.
"They usually wear small gold ear-rings, some of them a studded chain of silver round the neck, and rings of the same description on the hand.
"Thtii dress consists of a short under garment, folded round the waist, and fiiteoed by a girdle; and of an upper one, or mantle, which covers •very part, except the head, legs, and occasionally the right arm. These are left bare, the folds of the mantle terminating with the leit shoulder, over which the bordered end is allowed to hang loosely.
"When in a recumbent or sitting position, this mantle envelopes them entirely, and for the night •s well as for the day, it is their only clothing. They wear no sandals, nor any kind of protection to the feet or legs; carry no weapon of defence, of the nse of which indeed they seem to have no notion; bat In the right hand a small rod, or wand, which they nse, not so much to assist them in walking, aa in the management of their herds, &c
"The women are of a stature proportionate to that of the men, but of complexion generally some shades lighter, the consequence, perhaps, of less exposure to the weather. With a strongly feminine cast of the same expressive features as the men, moat of them, and particularly the younger, have beautiful long black tresses, which flow in unrestrained luxuriance over the neck and shoulders*.
"With a modest and retiring demeanour, they are perfectly free from the ungracious and menial. like timidity of the generality of the sex of the low country, and enter into conversation with a stranger with a confidence and self-possession becoming in the eyes of Europeans, and strongly characteristic of a system of manners and customs widely differing from those of their neighbours. They wear necklaces of twisted hair, or black thread, with silver clasps, and here and there a bead, and suspended to them bunches of cowry shells, which hang down from the back of the neck between the shoulders. On the arms, immediately above the elbow, they wear a pair of armlets of brass, those of the right arm being much larger than those of the left; silver bracelets are on the wrists; and on the fingers and thumbs of each band, a number of rings of various descriptions. They also wear a zone round the waist, composed of a sort of chain-work, of either silver or a mixed metal resembling brass. Their upper garment, or mantle, resembles that of the men; but It is worn differently, and, reaching to the feet, envelopes the whole frame.
** This attire is by no means gracefol; it gives them an nnfeminine and mummy-like appearance; and neither they nor the men having any pretensions to cleanliness, this wrapper is, from that circumstance, often rendered still more ua ■eemJy.
"They are, however, a lively, laughter-loving race, and in the sadden transition and free expression of their sentiments, show a strength of feeling and correctness of thought little to be expected under such a garb.
"One of them, .Nnskyobe, whose name had attracted my attention, came into my room one day, and seating herself on the edge of the carpet, was looking at her son, a fine boy of six or seven years of age, who, to the amusement of himself and several lookers on, was imitating the antics and grimace of the dancing girls of the low country. On turning towards them, I was amused to? observe the expression of Nnskyobe's countenance, fn which admiration and contempt were by tarns ponrtrayed; admiration at the liveliness
and humour of her son, pity and contempt for that which he mimicked. 1 put several questions to her respecting her husband, alt of which she evaded by laughing at the foolery of the boy, and endeavouring to draw my attention to it. The little creature, however, hearing me repeat the same question, cried out in the middle of his gambols, * My father is dead!' Never have I seen so quick a transition from mirth to grief. The widow, in a flood of tears, the overflowing of that feeling which for a long time she had endeavoured to suppress; the boy motionless, his eyes fixed on her, apparently conscions of having done wrong, and afraid to move. At length the mother caught him in her arms, and with a passionate exclamation told us to look at her hair; that not two months since it reached to her waist, —now It barely touched her shoulders. I was not aware that it was the custom to cut off the hair on such occasions, and bad not observed, from the close way in which she wore her wrapper, that hers in any way differed from that of the other women of the tribe. I had unwittingly given pain where 1 had no intention, and, as a forfeit, presented her with a comb and small looking-glass. The trifle, or perhaps the acknowledgment it conveyed, restored good-humour; and I afterwards witnessed many instances of the happy power of reflection; for the men were fully as much amused with looking at themselves as the women; and, from the cariosity they expressed, it was evident that till very lately the brook or streamlet had been the only mirror with which they were acquainted."
Descending from the habitation of the Tudas, Captain Harkness describes the inhabitants at the bases of the mountains and the adjacent plains. These, though differing from the Tudas, and from each other, possess scarcely any features of the Hindoo character. They are each, so to speak, a tux generis. There are the Erulars, divided into two classes, one called I'rall; the other Cuiulalei; that is, the rulers and the common people; and their generic name implies that they are all barbarians. The Curumnars are another race, oil of one class; they form a perfect contrast to the Tudas, and are notorious for their low art and cunning. Over all the tribes except the Tudas they possess a kind of Satanic influence, as they pretend to necromancy, magic, and the power of Inflicting disease and death. The Tudas do not consider the Erulars as forming a part of the inhabitants of the hills, but they allow this designation to the Curnmbars, whom they call Crabs, and from whom tbey receive certain services. The next are called Cohatars, because they kill and eat a great deal of beef. They occupy many of the elevated parts of the mountains. They are a strange race, have no distinction of cast, and differ as much from the other tribes of the mountains as they do from all other natives of India. They arc not Hindus, but worship ideal gods of their own, which, however, they <lo not repre> sent by any. image. The most numerous, the most wealthy, and what must be considered the most civilized class of the inhabitants, arc the Burghers. By this general term is understood the whole of the people, who, since a certain period, have migrated to these mountains. They divide themselves into no less than eight different classes, hut are all Hindus of the Siva sect, and the dissimilitude among roost of these classes is too Hilling to be worthy of remark. The Cur am bars are tributary to the Tildas ami the Burghers, aud maintain an influence over them which is highly beneficial to themselves* though they are few in niiinbt r«, and in many respects inferior to both.
The Tildas are the extraordinary people, and lend the greatfat interest to the present work. They open a wide held of speculation to the philosophical inquirer* whose motto is
44 Homo sum, nihil hnmanl a. me
The Author concludes his sketches of these singular people by a vivid and most interesting description of a funeral which he witnessed of one of their chiefs. And we have no doubt that his aiuicipations will be realized; namely, that his narrative will be received by the British public with some portion of the interest which was powerfully created within his own mind while witnessing the actual occurrences he basso graphically described.
The Mythology of the Hindus, with Notices of various Mountain and Island Tribes inhabiting the two Peninsulas of India, and the neighbouring Islands. By Charles Coleman.
We have rarely perused a work more entitled to attention than the learned but highly interesting volume now under notice. Mr. Coleman has evidently collected, at vast labour, during many years, the knowledge of which the results are before ns. They are given in as popular a form as the nature of the subject would admit: the style is easy and agreeable, and he has mingled with more abstruse matters so mnch of anecdote and illustrative remark, that his book is scarcely less amusing to the general than instructive to the more scientific reader.
The Hindu mythology is a vast, an almost boundless field of allegory, containing some of the finest and most diversified imagery of the poet's fancy, with truths as beautiful as those inculcated by the sacred doctrines of the Christian faith, and abominations as gross as any that ever stained the aunals of idolatry and superstition. To understand this correctly, it need only be observed, that it is a polytheistic worship of millions of deities, based upon the holy doctrines of a true and i.nly God. These doctrines still remain the creed of the Hindu sage; the superstructure baa been the work of Brahmjnical priestcraft, wherewith the pre-eminence of the Brahmins has been built on the mental and moral degradation of their ignorant and deluded followers. In this, wc Imagine, they have not been singular; for such would appear to have been the causes of the extravagant worshipintroduced (whatever may have been their origin) by every mythology throughout the world.
'The first deviations from the simplicity of worship of an nnseen God were, no doubt, the adoration of the sun and heavenly bodies;—the most glorious types that could be imagined of his power and majesty. These types seem to have been subsequently personified, aud to have given rise, in the shape of metamorphoses, incarnations or avatars, wives, and descendants, (to which may be appended occasional deified heroes,) to the numerous deities of the several mythologies,
including the niiHioos of these belonging to the Hindu Pantheon. To class those millions; to reduce them to limits that a consistent comprehension may be formed of them; and to trace them back to their oiiginal source, have been the leading objects of this work.
In the Hindu mythology, gross as it may be in the aggregate, there is much that is commendable, which is not to be found in other mythologies; —viz. the excellence of its original doctrines, as described in their Vedas or Scriptures. The purity of these, and the unity of worship which they inculcate, the following brief passages, taken from their pages, will show :—
"Let ns adore the supremacy of that divine sun, the Godhead who illumine* all, delights all, from whom all proceed, to whom all must return, whom we invoke to direct onr understanding aright in onr progress towards his holy seat.'*
"On that effulgent light, which is Brahm
(God) himself, and is called the light of the
radiant Sun, do I meditate, governed by the
mysterious light that resides within me for the purpose of thought. I myself am an irradiated manifestation of the supreme Brahm."
The Hindus have certainly a knowledge of the existence of a world before tbe deluge, as Vishnu, the preserving power of tbe Supreme Being, is made, in bis first Avatar, to foretell it to, and cause to prepare for it, a pious King Satyavrau, (who is imagined to be Noah,) who was saved; and in the second and third Avatars, he is described as recovering the Vedas and other things which bad been ingulfed in tbe waters. Bat here we imagine the chronological data of the Hindu to begin, as they do not appear to have a knowledge of the fall of man, or other events antecedent to the deluge, described in the Bible. Mr. Manrite has, however, affirmed the contrary, and that there is a whole Purana which treats of the fall of man: bnt It is well known, that many of the Poranas were Interpolations In the original Hindn Scriptures. We are, therefore, more inclined to concur with Sir W. Jones, who is of opinion, that although the Hindus have an idea of a first man, or Menu, the son of Brahma, from whom they allege the Vedas were received, and who may be considered synonymous with Adam, the only true chronology which can be relied upon, commences, among them, with die first Avatar ofVishnu, or the universal delnge.
The Hindus have their Trlmurtl, or Trinity^ but it his no affinity to the Trinity of tbe Christian faith. It comprises the three great attributes of the supreme Deity, (Brahm)—Creation, Preservation, and Destruction, delegated to celestial agents, Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva, for the purposes of creating, preserving, and annihilating worlds. Of these operations the author has noticed three legends; one of which describes also the origin of the four great castes of the Hindus,
"As Vishnu (the preserving spirit ot Cod) was sleeping on the serpent Atlanta, or Eternity, oa the face of the waters, after the annihilation of a former world, a lotus sprang from his navel, from which issued Brahm, who produced the elements, formed the present world, and gave birth to the God Rudra, or Siva, tbe Destroyer. He then produced the human race: from hi head he