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can conceive nothing more spirited and inspiring when performed by Mr. John Weippart's admirable band.
The Paganini Quadrilles are as beautiful, and better suited for private performers and performance. The arranger has selected with taste and judgment, and the melange Is delightful, even as a selection of airs.
La Franchezza. Introduction and Rondo for the Piano Forte, with a Flute Accompaniment. By M. MarielH.
We like music arranged for two instruments: it is encouraging to young beginners to play in concert, and the sorest method of forming a good limist. The introduction is a simple, pretty movement, in three flats, and the rondo is sprightly
and animated. The Ante accompaniment through out is pleasing, and not difficult of execution.
Twelve Songs, &c. Written by Mrs. Hemans; the Music by her Sister. Arranged with Accompaniments for the Spanish Guitar.
We have so frequently admired the songs and arrangements of these accomplished sisters, that we can add nothing to our former commendation, and have so little, or rather nothing to censure, that the critic's office is harmless in our hands. The present collection Is pleasingly arranged, with guitar accompaniments, by C. M. Sola, and cannot fail to be objects of interest and improvement to all who either profess or study that charming instrument.
EXHIBITION OF THE ROYAL ACADEMY.
The sixty-fourth exhibition of the Royal Academy consists of 1229 works of art, and is, perhaps, taken altogether, the most successful collection that has yet been made within the walls of Somerset House. As usual, just beneath the ceiling, and immediately above the floor, mediocrity predominates; but the visiter will find ample employment, from sunrise to sunset, in examining those that will bear examination. We know not who are the " hangers" this year, but they seem to have given more than ordinary satisfaction—all the best places are not monopolized by the members. Those who desire to see Wilkie's splendid picture of ," The Preaching of Knox" must be early risers; otherwise, it is only by waiting patiently for at least an hour, they have the slightest chance of drawing near to this centre of attraction. They may, however, spend the time profitably in noting either Leslie's painting of the "Taming of the Shrew," on the right hand, or Mulready's "Forgotten Word," on the left. It seems universally admitted that Wilkie's picture is not only the most excellent in the exhibition, but that it is, beyond question, the most perfect work of the English school—a work that has never been equalled in England. The subject is given as follows :—
"In Dr. M'Crie's life of this extraordinary person is described the event this picture is intended to represent, which took place during the regency of Maty of Guise, in the parish church of St. Andrew's in Fifeshire, where John Knox, having just arrived from Geneva, after an exile of thirteen yeaTS, in defiance of a threat of assassination, and while an army in the field was watching the proceedings of his party, appeared in the pulpit and discoursed to a numerous assembly, including many of the clergy, when such was the influence of his
doctrine, that the provost, bailies, and inhabitants harmoniously agreed to set up the reformed worship in the town. The church was stripped of all images and pictures, and the monasteries were pulled down."
The persons by whom the preacher is surrounded are the more distinguished characters of the time. It is not difficult to describe thus far, but it is far less easy to do justice to the powerful pencil of the artist. We have heard that it is without fault, and to us it certainly appears so. The grouping; the judicious arrangement of its several parts; the character observed in the leading actors in the grand scene; the colouring (the blending of light and shade more especially); even the minor details, are all so many rare specimens of what a master-mind may accomplish. Wilkie is not likely to surpass this work ; but to do so is unnecessary. It has rendered his fame as lasting and as sure as our nature.
From Wilkie we may pass, and without descending many steps, to Turner, who in his own walk of art is scarcely less pre-eminent. His picture of "Italy," illustrative of a passage in "Childe Harold," is most magnificent. A rich and luxurious portrait of the classic land in its decay—
"Thy wreck a glory, and Ihy ruin graced
Of the other landscapes, we may here notice those by Callcott, Staniield, Constable, and Jones. The three last-named exhibit pictures of the opening of London Bridge; but neither of them, to our mind, can rank among the more successful of their works. Jones, indeed, has given us a series of portraits, rather than a scene; Stanfield has made the Bridge the chief object of attraction; and Constable has mingled white and green so confusedly with little blots of red, as to have produced a droll rather than a pleasing effect. Collins is, as usual, excellent and attractive; his " Skittle Players," a homely English scene, with true English character, is one of the most delicious efforts of his pencil.
There are but two pictures of Leslie's, one from the "Taming of the Shrew," finely painted and most effective; the other, a family group—the Grosvenor family—in which he has done more, perhaps, than ever has been done previously with a collection of gentlemen and ladies in modern and fashionable attire. There is another picture of the same class, by Mr. J. Hayter, and in many respects, of equal merit. It is a collection of portraits of the Fitzclarences—as fine a family, taken altogether, as any in the kingdom; and, notwithstanding that some assumed political errors have subtracted a little from their popularity of late, we may add, as meritorious a family, with as few blots and blemishes, either of form, feature, or character, as we could meet with throughout the King's dominions. Mr. Hayter has produced an admirable picture of the whole. It is well grouped, judiciously arranged, and painted with extreme breadth and spirit, at the same time that its minor details are accurately finished, saving and except that a few parts, it would appear, the pencil must again touch.
Among the Portraits, those of Pickersgill take the highest stand. Next to him we may place Mr. Briggs, who has this year made good his claim to excellence in this more profitable branch of the profession— having already established it as an historical painter. Those of Sir M. A. Shee, notwithstanding his ancient fault of chalkiness, are worthy of high praise. That of Chantrey will not suffer by comparison with any in the Exhibition.
"The Saint Manufactory," by Thomas Uwins, is universally attractive, not only because of the novelty and humour of the subject, but as a work of the highest merit, both in reference to design and colour :—
"Here is displayed the whole machinery of Neapolitan devotion: crucifixes, Madonnas, saints, angels, and souls in purgatory. As I passed one day, two Capuchin friars were driving a hard bargain with the saintmaker for a bunch of cherubs suspended from the ceiling, while some countrywomen brought their household images to be newly painted and repaired."
"Hawking, by E. Landseer, is, we believe, the largest work he has yet produced; but it is painted with all the care and delicacy by which he has been so invariably distinguished. The Old Harper in the back ground is a portrait of the once celebrated Niel Gow. And among the other groups are several likenesses of well-known characters.
« The Death of Sir JohD Moore," by G. Jones, is a fine picture. It describes the hero dying not upon the field of battle, but at his Iffdgings in Corunna, surrounded by the officers of his staff. — Mr. Brockedon exhibits, also, a description of the funeral of the brave General—
"Buried at dead of night,— and then—
Left alone in his glory."
The "Eastern Scenes" of Mr. Daniell are, as usual, exceedingly attractive and interesting.
We have been forced to postpone until our next number a more detailed criticism of the works in the Exhibition, and indeed to content ourselves with a mere glance at the more prominent pictures. We shall, however, enter more fully into the subject next month.
FINE ARTS PUBLICATIONS.
The Penny Wedding. Painted by David Wilkie; engraved by J. StewartThere are few of Wllkle's prints so calculated to please generally as this of " The Penny Wedding," just pnblished by Moon, Boys, and Oravos. The artist is at home in his " ain countree;" »nd of Scottish life and character, who has been, or, we may add, who will ever be, Bo delightful an historian? Here we have a numbi-r of happy groups—all happy, and all occnpieil—from the young couple, who have no thought of gloom, at they foot it to the rude but merry music, to the aged parents, who seem to feel their yonth renewed, and their hearts growing glad and gay as when boys and girls they danced to the same tune, to the same pnrpose. The scene is a most joyoes one. Though Wilkie is welcome in any shape, he Is never so welcome as when he brings with him the people of his own land. The print wiH find favour in the sight of all who love natnrc. or can appreciate art. It is, moreover, wrll engraved; the spirit, homour, and point of the artist have been caught, and conveyed to the copper.
Vizitelly's Gold Frame Tablets.
We have rarely seen more beantiful specimens of art than the tinted and gold Frame-tablets for mounting drawings and prints, recently invented and published by Yixilelly, of Fleet-street- They are designed in the purest taste, chiefly from models of the classic age of Louis XIV. The gold is firmly bnt lightly laid upon the tinted card, the colour of which is calculated at once to set on the gilding to the best advantage, ami to harmonize with the print it may be designed to harmonize. To the portfolio, or the drawingroom table, they are delightful and valuable additions, and may serve as covers to books of drawings or prints, where elegance and good taste are consulted. Mr. Vizitelly has invented many rare and curious specimens of art; but we think this far beyond any he has yet produced. The tinted tablets are of various colours, and of course, much cheaper. Of both there are a variety of sizes aud patterns; and it is stated, that neither are liable to tarnish, a great and novel advantage in such matters.
PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIEvS.
We believe that few provincial cities can vie with Bristol in the efforts that have been there made towards improvement in science and the arts. We have had freouent opportunities of noticing the zeal of its members in procuring from the most unquestionable sources, information upon all topics that come within the plan of its leading institution. We publish with much pleasure the following lecture recently delivered in its hall by Dr. Riley—it is one of a series on TSrpetology. After some observations on the order Saurians, the Doctor proceeds:— "The genos crocodile is characterised by the scaly covering of its body, which forms ridges along the back: it has four feet, with five toes before and four behind, three toes on each foot being armed with nails; the feet are palmated; (he tail U flattened on the sides, and has a dentated ridge on the npper margin. This genus contains three subgenera, the gavial, the crocodile, and the alligator; these will be described in the next lecture. They increase to a very large size in tropical climates, having ben known to arrive at the length of thirty or even forty feet. They were regarded by the Egyptians with great reverence, on account of their use in preserving them from the Incursions of the robbers of the Libyan desert. The Dntch, at the present time, fill the ditches round their forts in the East Indies with voracious animals, to prevent desertion from within and attacks from without.
"On examining the structure of the crocodile, we find it modified almost entirely for existing in water. Besides its palmated feet, the tail fur. Dishes it with a very powerful means of propelling itself through this element. The opening into the nose is guarded by a contractile ligament which keeps it in general closed, and with a system of muscles to open it when required; by this means (which is similar to the apparatus connected with the claws in a cat's foot) the water is prevented from entering the air passages when the bead is immersed in it. The opening from the month to the nose also, is so formed that the radimentary tongue acts as a valver in such a manner as to allow the animal to breathe whilst the n.outh is full of water. We find none of these adaptations in the land lizards; in them the tail is round, and there is no palmation of the feet.
"In examining the osteology of the crocodile, we perceive that the bead is very much elongated, and that the bones are formed of a number of pieces like those of the chelonians. The occipital bones consist of four pieces; the frontal at first of six, which afterwards become five, the two central parts being united into one, to afford greater strength to that part of the head, which is the most vulnerable part of the whole animal, the strength of the scales being sufficient in almost every part of its body to tnrn a musket-ball; for the same reason the two parietal bones are consolidated into one. The lachrymal bones, which in man form a small portion or the lachrymal canal, are here extended so as to fill a considerable part of the face ; the nasal bones are also considerably elongated ; but the principal part of the open June.—Vol. xxxvt. No. Cxxxviii.
ing into the nose issurronnded by the Intermaxillary bone, which is of very large size. The formation of Ihe teeth of the crocodile is worthy of notice. As it feeds entirely upon animal food. It Is necessary that it should be well furnished with the means of catching it. The front teeth of the lower jaw, when the mouth is closed, shut into a set of openings tn the intermaxillary bone, which forms part of the upper jaw, in such a manner that nothing held in then can escape. The teeth are hollow cones, and are constantly being replaced with new ones, which grow up beneath them. The lower jaw is composed of six pieces on each side, a proper acquaintance with which will be of material use to us In assigning to the fossil genera their proper situations. They are called the dental, the opercular, the angular, the subangular, the articular, and the complimentary bones. The neck is formed in such a manner as to possess very great strength, but at the same time scarcely any mobility; the transverse processes are extended in form of a T, so as to prevent lateral motion, and to afford more surface for the attachment of muscles: the transverse processes of the two superior vertebra are delanceolated and much elongated, which is a point worth notice, with reference to the fossil genera. The cervical vertebrae are seven in number, the dorsal twelve, the lumbar five, the sacral two, and the caudal forty-two. The central portions of these vertebra: are, in all the Saurians, ronnd, and separated from the other elements, affording a ready means of distinguishing the fossil vertebra of the Saurians from those of other animals. One of the great peculiarities of the crocodile is its power of abdominal respiration when in the water. It is furnished with an abdominal sternum, and seven pairs of cartilaginous ribs. By means of two openings in the parietes of the abriot men, the crocodile has the power of admitting the water into the cavity, the lining of which has the power of absorbing the air from the fluid. This circumstance explains why the crocodile is so much more active and powerful when in the water than on land. Man has been defined to be a species intermediate to those that follow him. He is far superior to any other animal in the developement of his brain and nervous system ; but his locomotive organs are inferior to that of the horse, his circulating system to that of many other animals, and we perceive that even that degraded animal the crocodile has a respiratory apparatus in some respects superior to bis own. These abdominal ribs exist in a rudimentary state in the white lines across the recti-muscles of most mammalia.
"These animals live in holes in the banks of rivers, and destroy their prey by holding it under water; they do not immediately eat It, but deposit it in a secret place until it is softened by decomposition. The female lays hereggs secretly, and afterwards watches them and takes charge of the young. There are sixteen species in the geims. They are classed under three subgenera, the gavial, the crocodile, and the alligator.
"The gavial is distinguished by the narrowness and length of its jaws; all the feet are palmated, and the skin rises into a dentated ridge on the posterior margin of the legs, forming a kind of semi-palmalion; the tail is extremely long, and 2 i
the vertical ridge mi it very strongly marked; the temporal fossa? are very large; the nasal bone* only extend half way down the face, and do not, as in the crocodllot surround part of the opening Into the note, which is here entirely formed by the intermaxillary bones; the two lateral portions of the lower jaw are joined together for some extent; and the dental and opercular bones are greatly developed. The head it formed for cntling the water with facility; and we ace that by the structure of its organs of locomotion, its powers of progression are considerable. According to the law of balancing of organs, noticed in the first lecture, we find a deficiency of power in its organs of offence as compared with those of the crocodile and alligator; for the elongation of the jaws throws the resistance to a considerable distance from the power, and the force Is therefore much less advantageously applied, as far as regards strength, than In those animals which have short jaws, and the muscle inserted near the resistance. This animal Inhabits India, and abounds in the Ganges. V.li,.u informs us that there were two kinds of Ganges crocodile, the one cruel and the other not so; by the first he probably meant the common crocodile; and by the second,thegavial, as from its want of strength it is less bold and ferocious than the former. Cuvier describes a second species of gavial, the tenuirostris, from a specimen In (he Jardin des Flantes; it is not improbable, however, that this is only a variety of the former.
"In the crocodile, the head is shorter than that of the gavial, but is still twice as long as it is broad. The posterior members only are palmated and furnished with serrated edges; the fourth tooth in the lower Jaw passes into a groove in the upper jaw; (in the alligator this tooth passes into an opening of the jaw itself, giving it the power of holding it, with great firmness;) the temporal fossa is smaller than that of the gavial. There was not any separation of species of this genus nntil the French expedition to Egypt, which has been before mentioned as having much advanced the awdy of natural history. The crocodile of the Nile is the one which has been the oftenest and bast described. The eyes are more distant than In the other species, and there is no crest or elevation between them. It has six plates on the neck, and six very regular rows of rectangular plates on the back. Its colour is a dark green approaching to bronze, but much lighter under the abdomen. It Is called In Egypt, champses.
"The crocodiles of the Nile are now foand only in Upper Egypt, and are not lethargic, as they were formerly said to be, during four months of the year, the climate being sufficiently warm to keep them constantly in an active state. They frequently attain the length of thirty feet, or even more; they have a strong odour of musk, and their flesh is eaten by the negroes. In some parts of Ancient Kgypt, the crocodile was held in great respect, and even worshipped; whilst in others every means was employed to destroy them j we have already stated the use of which they were to the Egyptians in preventing the Libyan and Arabian robbers from crossing their rivers. The same species of crocodile la found in other rivers of Africa, particularly the Gambia and Senegal, and it is remarked tbat the farther Inland we procoed, the greater is the size of the crocodiles found there. The hippopotamus is its most formidable enemy, and conflicts frequently arise be
tween them, the crocodile being generally worsted. Great numbers of crocodiles* eggs arc destroyed by the ichneumon, and many of the yonng ones become the prey of birds, tortoises, &c.
"Herodotus wrote much respecting the crocodile of Egypt, though his account has been generally supposed to be very erroneous; but the observations made by Geoffroy de St. Hilaire, and the information which he acquired from the Egyptian fishermen, tend very much to confirm It. It appears that, at the time of Herodotus, the crocodile inhabited Lower Egypt; and it is, therefore, not unlikely tbat the hybernation mentioned by him really took place, though it is not the case at present. The time during which it can remain under water Is stated to be ten minutes, and it frequently is not seen to rise to the surface at the expiration of that time, as when it does not wish to be observed, it merely elevates its bead sufficiently to obtain a Mppty of air through the aperture Into the nose. One of the assertions of Herodotus which has been most ridiculed is, that the wren is in the habit of entering the crocodile's mouth, and removing from it the leeches adherent to the palate. As there are no leeches in the Nile, and as the wren does not inhabit Egypt, his account was considered completely fabulous; but it appears from the statement of the Egyptian fishermen at the present time, that the crocodile is much annoyed by gnats, which suck the blood from the Inside of its month, and tbat a species of plover relieves it by entering its mouth when asleep, and removing them. If, then, we translated the word Too^iAoj plover, instead of wren, and 08cAAa goat, instead of leech, we shall find the account of Herodotus to he perfectly correct. When the crocodile comes out of the water, he turns his head to the wind, and holds his mouth open for a considerable time, as if by this means to make up lor the deficiency of his respiration in the air, as noticed in the last lecture. From the veneration In which the crocodile was held in many parts of Egypt, It is not surprising that we find many mummies of this animal. It is not certain whether the species which was domesticated, as it were, in their temples, was or not the common crocodile of the Nile. From an examination of many embalmed specimens, Mr. Geoffroy de St. Hilaire has made it a separate species, calling it the C. snchls. He says that the bead Is longer and flatter; that the colour is different; and that the jaws are much less strong; besides which, Its length seldom exceeded five feet. The C. acinus of St. Domingo has six plates fewer than the species we have mentioned. It has the power of bending its tail so as to make It touch the sides of its body.
"After mentioning five other species of crocodile, which present nothing very remarkable to distinguish them, Dr. K. proceeded to the alligator, which is characterised by the wideuesa of its head in proportion to its length; the fourth tooth In the lower jaw passes through an aperture in the upper Jaw ; the temporal fossae are small; the feet are only semi palmated, and there I? no ridge on the posterior legs. The pike-nosed alii, gator, (A. lucius.) which is distinguished by the fonr plates on the back of his neck, inhabits North America as far as 32 deg. north of the Equator. It hybematcs during the winter, and lives usually on insects and fishes, though occasionally it attacks large animals. It Is stated by Bote, who paid much attention to iu habits, that if a white man and a negro were presented to it at the same time, it would prefer the latter. He also mentions a curious stratagem of the dogs which live near the rivers where the alligators abound. When they wish to drink, they go to the water and barb; this attracts the alligators to tba •pot; the dog immediately runs as he can to some distant part of the river, where he has lime to drink before the alligators can come up with him. The A. sclerops is distinguished by a mark round the eyes, resembling a pair of spectacles, whence its name, and by the narrowing of the jaw. The distinction between the other species is quite arbitrary; tbey are named palpebrosns, trigonatas, and covieriauns.
"With respect to tbe extinct species of this genus, we may remark, that the older the strata in which remains of tbem are found, tbe more these remains diner from the animals at present existing. Tbe first fossil Saurian animal of which we have any account, was described by Or. Stnkeley, iu the " Philosophical Tranaactions" for 1718. it was found in the oolite, near Newark, and was at first supposed to have been a human skeleton. Dr. Stnkeley considered it to be either a crocodile or a porpoise, though the presence of the pelvis should have made him perceive that it could not be the latter. M. Conybeare has since determined it to be the Plesiosaurus. In 1708 a fossil Saurian was discovered in the lias on the shore near Whitby. The length of the spine was nine feet, and that of the bead two feet nine inches. The form of its head was very similar to that of the gavial, to which it seemed more closely allied than to the other genera. Tbe Crocodllos priKus may in the same manner be considered as an extinct species of gavial, though It differs from It in several important particulars, having ten more vertebras in the tall, and the femur being twice as long as the tibia, whilst in tbe gavial it is of tbe same length. It was found in the Jura limestone (an oolitic formation.) The teleosanrus affords, in some degree, an illustration of Lamarck's theory of the progiessive elevation of the forms of tbe lower animals, until they arrive at a higher state. It resembles the gavial in many respects; but the developement of the organ of smell shows an advance towards the con. formation ol* the mammalia. Tbe steneosaurua Is found in the oolite near Honfleur. It may be considered an extinct species of gavial. Many remains of the crocodile have been found in the iron-sand of TUgate Forest, and in tbe chalk formition."
IIOVAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS.
A paper on the subject of diseases reckoned contagious, more especially in connexion with the prevalent epidemic, from the pen of Dr. HeDerden, was read by Dr. Hawkins, at a recent meeting. The author appeared to lean to the side of contagion; but in clear and unbiassed language, he reviewed the arguments and facts urged by the supporters of contagion and non-contagion. The course of no disease, he observed, had been traced with more certainty than that of Cholera for the last fifteen years. Was it to be supposed that its ravages were occasioned by a certain
state of the atmosphere i If so, wby had it travelled so slowly '. I ufluenza, dependent on that cause, was marked by an opposite character—it travelled swiftly. On the subject of predisposition, the author observed, it was not enough that the seed should be vigorous, the temperature of the atmosphere suitable; the soil also must be adapted to circumstances: clearly implying, we think, that if the system be not made a fit receptacle for a certain class of diseases by intemperance, privation, or inattention to cleanly habits, attacks of this kind will be less frequent and virulent, although aided by peculiarity of sky or climate. On infection some curious remarks were made: ex. gr. the inhabitants of a part of the Hebrides, on the authority of the clergyman, it was stated, always "caught a cold," as the phrase is, on the arrival of a stranger amongst them! Again, it was well known that individuals vuiting certain parts of the globe, were more liable to peculiar diseases than the inhabitants. Was this owing to insects floating invisibly in the air, who, like epicures, preferred exotics 1 It appeared, that amongst those who considered Cholera as contagious was Sir Thomas Monro, who fell a victim to its malignant attacks: surrounded by his friends, while on his death-bed, he warned them of the consequences of their kind attention, and called upon them to leave him to himself. After some remarks on the analogy of contagion in small-pox and that in Cholera, where some are susceptible and others non-susceptible—a circumstance which might be adduced, by those who were so inclined, as a refutation of the doctrine of contagion — the paper concluded by a few hints on disinfection and prevention; the former, boiling in water, or exposing to a strong heat, the suspected article; the latter, natural good health and temperance.
ROYAL SOCIETY OF LITKUATUHL.
An article, entitled " Etruria," was read from a manuscript by Sir W.Gell, on Roman topography; in which the author enters at considerable length into a discussion upon the origin of the nations inhabiting that part of the Italian peninsula; their connexion with the Pelasgi and the Celts; the arrival of colonies of Tyrrhenians, or Lydians, from Asia-Minor, and the migration of Sicnli, or Tyrrhene Pelasgians, to Athens, where, according to Pausanias, they were employed in constructing part of the wall of the Acropolis. The author endeavours to explain and to reconcile the various accounts given of the origin of the Etrurians by Herodotus, and the several writers that have followed his opinion (who derive them from the continent of Asia), on the one side, and of Dionysius of Halicarnassus on the other, who describes them as Greeks. Some simi