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Unties are traced in the memoir between the ancient language of Ktruria and that of Thrace; and others between the Etrurian tongue and that of the ancient Gauls or Celts, are accounted for by the extension of the nation to the modem city of Turin, on the west, and to the river Adige, or the ancient Athesis, on the eastern portion of Cisalpine Gaul. An allusion is made to the opinion of Festus, that the name of Tuscans came from 8uoo7ro<r<, said to have been given to them from their frequent sacrifices. A connexion also seems to have existed between this denomination and that of the Osci, although it does not appear that this last-mentioned people bore any prominent part in the history of Ktruria.
Whatever may have been the importation of Greek colonies or inhabitants into Etruria in the earliest times, the first historical evidence on this subject is the flight of Demaratiis from the tyranny of Cypselus, at Corinth, in the year 658 n. <. the date of his settlement at Tarquinii, now Corneto. His son was called to the throne of Rome, under the name of Tarquinius Priscus.
There is every reason to lielieve that many of the arts of Greece, and the refinements of civilization, were introduced into Etruria on this occasion; amongst these arts were paramount, that of working in brass, for which Corinth had been long celebrated; architecture, particularly sepulchral; and the manufacture of fictile vases, more than 3000 of which have been discovered in the tombs lately excavated.
Sir W. Gell then enters into a full and expressive description of the sculptures and paintings which were found upon the walls of the tombs at Corneto or Tarquinii, and which were chiefly illustrative of the religious ceremonies and games of the inhabitants, bearing a very strong analogy, almost amounting to an identity, with those which exist on the monuments, and are described in the writings, of ancient Greece.
Tarquinii was reduced to the condition of a Roman colony in the year u. c. 456: and as it cannot be imagined that the heroic tumuli of this city were erected after that period, nor indeed during its decline, the last of these monuments could not have a later date than 300 years B. C.
Many inscriptions exist in these tombs; but as yet the interpretation of this mysterious language, though its remains are so considerable, and though they are written in a character clearly identical, in almost every letter, with the Pelasgic or very ancient Greek, has defied the efforts of the learned. Among the great variety of specimens of the language which exist, a few are bilinguar; of these, the writer gives a sufficient number to show in what way the Roman names most familiar to us were formed or corrupted from the Etruscan. His account of what is known of the language of Etruria is concluded with a notice of such words belonging to it as have been left by ancient writers, of which few or none can be traced with certainty in any of the numerous remaining writings of the country.
A number of informations have been laid for any other purpose than that of draining
against individuals for using drainage tiles wet or marshy land, they shall, for every
for ordinary purposes, contrary to the pro- such offence, forfeit the sum of fifty pounds.'
visions of the 7th George IV. cap. 49, sec. The oUer u ^coming a rare animal in
3. In order that our readers may be put E land bu, 0Qe mea5urmg 52j inches in
on thar guard, we extract the following ^ and 24; circumf|rence at tbe
from the Act:-" It shall be lawful for any 5no6uld wa3 ,atel ht in the river
person to make tiles or bricks for the sole c t Northumberland. It had nine
purpose of draining wet or marshy land ^ „ ;„ skin.
without being charged or chargeable with r r
any duty, provided that all such tiles or The following is an account of the quan
bricks shall be stamped or moulded by the tlties o( the different kinds of Corn imported
person making the same with the word into Great Britain during the year 1830:—
■ drain ' in or near the centre of one of the Wheat qn. i,M4,!Mio
surfaces of such tile or brick, in so plain Barley ditto 281,713
and distinct a manner that the same may Omu ditto Ml ,859
be easily and distinctly legible to any Rve di"° o*-910
officer of the Excise or other person examin- H«» and Bmm . . ditto 84,130
ing the same, both before and after such Wheat meal aart floor, <:«•. 461.89S
tiles or bricks shall have gone through the After a conference of the taxing officers
process of burning, and become fit for use; of the Courts of King's Bench, Common
and if any person making such tiles or bricks Pleas, and Exchequer, the following scale
as aforesaid, or any other person or persons, of allowance to witnesses for maintenance
•■hall sell or deliver, use, or employ any and attendance has been agreed to; so that
^•OUroped or moulded as aforesaid, every witness may hereafter know what he
is entitled to receive, and for which he is compellable to attend :—
For travelling expenses per £ «. d. 1' i. d. milt: one way ...... 0 1 ft to 070
Common witnesses, aiich as labourers, journeymen, &c. per day 0 5 0 to 0 15 0
Tradesmen, yeomen, and tanners 0 10 0 to 0 15 0
Aactioneers and accountants 0 10 0 to 1 10
Gentlemen, merchants,bankers, &c. if in London, one guinea only, with subpoena; if at Assises, per day lift
Professional men .... 1 1 0 to 2 2 0
Attorneys' clerks . . . . 0 10 0 to 1 1ft
Females, according to station in life 0 S 0 to 1 0 0
The following return has been issued from the Treasury :—Return, showing in one table the Numbers of the following Descriptions of Armed Force in the United Kingdom on the first of January, 1832— viz.: the Regular Army of all Ranks; the Regiments of Artillery of all Ranks; Marines on Shore of all Ranks; Militia Staff of all Ranks; Volunteers of Great Britain of all Ranks; Yeomanry of Ireland of all Ranks; Police of Ireland of all Ranks.
1. The Regular Army of all Ranks . 51,5? I
2. The Regiments of Artillery of all Ranks 4,580
3. Marines on Shore of all Ranks 4,324
4. Militia Stall of all Ranks . . . 1,017
5. Volunteers of Great Britain of all Ranks 10,399
fi. Yeomanry of Ireland of all Ranks 31/112 7. Police of Ireland of all Ranks 7,367
Vis.:—Constabulary Police 6,023
Total .... 122,309
Assessed Taxes.—An official notification has been made to the collectors of the assessed taxes, that they will be required to pay to the Receiving Inspector, the King's Taxes in full to the 5th of April current, the second week in May , and that no defaulter's schedules will be received at the time, but under the peculiar circumstances warranted by the Acts of Parliament; such as, void premises, removals without notice, absences under legal restrictions, bankruptcies, poverty, and the like. And to prevent a misconception, that they have the power to forbear enforcing by their warrant a levy on the defaulters, who may erroneously suppose they are entitled to a claim of forty days' indulgence, they are reminded that the Receiving Inspector is empowered by the statute to take their deposition on oath, by examination of the circumstances which they may allege for non-performance of their
duty, and to cause a penalty to be inflicted on them, in not acting in conformity therewith, as regarding the assessed taxes. The land tax acts admitting no defalcation in payment whatever of the full amount under similar penalties, which the Receiving Inspector is called upon to enforce, for any neglect which may be considered as wilful.
The number of patients at St. Bartholomew's Hospital last year was 5275 inpatients, 7458 out-patients, and 15,137 casualty patients, many of whom were supplied with money, clothes, and other necessaries to enable them to return home. At St. Thomas's, the number was 3165 inpatients, and 20,627 out-patients, including casualties; making a total of 53,500 persons relieved in one year by two of these distinctive ornaments of the Christian world.
Blake Medal.—His Majesty has lately purchased from the executor of the late Mr. 1 rattle, a medal given by the Commonwealth to Admiral Blake, together with another gold medal, and also a silver one of the Commonwealth. These three beautiful medals are published in Van Loon :—. Blake, t. 2, p. 366; 2d, p. 23, no. 3; the 3d, p. 23, no. 4 In Dr. Mead's Catalogue, 1755, Blake's medal is said to have been bought by Dr. Burton for Lord Hardwire for 21/. The one in Mr. Tyssen's Catalogue, 1801, is described as having belonged to Greffier Fagel, and was bought by the late Mr. Trattle for 1481. Is. Whether or not the same medal is described in both of these Catalogues, may be easily determined by the weight. Dr. Mead's weighed 2 oz. 6 dwts. 20 grs.: if that bought by Mr. Trattle should be found to agree with this weight, there can be no doubt that it is the same; if not, there must of course be another in some other cabinet.
On the Detection of the Trace* of Writing fraudulently Erased—Professor Gazzari of Florence, having been frequently appointed by the Tribunals, to give professional evidence on trials of this nature, instituted experiments on the subject, which, by showing him the possibility of removing not only the ink, but also the materials employed in its removal, proved that cases might arise when the fraud could not be detected in any other manner than by examining the condition of the paper or other material written on. For this purpose optical means were tried in vain, and immersion in water did not show such a difference in the absorptive power of the written and unwritten parts, as happens in the employment of certain sympathetic inks; but on exposure of the suspected paper to a moderate fire, the paper, which in consequence of the corrosive effects of the ink, was in those parts altered in its nature, was unequally acted on by the process of carbonization, and thus the number and length of the lines, and often the whole of the erased portion, were distinctly revealed.—First Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science.
It is remarkable that notwithstanding the reduction of the duty on French wines, which took place in July 1831, the total consumption for the year was only 278,863 gallons, whilst that of the strong wines of Spain, Portugal, and Madeira, was 5,143,780 gallons: so that the consumption of French wines, which was said to have increased, was little more than one-twentieth of that of Spain and Portugal.
It appears from a Parliamentary return that the amount of the rewards paid in 1830 for the discovery of offenders in the disturbed districts, was 31,8432.8s. 8d. being at the rate of 172. per head, the number of prisoners having been 1887.
The sums received by churchwardens in England and Wales, from Easter 1830 to Easter 1831, was 446,2472.12s.; in church rates, 51,9192. Is. ; from estates, 18,2162.; from mortuary or burial fees, 41,4892. 17s. poor rates, 39,3822.12s.; pews and sittings, and from other sources not stated, 66,5592. 16s.—Total, 663,8142. 18s. of which, was expended, in repairs of churches, &c. 248,1252. 16s.; organs, bells, &c. 41,7102. 15s.; books, wine, ccc. 46,3372. 19s. ; salaries to clerks, sextons, &c. 126,1852. 17s.; any other purpose (principally visitation fees and travelling expenses), 183,5232. 2s. Total 645,8832. 9s.
('iimamon.—The gross revenue accruing from the sales of Ceylon cinnamon, since 1823, has varied from 52,4092. to 170,5342. per annum ; from which the charges in Ceylon and London are to be deducted. The average quantity sold in the last seven years has been 4,570,000 pounds, and the average price for the best has been 6s. 6d. per pound. The cinnamon is peeled at a certain season by a class called Chaliars, who are obliged to perform this duty in the forests, receiving a small fixed sum according to the quantity they deliver. Several of the inhabitants have of late made plantations of the tree, and cinnamon is received by the Government in payment of land rents. The wild cinnamon abounds in the forests of Malabar, and some plantations of the finer sort have also been lately made there. The quantity of cinnamon annually exported from Ceylon formerly, by the Dutch, appears to nave been raised from 180,000 pounds to 920,000 pounds, which they procured at the rate of 5d. per pound and sold in Europe at Us. per pound. Pepper was formerly cultivated in Ceylon, but it has latterly been chiefly purchased from Malabar, although the cul
tivation of it has been encouraged. It is used for preserving the cargoes of cinnamon by attracting moisture from the bales.
Dissenters in England.,.—The following table is extracted from the Congregational Magazine for 1829, and is drawn up from the calculations and returns made by Dissenters of the number of their meeting-houses in 1812, 1827, and 1829. The Magazine alluded to is the chief organ of the Independents :—
Pres. Indep. Bapt. Total.
In 1812, 252 799 532 1583
1827, 204 1205 805 2212
1829, 258 1289 888 2435
This is exclusive of the Methodists, the most numerous class, the Catholics, Unitarians, Quakers, &c. According to the above table, the three sects of Presbyterians, Independents, and Baptists, had increased 53 per cent, in seventeen years, while the increase of population in the same period must have been only about 26 per cent. The British Magazine, the organ of the Church of England, tries to lessen this apparent increase by alleging, that owing to the splitting of congregations about the choice of ministers, and other causes, Dissenting chapels are inconsiderately and unnecessarily multiplied; but every body knows, that in this respect the situation of the Dissenters was the same in 1812 as in 1829.
An erroneous impression has long prevailed that the holders of public securities are, for the most part, persons living at their ease, on large incomes, drawn, through this medium, from the heavy-taxed industry of the country, whereas the reverse of this, generally speaking, is the case; for by returns to Parliament in 1830, it appears, that of 274,823 holders of public securities, 83,609 of them were entitled to dividends not exceeding 102. per annum to each; 42,227, none of whose incomes exceeded 202.; 97,307, not exceeding 1002.; 51,519, having dividends from 2002. to 40002.; and, lastly, 161 holders of stock possessing above 40002. per annum.
On the 1st of January last, our Army was distributed as follows :—
In England and Cavalry. Guards. Infantry.
Scotland . 5731 4452 18,560
In Ir.'Uad 2626 743 19,428
Making a total of 51,571 men under arms in the United Kingdom; in addition to which the Military Staff amounts to 2697; the Volunteers of England and Scotland to 20,389; and the Yeomanry of Ireland to 31,422. At the same date, we had at Gibraltar 4877; Malta, 2366; Ionian Islands, 2889; Cape of Good Hope 1725; Coast of Africa, 255; Canada, 2417; Nova Scotia, 2258; Bermuda, 962; West Indies, 7574; New South Wales, 2530; Mauritius, 1445; Ceylon, 3547; malting a total force in our Colonies of 30,853 rank and file; while in India we had 18,364 rank and file.
Ireland—Grand Jury Presentments.—By a Parliamentary paper, recently printed, (No. 298, of 1832) it appears that the sums levied in the past year, 1831, in Ireland, amounted to £892,912 ; a sum very heavy, particularly when it is known that the tenants who chiefly pay that amount have no voice whatever in its assessment; and it is, we fear, too true, that the power of grand juries there has been often exercised to favour jobbing for the benefit of the landlords at the expense of the tenants. We feel confident that it will be the duty of Parliament to permit no moneys to be raised on the subject without their having a voice in the assessment, or in the election of those who are to assess those expenses:—
It appears from an official return that the amount of penalties received on the seizure of silk goods in the year 1827, was 298k; this sum was received by compromise. ■ The amount, in 1828, was 520k also by compromise. In 1829 no penalties were recovered. The penalties altogether in 1830 amounted to 600/., and in one of the cases out of which these penalties arose, the full penalty was paid on the proceedings being commenced, in the remainder by compromise. In 1831, 30k was received by compromise; and in 1832 was received, by compromise for the penalties incurred, 20,000k
Roofs—Sheet-iron coverings are now universally made use of on all new buildings in Petersburg!!, Moscow, &c. In the case of a fire, no harm can come to a house from sparks falling on a roof of this description. The sheets of this iron covering measure 2 feet 4 inches wide by 4 feet 8 inches long, and weigh 12 J lbs. averdupois per sheet, or 1 lb. 5 oz. each superficial square foot. When the sheets are on the roof, they measure only 2 feet wide by 4 feet in length, this is owing to the overlapping. They are first painted on both sides once, and, when fixed on the roof, a second coat is given. The common colour is red, but green paint, it is said, will stand twice the time. Small bits or ears are introduced into the laps, for nailing the plates on the 2-inch square laths on which they are secured. It takes 1ft sheets to cover 100 feet, the weight of which
is only 150 lb.; the cost only 35s., or about 3d. per foot.
United States.—Between the year 1820, when the population was 9,638,166, and 1830, when it had risen to 12,856,165, the inhabitants of these States increased in the enormous proportion of thirty souls in every hundred; and, as we know of no circumstance which has interfered to disturb this progress during the last two years, they may now be estimated at 13,627,000. In the year 1817, there was not a hundred miles of canals throughout the United States, whereas when the year 1836 comes round, they will extend to three thousand miles, and create a natural and artificial inland navigation of five-and-thirty thousand! In 1790, there were 75 post-offices and 1,875 miles of public roads ; in 1830, the former had increased to 8,450, and the latter, to 115,176.
The Iron of Borneo The iron found all
along the coast of Borneo is of a very superior quality, which every person must know who has visited Pontiana or Sambas. At Hangermassing it is, however, much superior; they have a method of working it which precludes all necessity of purchasing European steel. But the best iron of Bangermassing is not equal to that worked by the rudest Diak: all the best kris-blades of the Bugis rajahs and chiefs are manufactured by them; and it is most singular, but an undoubted fact, that the farther a person advances into the country, the better will be found all instruments of iron. Seljie's country is superior in this respect to all those nearer the coast; his golloks, spears, and kris-blades are in great demand. There are forty-nine forges at work merely in the campongof Marpow; but the mandows and spears, which he uses himself and gives to his favourite warriors, are obtained farther north. Those men live in a state of nature, building no habitations of any kind, and eating nothing but fruits, snakes, and monkeys, yet procure this excellent iron and make blades, sought after by every Diak, whose hunting excursions have in view the possession of the poor creature's spear or mandow as much as his head, improbable as it may sound. Instruments made of it will cut through over-wrought and common steel with ease. We have seen penknives shaved to pieces with them by way of experiment; and one day, a wager of a few rupees having been made with Seljie, that he would not cut through an old musket-barrel, he, without hesitation, put the end of it upon a block of wood and chopped it to pieces, without in the least turning the edge of the mandow. In the Sultan of Cotti's house there are three muskets, formerly belonging to Major Mullen's detachment, which are each cut more than half through in several places by the mandows of the party which destroyed them. This circumstance being mentioned to Seljie, he laughed, and said the mandows used on that occasion were not made of his iron, otherwise the barrels would have been cut through at every stroke.—Abridged from an articlein the Singapore Chronicle.
St. Petersburgh.— The following is the number of public edifices and private dwellings in this capital, as stated in the returns for the year 1831:—Kusso-Greek churches, 140; churches not belonging to the national faith, 19; churches or chapels belonging to various creeds, 20; monasteries, 2 ; chapels, 4; archiepiscopal residences, 4; palaces, 9, besides the mansion of engineers; houses of stone, 2654; and houses of wood, 5330; in all, 8183. The number of their inhabitants was 448,221 : viz. 316,211 men,
and 132,010 females; being an average of 84 individuals to each residence. During that year 90 new houses had been built, one half of which were of stone; and 132, of which 62 are of stone, had been begun. The number of manufactories and workshops was 187, to which twelve more were about to be added. The births amounted to 6511, whereof 3545 were boys, and 2966 girls; the marriages to 1041; the deaths to 10,573, of which 10,225 were in the common course of nature, and 22 were suicides. To these must be added 8856 males, and 4296 females; altogether, 13,152 individuals, who were carried off by the Cholera during last year: so that, in fact, the whole number of deaths was 23,725, or very nearly 53 out of every 1000 souls. Why the number of male children born should almost treble that of the females, and whence it arises that even in the ordinary course of mortality, there should exist so ill-omened a disparity between the births and deaths, as 6511 against 10,573, are topics for the inquiry of those who are sensible of the scientific importance of such investigations. We possess ourselves no data on which to found even a conjecture as to their causes.
Progress of Civilization in Egypt. — In Egypt an experiment has been made, which will probably have very important effects on the civilization of Egypt and Arabia. Two labouring men, who, we believe, had been employed near London in boring for water, were taken to Egypt by Mr. Briggs, who was at one time consul at Cairo. They were employed under the patronage of the Pacha, to bore for water in the Desert. At about thirty feet below the surface they found a stratum of sandstone; when they got through that, an abundant supply of water rose. The water usually obtained from the surface is of an inferior quality, and for many purposes useless; that which has been obtained oy boring is soft and pure. We believe that the experiment has succeeded at every place where it has been made. Already, in the Desert of Suez, a tank, capable of holding 2000 cubic feet of water, had been made, and it is probable that by this time several others have been formed. By this discovery, one great impediment to the fertilizing of that country will be removed.
Hydrography.—A survey of the coast of Brazil has been completed by the corvette Emulation, pursuing the hydro"rapine labours commenced by Vice-admiral Roussein, under the Administration of M. de Martignac; and a chart of the Rio de la Plate, by Lieut Baral, the commander of the Emulation, who has just returned to Toulon, is among the fruits of this expedition. The coasts of the Rio G rande and t he San Pedro, too, unknown to navigators, and supposed