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rays into all the colours of the rainbow, and decomposed, resolved into its elements, and hanging like gems on the leaves of the to assist in nourishing, providing for the neplants around you ; and you may have cessary waste, and contributing to the growth Thoughtlessly fancied them to be dew-drops; of the individual ; whilst two-thirds must be these, however, are the effects of the tran- exhaled. Hence it is, that if plants be exspiration from the leaves. But the water posed to the almost uninterrupted heat of transpired must bear a certain proportion à summer sun, they fade, sicken, and not in quantity to that which is absorbed by the unoften die; not because they are deficient roots, or the plant loses its freshness and its in moisture, but because the quantity of vigour; it languishes and fades. Generally fluids transpired is not in due proportion to speaking, about a third is retained, to be that which is absorbed by the roots.”
VARIETIES. Cultivation of the United Kingdom.-The following statement will be found interesting, as exhibiting the number of acres in cultivation in the United Kingdom, and the different purposes specified, for which they are employed in England and Wales ; as well as the number of farms, and the annual amount of property derived from agriculture :
Cultivated Uncultivated Wastes, Barren and
Acres capable of improvement, unprofitable. Total. England . . 25,632,000 , 3,454,000 . 3,256,400. 32,342,400 Wales . . 3,117,000 . 530,000 . 1,105,000 . 4,752,000 Scotland .. 5,265,000 . 5,950,000 . 8,523,930 , 19,738,930 Ireland . . 12,525,280 . 4,500,000 . 2,416,664, 19,441,944 British Isles. 383,690 , 166,000 569,469. 1,119,159 1
Total . 46,922,970 14,600,000 15,871,463 77,394,433
3,250,000 Acres employed in the cultivation of Wheat.
Roots and Cabbages cultivated by the plough.
Depastured by Cattle.
Hedge Rows, Copses, and Woods.
Common and Waste Lands.
37,094,000 Acres-Total of England and Wales. The number of farms in the United Kingdom is estimated at 2,000,000, and the property annually derived from agriculture in Great Britain and Ireland at £215,817,624.
Premium by the Highland Society of The works to be considered and prize London.-It will be gratifying to the stu- awarded at the first meeting of the Society dents of Gaelic Antiquities to learn that the after the 21st of March 1834. Each work Highland Society of London with its wonted to be accompanied by a sealed note bearing liberality has, at a recent General Meeting, a corresponding motio on the outside with resolved to offer one hundred Guineas Pre that on the envelope of the work itself, and mium for the best History of the Highland containing the author's name, which note Clans, their nature, origin, services, and will only be opened in the event of the moral effect in their respective districts. In Premium being awarded to the writer. addition to this munificent encouragement The liberality of the Society in this affair to undertake a work that cannot be consi. deserves great commendation, as it is supdered otherwise than national, every faci. posed that all the competitors have prolity in the power of the Society to procure bably more or less already paid some atteninformation will be afforded to the compe- tion to the subject, for although it is interest. titors on their addressing John Macdonald, ing to the whole country, it is yet, from Esq. the Secretary, No. 16, George Street, the language and the materials with which Mansion House, London.
the inquiries must be conducted, one of those
erudite researches that can only be success and lips were bleeding, he wailed me on, fully undertaken con amore.
then sent me to my work again, and I The Duke of Devonshire has in his pos.
worked till a quarter past seven. I went session the rosary worn by Henry the
to the mill at half-past five in the morning : Eighth. Upon the four sides of each bead he wailed me a bit past one in the afternoon. are four circles, within which are carved
I worked in my blood-as I worked, the Groups · each taken from a different chapter blood dropped all in the piecening gait. in the Bible. Nothing can surpass the ex
My right cheek was torn open, swelled very quisite beauty of the workmanship of this
much, and was black. My lips were very relic of other days. Every figure is perfect,
much torn; and each of them was as thick in consequence of the extreme minuteness
as three lips. He lashed me very hard over of their size ; and the whole is from the de
my back, too, in all directions ; but the sign of that great master, Holbein, who has
skin was not torn because I had my clothes painted Henry in these identical beads.
on. He has many a time strapped me beThe rosary is ingeniously preserved from
fore till I have been black; he has often injury, while it is exhibited to full view,
ile it is exhibited to full view struck me over the head, with the billy being suspended within a bell glass. roller, and raised great lumps with it. At
one time, when I had thrice - little flyinys,' · According to a late statement of the Mo
which I could not help, he took me out of ravians, the total number of the brethren
the billy gait, lifted me into the window, scattered over the whole earth amounts to
tied a rope round my hody, and hung me no more than about 16,000; nevertheless
up to a long pole that was sticking out of the they keep up 127 missionary establishments wall, and there he left me hanging about among the heathen, at an expense of more five feet from the floor. I cried very much, than 9,0001. per annum.
and so in about ten minutes he took me The second Report of the House of Com- down." The above true account was taken, mons Committee on the Irish Tithe question verbatim, from the lips of a poor child, has been printed. The Committee recom- aged ten years, by Mr. R. Oastler, and has mend that measures should, with as little by him been communicated to the “ Leeds delay as possible, be submitted to Parlia. Intelligencer.” If this be not infant slavery ment:-1. A Bill to amend the provisions --what is? of the Tithe Composition Act, and to render Records of Voyagers.-The French cir. them permanent and compulsory. 2. A cumnavigator Bougainville, who passed Bill to constitute Ecclesiastical Corpora- through the Straits of Magellan, on his tions in Ireland. 3. A Bill for the Com.
voyage round the world in 1767, deposited mutation of Tithes in Ireland. The Com
an account of his voyage on the summit of mittee also recommend a new valuation of the Mountain of the Cross, which rises from all benefices in Ireland, for the purposes of the sea-side at Port Gallant, to the height the first fruits, found with a view to charge of 2,400 feet. The place was well chosen, ing it with all church cess, for the building as its insulated position and lofty height and repairing of churches, and for the due
render it a conspicuous mark, which can be celebration of Divine worship.
seen from most parts of the Strait. From Comet.--In the month of October this
the years 1786 to 1789, Don Antonio de year, a comet of six and a half years' du.
Cordova was employed in surveying the ration will make its re-appearance. It has
Straits, by order of the Spanish Governbeen ascertained by the most distinguished
ment, and his officers found the document
left by Bougainville. Following his examastronomers in France, that it will, when nearest the earth, be at the distance of six
ple, they deposited the paper containing teen millions of leagues. The comet of
their account, with that of Bougainville,
in the place where the latter had been 1811, when nearest the earth, was one hundred and forty-four millions of miles dis
found on the summit of the mountain. These tant; it will therefore be sixty-six millions
documents where not destined to remain of miles nearer the earth than the one which
undisturbed ; for during the recent survey
of Captain King, in the Adventure and appeared in 1811.
Beagle, some of the officers, during their A Factory Child's Tale.-"I work at rambles on the summit of the mountain, Bradley Mills, near Iluddersfield. A few happened to discover a broken boule, and days since I had three • wratched cardings,' not far from it a roll of paper. The latter about two inches long. The slubber, Jo. was carefully conveyed to their commandseph Riley, saw them, showed them to me, er, when, though not without difficulty, the and asked me if this was good work. I writing being in Latin, and much oblitesaid, 'No.' He then, in the billy gait, took rated from the effects of the weather, it was a thick round leathern thong, and wailed discovered to be the accounts of the preme over the head and face, for, I think, a ceding voyagers. In the bottle was also quarter of an hour, and for all my cheek found a small coin. The records were so
far perished that they could be no of use It appears from an official return, that to any future navigator, and in consequence, the duty received in Great Britain on playCaptain King had copies made on vellum, ing cards in 1827, when the duty was 2s.6d. and deposited these with the coin in the amounted to 20,8641. 12s. 6d. The duty same place on the summit of the mountain, on each pack in 1828 was ls. and the gross rendering their situation as conspicuous as receipt 17,3651. There has been a gradual possible, by a huge pile of stones. In ad- falling off in the gross amount, and last dition to the accounts of Bougainville's and year it was 14,4001. 2s. In Ireland, the Cordova's vovages, he also left one of the duty in 1827, when the rate was 2s. 6d. a Adventure and Beagle, and the original pack, amounted to 1,0011. 12s. 6d. In documents have been lately deposited, by 1829, the rate per pack being ls. the duty order of the Lords Commissioners of the amounted to 4031. lls. Last year it was Admiralty, in the British Museum.
only 1087. 18s.
FOREIGN VARIETIES. The American Republics.-_There are now ing figures at Herculaneum. Independenteleven Republics upon the American con- ly of a marble bust, this is the only specitinent, and at the head of every one of men of the plastic art which has yet been them is a “ military chieftain.” The fol- brought to light during the progress of the lowing, we believe, is a correct list of the excavations in question. presiding officers :
Population of Europe.- From statistical United States. General Jackson.
investigations, recently made by Moreau of Mexico ... General Bustamenta. Guatemala ...
Paris, it appears that the leading States of General Morazan.
Europe will, at their present rate of inNew Grenada General Obando.
crease, double the number of their inhabiVenezuela . . General Paez.
tants at the undermentioned periods, when Ecuador . . . General Flores.
they will respectively possess the following Peru . . . . General Gamarra. Chili . . .
aggregate of population :. General Prieto. Bolivia . . . General Santa Cruz. Prussia ...... 1862 . 23,400,000 Buenos Ayres. General Rosas.
Great Britain . . . . 1872. 41,000,000
. 74,500,000 Hayti . . . . General Boyer.
Italy ....... 1873 40,000,000 Bustamenta and Obando are lice-Presi.
Russia and Poland . . 1874 , 93,000,000 dents acting as Presidents. Rosas has ten Portugal . . . . .
7,360,000 dered his resignation, but being still in Sweden and Norway, 1879, 7,354,000 power at the date of the last accounts, and Spain. . . . . . . 1876 . 25,500,000 it being uncertain whether his resignation Switzerland . . . . 1883, 4,000,000 will be accepted, we have put him down ac
Denmark ..., 1869, 3,000,000
Turkey and Greece . . 1898 , 22,000,000 cordingly.
The Netherlands. .. 191212,200,000 Gold-washing -According to the inves States of Germany. - 1947 . 24,000,000 tigations of a German naturalist, the River
France . . . . . . 1951, 63,000,000 Eider, which traverses part of the domin
By this table we are made acquainted ions of Hesse Darmstadt, Hesse Cassel, and with the extraordinary fact that Prussia will Waldeck, contains as much gold as any of double her population, barring such accithe rivers of Brazil. A company, on a dents as human nature may have to encounTarge scale, is now forming, to benefit by ter, in thirty-one years, whilst her petty this discovery.
neighbours must look on, without a remedy, Excavations in Rome.-In prosecuting for another eighty-five years before their the excavations undertaken in the Forum numbers experience a similar increase. The at the public expense, there was lately disparity belween England and France is no found a triangular pedestal near Phocas' less marvellous : by the time when the latcolumn, which is conjectured to have form- ter shall have doubled her human resources, ed the foot of a candelabrum ; it is in mar- ours, by Moreau's showing, will have risen ble, and of considerable size, and is orna. to upwards of one hundred millions of souls; mented with several beautiful bas-reliefs in in the which event the inhabitants of the good preservation, representing Bacchantes British Isles will outnumber those of Gaul dancing, on the model of the splendid danc- one moiety and more.
RURAL ECONOMY. American Plan of Potatoe Planting to all others; but it is not much grown, leMr. Robert Sainsbury, of West Lavington, cause it is thought to be a bad bearer; whereas Wilts, adopted last year the following mode the fact is—there is no kind of strawberry of planting potatoes (common in America), more prolific. In every bed of this strawand that the produce of three sets was three berry, treated in the usual manner, there are score and sixteen potatoes, the greater part found ten barren or blind plants for one that of a large size! “ Dig holes three feet is fruitful; and as it is considered by some distant, put the usual quantity of dung at that those barren or blind plants bear the the bottom of the holes; put in each hole male blossoms, and consequently are nethree or four sets, and if it should be a dry cessary to enable the bearing plants to masummer, the roots will have the advantage ture their fruits ; and by others, that those of moisture ; while they are growing, fre- plants which are barren one year, are proquently mould them up well, as there will litic the next ; both the barren and the probe sufficient room. The fault of the Eng. lific plants are suffered to grow together; lish in general is, that they diminish the but the fact is, the barren and prolific plants produce of their potatoes by planting them form two distinct varieties ; the prolific plant too thick.”
possesses the functions requisite, within The rampion, a variety of the Campa
itself, to perfect its fruit, and the barren
plant is never prolific. The reason why nula, was formerly cultivated for the sake
the barren plant is always more numerous of its roots, to be eaten the same as ra
than the prolific plant, is, that it throws out dishes are now; but being much inferior to this root, it has been generally expelled
its suckers earlier, and takes possession of
the soil, to the exclusion of the prolific from our gardens : but although eaten as
ones. To obtain a bed of the prolific plants, radishes, it is not equal to them; the roots
then, it is necessary to exterminate the barwhen peeled and eaten as nuts, will be found a most excellent substitute for them
ren or blind plants; and the season for se
lecting them is when the plants are in bloom, in the dessert. The green also makes an
the difference in the blossoms is sufficiently excellent sallad; and when boiled and treated like spinage, it is much superior to
great to enable any person to see it. In
the prolific blossom, the embryo fruit stands that vegetable, and as the plant is sufficiently hardy to endure the severest winter, and
prominently forward, and the anthers which to continue fresh during this season, it fur
surround it are borne on stamens so short,
as on a superficial view scarcely to be nishes a luxury for the table when lettuces
seen; whilst on the barren plant the embryo and spinage are not to be had. It should
fruit is very small, and the stamens are so be sown in April or beginning of May. long as to spread the anthers over the
The old Hautboy Strawberry, is with fruit so much, as almost to cover it from many considered to be far superior in flavour the sight.
USEFUL ARTS. At a Meeting of the Albany Institute, ready passage to the steam ; it would also held Jan. 26th, Richard Varick De Witt, give immediate notice, if, from neglect or Esq. communicated a paper “ on the means otherwise, the water should happen to get of preventing the explosion of steam boils below the point at which it ought to be ers.” He recommends, says the Albany kept. He remarked, that his plan is not “ Daily Advertiser,” what he terms a hy- liable to any of the objections to which drostatic safety pipe, being a tube of a di- other means for the purpose were. A safety ameter proportional to the size of the boiler, valve might be overloaded by accident or and extending from a few inches below the intentionally; if it were under lock and surface of the water to a height of two feet key, it might become fixed in its place by to every pound of steam pressure that may rust; fusible plugs might not melt soon be required. For instance, if the usual enough : but no possible danger could arise pressure at which an engine is worked be when the plan he suggested was adopted, fifteen pounds, the pipe would be thirty feet except through wantonness in closing the high ; as soon as the steam acquires this pipe. A drawing was exhibited of the apforce, the pipe would necessarily be filled paratus as applied to a boiler. with water, and any increase would drive the water out of it, until its lower orifice Caoutchouc, or what has been commonly was uncovered, when it would afford a called India-rubber, which has for some time past been manufactured into various France. By means of caoutchouc, it is useful articles of wearing-apparel, impervis stated, small balloons may be formed, capaous to wet, &c. is the subject of an article ble of rising in the atmosphere when filled in a recent number of the “ Journal des with hydrogen gas, or even some of large Connaissances Usuelles et Pratiques,” in dimension. By dissolving the caoutchouc, which it is observed that the caoutchouc is and impregnating with it other materials, formed from the juice of two plants growing articles of various substance may be obtain, in the Indies, namely, the Jaliopha Elastica, ed, which are completely imperviable or and the Ecvea Caoutchou, which the na- water-proof, at least for a considerable petives by means of moulds form into various riod, it being admitted (as must, indeed, of shapes, and especially make of it a species course follow) that, after a certain time, an of bottles, on which various designs are exe- alteration takes place in its qualities. The cuted. To dry it, they expose it to the flame caoutchouc is usually softened in boiling of resinous wood, the black smoke of which water or steam before dissolving it, but it gives it the dark colour which is generally may be dissolved without that previous preobserved in it. M. de Humboldt brought to paration. Europe some of the juice of the Ecvea Ca- The “ Sheffield Iris” states that a great outchou, from which white caoutchou was improvement in the steam-engine has been, produced, as it would all be, were it not for recently made by Mr. George Rennoldson, the process already mentioned. It appears, of South Shields. This engine has three however, that the mode of manufacturing it cylinders from one boiler, with the connectin England, of an apparently uniform con- ing rods on a triangular crank, so that while sistency, has not been hitherto discovered in one piston is moving upwards another is France, where in the attempts made for si. going down, and another passing the centre, milar purposes, it was found that the places the pistons following each other in a regular of junction of the different pieces of caout. division of time, and completely balancing chouc were discoverable in the manufactured each other as far as weight and pressure are article, whilst, as already observed, the artis concerned, the slides of course moving upon cles made in England presented an uniform a smaller triangular crank. This engine has texture, and the points of juncture were not nearly as complete an equability and uni. discernible. But it is now thought that the formity of motion as it is possible to procure secret has been discovered, and that by car from a rotatory engine. The necessity of a rying on the whole process under water, of fly-wheel is altogether superseded. It is so separating the lamina of caoutchouc (which steady in its motion, indeed, as hardly to the French writer compares, as to its mass, affect the frame in which it stands, and with Gruyere cheese), the object may be makes so little noise that it would scarcely achieved of obtaining lamina or strips, which be known to be at work, were it not seen to may be joined together in the manufacturing be so. Such an engine must necessarily be of various articles without the points of iunc of great use in steam-boats, in cotton-factoture being discernible. And it is stated ries, and in those manufactories at Birthat strips thus obtained become so solid at mingham and Sheffield where fine metalthe point of junction, that they could be work is wrought. An engine of this demore easily torn or fractured at any other scription will go in less bounds than those part than that. Tubes have been thus pre- of the ordinary construction. A space of five pared which, from their imperviability and feet four inches by seven feet nine inches the facility of employing them, have been will hold one from fifteen to fifty-horse found of the greatest service in chemistry; power; and engines of twenty-horse power and the mode above referred to is stated to on this plan may be set within a frame five have proved of the greatest use in preventing feet square. The present is a high-pressure the inequality of thickness which had hitherto engine, but a very slight alteration would prevailed in these articles ; but a great de- give it the condensing principle. From the sire is expressed to have the large pieces of great power it possesses, however, at comcaoutchouc, which, it appears, are to be had paratively a very light pressure of steam, it in England, but which bave not hitherto appears to be quite as secure as any con. found their way as an article of commerce to densing engine could be made.