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rays into all the colours of the rainbow, and hanging like gems on the leaves of the plants around you; and you may have thoughtlessly fancied them to be dew-drops; these, however, are the effects of the transpiration from the leaves. But the water transpired must bear a certain proportion in quantity to that which is absorbed by the roots, or the plant loses Us freshness and its vigour; it languishes and fades. Generally speaking, about a third is retained, to be
decomposed, resolved into its elements, and to assist in nourishing, providing for the necessary waste, and contributing to the growth of the individual ; whilst two-thirds must be exhaled. Hence it is, that if plants be exposed to the almost uninterrupted heat of a summer sun, they fade, sicken, and not unoften die; not because they are deficient in moisture, but because the quantity of fluids transpired is not in due proportion to that which is absorbed by the roots."
Cultivation of the United Kingdom.—The following statement will be found interesting, as exhibiting the number of acres in cultivation in the United Kingdom, and the different purposes specified, for which they are employed in England and Wales; as well as the number of farms, and the annual amount of property derived from agriculture :—
Uncultivated WaBtei, Barren and
capable of improvement, unprofitable.
. 3,454,000 . 3,256,400
530,000 . 1,105,000
. 5,950,000 . 8,523,930
. 4,600,000 . 2,416,664
166,000 . 569,469
4,752,000 19,738,930 19,441,944
Total . 46,922,970 14,600,030 15,871,463 77,394,433
In England and Wales, it is calculated that there are—
3,250,000 Acres employed in the cultivation of Wheat.
1,250,000 in that of Barley and Rye.
3,200,000 Oats, Beans, and Peas.
1,200,000 Clover, Rye Grass, &c.
1,200,000 Roots and Cabbages cultivated by the plough.
18,000 Pleasure Grounds.
17,300,000 Depastured by Cattle.
1,200,000 Hedge Rows, Copses, and Woods.
1,300,000 Ways and Water Courses, &c.
5,029,000 Common and Waste Lands.
37,094,000 Acres—Total of England and Wales.
The number of farms in the United Kingdom is estimated at 2,000,000, and the property annually derived from agriculture in Great Britain and Ireland at £215,817,624.
The works to be considered and prize awarded at the first meeting of the Society after the 21st of March 1834. Each work
Premium iy the Highland Society of London.—It will be gratifying to the students of Gaelic Antiquities to learn that the Highland Society of London with its wonted liberality has, at a recent General Meeting, resolved to offer one hundred Guineas Premium for the best History of the Highland Clans, their nature, origin, services, and moral effect in their respective districts. In addition to this munificent encouragement to undertake a work that cannot be considered otherwise than national, every facility in the power of the Society to procure information will be afforded to the competitors on their addressing John Macdonald, Esq. the Secretary, No. 16, George Street, Mansion House, London.
to be accompanied by a sealed note bearing a corresponding motto on the outside with that on the envelope of the work itself, and containing the author's name, which note will only be opened in the event of the Premium being awarded to the writer.
The liberality of the Society in this affair deserves great commendation, as it is supposed that all the competitors have probably more or less already paid some attention to the subject, for although it is interesting to the whole country, it is yet, from the language and the materials with which the inquiries must be conducted, one of those
erudite researches that can only be successfully undertaken con amine.
The Duke of Devonshire has in his possession the rosary worn by Henry the Eighth. Upon the four sides of each bead are four circles, within which are carved groups; each taken from a different chapter in the Bible. Nothing can surpass the exquisite beauty of the workmanship of this relic of other days. Every figure is perfect, in consequence of the extreme minuteness of their sue; and the whole is from the design of that great master, Holbein, who has painted Henry in these identical beads. The rosary is ingeniously preserved from injury, while it is exhibited to full view, being suspended within a bell glass.
According to a late statement of the Moravians, the total number of the brethren scattered over the whole earth amounts to no more than about 16,000; nevertheless they keep up 127 missionary establishments among the heathen, at an expense of more than 9,000f. per annum.
The second Report of the House of Commons Committee on the Irish Tithe question has been printed. The Committee recommend that measures should, with as little delay as possible, be submitted to Parliament :—1. A Bill to amend the provisions of the Tithe Composition Act, and to render them permanent and compulsory. 2. A Bill to constitute Ecclesiastical Corporations in Ireland. 3. A Bill for the Commutation of Tithes in Ireland. The Committee also recommend a new valuation of all benefices in Ireland, for the purposes of the first fruits, found with a view to charging it with all church cess, for the building and repairing of churches, and for the due celebration of Divine worship.
Comet.—In the month of October this year, a comet of six and a half years' duration will make its re-appearance. It has been ascertained by the most distinguished astronomers in France, that it will, when nearest the earth, be at the distance of sixteen millions of leagues. The comet of 1811, when nearest the earth, was one hundred and forty-four millions of miles distant; it will therefore be sixty-six millions of miles nearer the earth than the one which appeared in 1811.
A Factory Child's Tale.—" I work at Bradley Mills, near Huddersfield. A few days since 1 had three ' wratched cardings,' about two inches long. The slubber, Joseph Riley, saw them, showed them to me, and asked me if this was good work. I said, ' No.' He then, in the billy gait, took a thick round leathern thong, and wailed me over the head and face, for, I think, a quarter of an hour, and for all my cheek
and lips were bleeding, he wailed me on, then sent me to my work again, and I worked till a quarter past seven. I went to the mill at half-past five in the morning: he wailed me a bit past one in the afternoon. I worked in my blood—as 1 worked, the blood dropped all in the piecening gait. My right cheek was torn open, swelled very much, and was black. My lips were very much torn; and each of them was as thick as three lips. He lashed me very bard over my back, too, in all directions; but the skin was not torn because I had my clothes on. He has many a time strapped me before till 1 have been black; he has often struck me over the head, with the billy roller, and raised great lumps with it. At one time, when I had thrice ' little flyings,' which I could not help, he took me out of the billy gait, lifted me into the window, tied a rope round my body, and hung me up to a long pole that was sticking out of the wall, and there he left me hanging about five feet from the floor. I cried very much, and so in about ten minutes he took me down." The above true account was taken, verbatim, from the lips of a poor child, aged ten years, by Mr. R. Oastler, and has by him been communicated to the "Leeds Intelligencer." If this be not infant slavery —what is?
Records of Voyagers.—The French circumnavigator Bougainville, who passed through the Straits of Magellan, on his voyage round the world in 1767, deposited an account of his voyage on the summit of the Mountain of the Cross, which rises from the sea-side at Port Gallant, to the height of 2,400 feet. The place was well chosen, as its insulated position and lofty height render it a conspicuous mark, which can be seen from most parts of the Strait. From the years 1786 to 1789, Don Antonio de Cordova was employed in surveying the Straits, by order of the Spanish Government, and his officers found the document left by Bougainville. Following his example, they deposited the paper containing their account, with that of Bougainville, in the place where the latter had been found on the summit of the mountain. These documents where not destined to remain undisturbed; for during the recent survey of Captain Xing', in the Adventure and Beagle, some of the officers, during their rambles on the summit of the mountain, happened to discover a broken bottle, and not far from it a roll of paper. The latter was carefully conveyed to their commander, when, though not without difficulty, the writing being in Latin, and much obliterated from the effects of the weather, it was discovered to he the accounts of the preceding voyagers. In the bottle was also found a small coin. The records were so
far perished that they could be no of use It appears from an official return, that to any future navigator, and in consequence, the duty received in Great Britain on playCaptain King had copies made on vellum, ing cards in 1827, when the duty was 2s.6d. and deposited these with the coin in the amounted to 20,8641. 12s. 6d. The duty same place on the summit of the mountain, on each pack in 1828 was ls. and the gross rendering their situation as conspicuous as receipt 17,3651. There has been a gradual possible, by a huge pile of stones. In ad- falling off in the gross amount, and last dition to the accounts of Bougainville's and year it was 14,4001. 28. In Ireland, the Cordova's voyages, he also left one of the duty in 1827, when the rate was 2s.6d. a Adventure and Beagle, and the original pack, amounted to 1,0011. 12s. 6d. In documents have been lately deposited, by 1829, the rate per pack being ls, the duty order of the Lords Commissioners of the amounted to 4031. lls. Last year it was Admiralty, in the British Museum. only 1087. 18s.
FOREIGN VARIETIES. The American Republics. There are now ing figures at Herculaneum. Independenteleven Republics upon the American con- ly of a marble bust, this is the only specitinent, and at the head of every one of men of the plastic art which has yet been them is a “ military chieftain." The fol- brought to light during the progress of the lowing, we believe, is a correct list of the excavations in question. presiding officers :
Population of Europe.-From statistical United States. General Jackson.
investigations, recently made by Moreau of Mexico ... General Bustamenta. Guatemala . . General Morazan.
Paris, it appears that the leading States of New Grenada . General Obando.
Europe will, at their present rate of in
crease, double the number of their inhabiVenezuela .. General Paez. Ecuador. . , General Flores.
tants at the undermentioned periods, when Peru . . . . General Gamarra.
they will respectively possess the following Chili . . . . General Prieto.
aggregate of population :Bolivia ... General Santa Cruz. Prussia ...... 1862 , 23,400,000 Buenos Ayres. General Rosas.
Great Britain . ... 1872 , 41,000,000
. 74,500,000 Hayti . :.. General Boyer.
Italy ....... 1873 . 40,000,000 Bustamenta and Obando are Vice-Presi Russia and Poland . . 1874 . dents acting as Presidents. Rosas has ten Portugal . . . . .
7,300,000 dered his resignation, but being still in Sweden and Norway, 1879, 7,354,000 power at the date of the last accounts, and Spain. . .. . . 1876 . 25,500,000 it being uncertain whether his resignation
Switzerland . . . . 1883. 4,000,000
Denmark will be accepted, we have put him down ac
. . . . . 1869. 3,000,000
Turkey and Greece . . 1898. 22,000,000 cordingly.
The Netherlands... 1912 , 12,200,000 Gold-washing.--According to the inves States of Germany. - 1947 . 24,000,000 tigations of a German naturalist, the River
France ...... 1951 · 63,000,000 Eider, which traverses part of the domin- By this table we are made acquainted ions of Hesse Darmstadt, Hesse Cassel, and
with the extraordinary fact that Prussia will Waldeck, contains as much gold as any of double her population, barring such accithe rivers of Brazil. A company, on a dents as human nature may have to encoun. large scale, is now forming, to benefit byter, in thirty-one years, whilst ber petty this discovery.
neighbours must look on, without a remedy, Excavations in Rome.-In prosecuting for another eighty-five years before their the excavations undertaken in the Forum numbers experience a similar increase. The at the public expense, there was lately disparity belween England and France is no found a triangular pedestal near Phocas' less marvellous: by the time when the latcolumn, which is conjectured to have form- ter shall have doubled her human resources, ed the foot of a candelabrum ; it is in mar- ours, by Moreau's showing, will have risen ble, and of considerable size, and is orna- to upwards of one hundred millions of souls; mented with several beautiful bas-reliefs in in the which event the inhabitants of the good preservation, representing Bacchantes British Isles will outnumber those of Gaul dancing, on the model of the splendid danc- one moiety and more.
American Plan of Potaloe Planting.— Mr. Robert Sainsbury, of West Lavington, Wilts, adopted last year the following mode of planting potatoes (common in America), and that the produce of three sets was three score and sixteen potatoes, the greater part of a large size!" Dig holes three feet distant, put the usual quantity of dung at the bottom of the holes; put in each hole three or four sets, and if it should be a dry summer, the roots will have the advantage of moisture; while they are growing, frequently mould them up well, as there will be sufficient room. The fault of the English in general is, that they diminish the produce of their potatoes by planting them too thick."
The rampion, a variety of the Campanula, was formerly cultivated for the sake of its roots, to be eaten the same as radishes are now; but being much inferior to this root, it has been generally expelled from our gardens: but although eaten as radishes, it is not equal to them; the roots when peeled and eaten as nuts, will be found a most excellent substitute for them in the dessert. The green also makes an excellent sallad; and when boiled and treated like spinage, it is much superior to that vegetable, ami as the plant is sufficiently hardy to endure the severest winter, and to continue fresh during this season, it furnishes a luxury for the table when lettuces and spinage are not to be had. It should be sown in April or beginning of May.
The old Hautboy Strawberry, is with many considered to be far superior in flavour
to all others; but it is not much grown, because it is thought to he a bad bearer; whereas the fact is—there is no kind of strawberry more prolific. In every bed of this strawberry, treated in the usual manner, there are found ten barren or blind plants for one that is fruitful; and as it is considered by some that those barren or blind plants bear the male blossoms, and consequently are necessary to enable the bearing plants to mature their fruits; and by others, that those filants which are barren one year, are proific the next; both the barren and the prolific plants are suffered to grow together; but the fact is, the barren and prolific plants form two distinct varieties ; the prolific plant possesses the functions requisite, within itself, to perfect its fruit, and the barren plant is never prolific. The reason why the barren plant is always more numerous than the prolific plant, is, that it throws out its suckers earlier, and takes possession of the soil, to the exclusion of the prolific ones. To obtain a bed of the prolific plants, then, it is necessary to exterminate the barren or blind plants; and the season for selecting them is when the plants are in bloom, the difference in the blossoms is sufficiently great to enable any person to see it. In the prolific blossom, the embryo fruit stands prominently forward, and the anthers which surround it are borne on stamens so short, as on a superficial view scarcely to be seen; whilst on the barren plant the embryo fruit is very small, and the stamens are so long as to spread the anthers over the fruit so much, as almost to cover it from the sight.
At a Meeting of the Albany Institute, held Jan. 26th, Richard Varick De Witt, Esq. communicated a paper " on the means of preventing the explosion of steam boilers." He recommends, says the Albany "Daily Advertiser," what he terms a hydrostatic safety pipe, being a tube of a diameter proportional to the size of the boiler, and extending from a few inches below the surface of the water to a height of two feet to every pound of steam pressure that may be required. For instance, if the usual pressure at which an engine is worked be fifteen pounds, the pipe would be thirty feet high; as soon as the steam acquires this force, the pipe would necessarily be filled with water, and any increase would drive the water out of it, until its lower orifice was uncovered, when it would afford a
ready passage to the steam; it would also give immediate notice, if, from neglect or otherwise, the water should happen to get below the point at which it ought to be kept. He remarked, that his plan is not liable to any of the objections to which other means for the purpose were. A safety valve might be overloaded by accident or intentionally; if it were under lock and key, it might become fixed in its place by rust; fusible plugs might not melt soon enough: but no possible danger could arise when the plan he suggested was adopted, except through wantonness in closing the pipe. A drawing was exhibited of the apparatus as applied to a boiler.
Caoutchouc, or what has been commonly called India-rubber, which has for some time past been manufactured into various useful articles of wearing-apparel, impervious to wet, &c. is the subject of an article in a recent number of the "Journal des Connaissances Usuelles et Pratiques," in which it is observed that the caoutchouc is formed from the juice of two plants growing in the Indies, namely, theJahophaElastica, and the Ecvea Caoutchou, which the natives by means of moulds form into various shapes, and especially make of it a species of bottles, on which various designs are executed. To dry it, they expose it to the flame of resinous wood, the black smoke of which gives it the dark colour which is generally observed in it. M. de Humboldt brought to Europe some of the juice of the Ecvea Caoutchou, from which white caoutchou was produced, as it would all be, were it not for the process already mentioned. It appears, however, that the mode of manufacturing it in England, of an apparently uniform consistency, has not been hitherto discovered in France, where in the attempts made for similar purposes, it was found that the places of junction of the different pieces of caoutchouc were discoverable in the manufactured article, whilst, as already observed, the articles made in England presented an uniform texture, and the points of juncture were not discernible. But it is now thought that the secret has been discovered, and that by carrying on the whole process under water, of separating the lamina of caoutchouc (which the French writer compares, as to its mass, with Gruyere cheese), the object may be achieved of obtaining lamina or strips,which may be joined together in the manufacturing of various articles without the points of juncture being discernible. And it is stated that strips thus obtained become so solid at the point of junction, that they could be more easily torn or fractured at any other part than that. Tubes have been thus prepared which, from their imperviability and the facility of employing them, have been found of the greatest service in chemistry; and the mode above referred to is stated to have proved of the greatest use in preventing the inequality of thickness which had hitherto prevailed in these articles; but a great desire is expressed to have the large pieces of caoutchouc, which, it appears, are to be had in England, but which have not hitherto found their way as an article of commerce to
France. By means of caoutchouc, it is stated, small balloons may be formed, capable of rising in the atmosphere when filled with hydiogen gas, or even some of large dimension. By dissolving the caoutchouc, and impregnating with it other materials, articles of various substance may be obtained, which are completely imperviable or water-proof, at least for a considerable period, it being admitted (as must, indeed, of course follow) that, after a certain time, an alteration takes place in its qualities. The caoutchouc is usually softened in boiling water or steam before dissolving it, but it may be dissolved without that previous preparation.
The " Sheffield Iris" states that a great improvement in the steam-engine has been recently made by Mr. George Itennold^on, of South Shields. This engine has three cylinders from one boiler, with the connecting rods on a triangular crank, so that while one piston is moving upwards another is going down, and another passing the centre, the pistons following each other in a regular division of time, and completely balancing each other as far as weight and pressure are concerned, the slides of course moving upon a smaller triangular crank. This engine has nearly as complete an equability and uniformity of motion as it is possible to procure from a rotatory engine. The necessity of a fly-wheel is altogether superseded. It is so steady in its motion, indeed, as hardly to affect the frame in which it stands, and makes so little noise that it would scaicely be known to be at work, were it not seen to be so. Such an engine must necessarily be of great use in steam-boats, in cotton-factories, and in those manufactories at Birmingham and Sheffield where fine metalwork is wrought. An engine of this description will go in less bounds than those of the ordinary construction. A space of five feet four inches by seven feet nine inches will hold one from fifteen to fifty-horse power; and engines of twenty-horse power on this plan may be set within a frame five feet square. The present is a high-pressure engine, but a very slight alteration would give it the condensing principle. From tbe great power it possesses, however, at comparatively a very light pressure of steam, it appears to be quite as secure as any condensing engine could be made.