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in each, which have a key of the letters of the alphabet promiscuously arranged, as a, p, o, i, h, g, &c. Thus provided, the sheets of paper are laid exactly upon each other, and pierced through with a thick needle in two places, in order to procure fixed or central points, and distributed among the correspondents, so that each receives one at least for writing and another for reading. Those for reading are never to be pierced in more than two holes. In writing upon a wooden frame, canvassed, one or several sheets of paper are fixed, so that they do not move, and on them the lithographed sheet is placed. Then, say the instructions, pierce all through in the central points with a rather thick needle, and look for any letter you intend to represent in the key or lettered square, and with a fine needle pierce the small square, which, according to the rule, represents the intended or desired letter. Upon the conclusion of a word, leaving one square empty, instead of a comma two, instead of a period three, and at the end of a sentence four squares. But, for the express purpose of leading those astray who are not intended to read it, the direction of the writing may be upwards or downwards, instead of from right to left. The writing being finished, one of the pricked sheets of paper must be sent to each of the correspondents. For reading:—the newly-received sheet of paper being placed upon the lithographed sheet, the central points must be brought exactly over each other, and both sheets being placed against the window, or by night before a candle, the holes in the lately-received sheet will be easily perceived, and therefore easily read in the squares of the lithographed sheet.
Cruelly to Anxmali.—The Select Committee of the House of Commons on this subject have presented their report, dated the 1st instant; it is as follows:—" Your Committee have examined several witnesses, upon whose testimony they are satisfied that numerous and wanton cruelties are practised, to the great and needless increase of the sufferings of dumb animals, and to the demoralization of the people. Your Committee are of opinion that some further legislative enactments are necessary to prevent, as far as possible; the continuance of the cruel and improper treatment of animals; but being unable to conclude their inquiries into the subject, they now lay the evidence taken by them before the House, and recommend a renewal of the investigation early in the ensuing Session of Parliament."
Gat.—The gas which lights London is calculated to consume 38,000 chaldrons of
coals per annum, lighting 62,000 lamps in shops, houses, &c. and 7,500 street-lamps. In 1830, the gas-pipes in and round London were above 1,000 miles in length. Gas lights of half an inch in diameter, supply a light equal to 20 candles; of one inch in diameter, equal to 100; two inches, 420; three inches, to 1,000.
Pbtt-oJJice Communication urith France,— The following are given as the details of the new arrangement concluded between France and England for a daily transmission of letters by post between the two countries :—The present estafette is to be suppressed, and the mails are to be conveyed between Paris and Calais in very light carriages with two horses only. They are not to take any passengers, and will perform the journey in the same time as the estafette. The mail will leave Paris every day in the week, though the letters will not be delivered in Loudon on Sundays. There will, however, be seven deliveries in the week at Dover, and in all the towns between that part and London. This will be a very great advantage for the residents in those towns who have a correspondence with France, for, at present, all their letters from this country are first carried to London, and then sent to their destination, whereby two days are lost. It is hoped that the new carriages will be built, and all the arrangements completed, so that they may be put in execution on the 1st of January next. The letters may be sent without payment of any part of the postage; but when the parties sending are desirous of doing so, they may pay the inland postage of the country in which they are written, but no more, because in France the postage is calculated by weight, while in England the payment is per sheet, so that, let the sheet be ever so large, it is liable to only a single postage, unless it exceeds an ounce in weight.
Languaget.—A Russian has published "A View of all the known Languages, and their Dialects." In this book we find in all 937 Asiatic, 587 European, 226 African, and 1264 American languages and dialects enumerated and classed.— The Bible is translated into 139 languages.
New Churchei.—During the past year it appears, from the Parliamentary Report made by the Commissioners, that twenty new churches and chapels, with accommodation for 26,361 persons, including 14,039 free seats, have been erected under their superintendence. — There are nineteen churches and chapels in progress, and plans for eight others have been approved of. The Commissioners have proposed grants in aid of eleven new churches and chapels.
Sugar.—The quantity of sugar imported in 1831 was 5,366,000 cwts., of which the British West Indies furnished 4,104,000, the Mauritius 510,000, the Cape 3200, Cuba 112,000, Brazil 363,000, Porto Rico 15,000, United States 15,000, East Indies 162,000, Singapore 24,000, the Philippine Isles 39,000. Of the 4,104,000 supplied by the British West Indies, 1,429,000 comes from Jamaica, 802,000 from Demerara, 379,000 from Barbadoes, 327,000 from Trinidad, 221,000 from St. Vincent, and smaller quantities from the other colonies.
The following is the amount of Duties paid to Government by the ten principal Fire Insurance Offices, for the years ending at Christmas 1830 and 1831:—
Sun . .£120.619 £124,030
Phcenlx . 68,875 69,390
Norwich Union . 62,385 68,356
Protector . . 66,081 69.789
Royal Exchange . 51,891 54,686
County . . 44,172 48.519
Guardian . . 31,077 3I.S86
Imperial . . 27.061 28,230
Globe . . . 26,463 26.697
West of England . 25,123 25,683
In the Suffolk Fire Office, which is the fourth in extent of business out of London, the increase during the same period has been from 12,119/. to 13,238;.
According to a convention between the French and English Governments, in future England will transmit a copy of every work published in this country to the Bibliotheque du Km at Paris; and France, on her part, will also send to the British Museum a copy of every work published in France. The most honourable part of this business to both Governments is, that the exchange will take place in time of war us well as peace, so that the din of arms will not interrupt these intellectual communications.
Taxei on Building, Sfc.—A report on certain proposed improvements in Westminster, gives the following estimate of the duty on malrria'i for a "first rate house," 24 feet front by 45 in depth, the cost price of which would be 2500/. :— On 280.000 bricks . *E8S
16 load timber .... 44
1100 feet glass ... 32
Slates, marble, flags, &c . . 24
£241 The expense of manual labour for such a house is estimated at 890/., viz.: carpenter and joiner work, 240/.; bricklayer, 125/.;
stone work, 100/.; plasterer, 90/.; painter, 60/.; sawing timber, 65/.; flagging,plumbing, smithwork, slating, digging, carting, &c, 210/. It hence appears that the expenditure for labour is about 36 per cent., for taxes 10 per cent., and for materials 54 per cent, of the cost of the house.
Diving.—There is, says the " Norwich Mercury," a small cutter now lying in our (Yarmouth) roadstead, belonging to a man named Bell. Her crew consists of six men, several of whom are singularly expert in diving. She sails about from place to place, to offer assistance to recover lost treasure, Ac. She has arrived for the purpose (by permission of the Admiralty) of endeavouring to obtain a portion of the treasure lost in the Guernsey Lily transport, which got on the Cross Sand, floated off, and afterwards foundered in the centre of Yarmouth-roads, in forty-three feet water, coming with stores, &c., from Holland, after the Duke of York's expedition in 1799. The transport was laden with horses, ammunition (in which were twenty-five brass fieldpieces), a stock of wine, &c. The method these divers use is curious:—The cutter is first placed immediately over the wreck, the diver then, habited in an India-rubber air-tight dress, having a tube attached at the back of the neck to receive the air (which is constantly kept pumping in), descends from a rope-ladder, and gives signals for certain things to be sent down by a small line, which is attended to by those on the deck of the cutter; by this line, baskets and other utensils are sent down for the use of the diver, and sent up again with wine, &c, taken from the wreck. The diver's head-dress is curious. It is composed of copper, and is a complete covering, made much after the manner of the ancient helmet, only that it is made larger than the head, and has in its upper part three glass windows: it weighs 501b. He has two other dresses on besides that above-mentioned. He carries down with him 120 lb. of lead in two bags. With all this weight he declares that, when in the water, he appears perfectly free from weight or incumbrance of any sort. There has been already brought up a large quantity of wine (the bottles curiously tattooed with large and small oysters, which have been tasted, and are excellent), some copper, iron, handles of chests, pieces of gun-carriages, etc. They hope soon to be in possession of the brass guns, valuable plate, and the dollars, which it was known the transport had on board, for the purpose of paying the troops employed in the above-mentioned expedition. The Admiralty, we understand, has handsomely given permission to Captain Bell to make what use lie pleases of the articles found, only conditioning that tile brass guns (if recovered) shall be given up, for which they will return their value. Great numbers of persons, from different parts of the country, have been off to view this novel and singular undertaking. Boatmen are in constant attendance to take off those who wish to witness this effort of human ingenuity and enterprise. The diver, when under water, finds his strength so increased, that he can bend the ends together of the large iron crowbar (of three and a half feet long, and two and a half inches in size) which he takes down with him to part the wreck. These divers go down alternately about twice a day, but are compelled to take advantage of the tides when it is slack water.
The East-India Company have presented to the Linnsean Society their Herbarium, containing the plants collected between long. 73° to 114° E. and lat. 32° N. to the equator, by Konig, Roxburgh, Ruttler, Russell, Klein, Hamilton, Heyne, Wight, Finlayson, and Wallich. It includes about 1300 genera, more than 8000 species, and amounts, in duplicates, to at least 73,000 specimens—the labours of half a century.
Stage Coachet,—In the Stage Coach Regulation Bill, which has just passed the House of Commons, a variety of provisions are introduced for the purpose of diminishing the vexatious prosecutions hitherto instituted against the proprietors for trifling offences. It is well known to all travelling by stage coaches, that when the stipulated number of passengers Is exceeded, there must not be a pound of luggage, or bundle, or even an umbrella left on the roof. This regulation has led to many expensive and annoying informations, and (if a book or an umbrella has perchance been laid down for an instant) to the conviction of the coachman, who was utterly ignorant of the offence. In order to guard against these and similar inconveniences, a certain height of luggage is allowed at all times, whether there be twelve or fourteen outside passengers. Steam-carriages on common roads are to be exempted from taxes, but placed, in other respects, under the same rule as the common stage-coaches.
Education in England.—There has never been in England any national provision for the education of the people. The free grammar-schools, and the two universities of Oxford and Cambridge, derive their revenues, not from the nation, but from the munificence of the individuals who founded them. No coun
try rivals England in the magnificence of her academical buildings. The University of Oxford contains nineteen colleges and five halls, and that of Cambridge thirteen colleges and four halls; whilst the universities on the Continent seldom possess more than a single pile of building, like that of the London University. The number of students in Oxford and Cambridge together exceeds 3000. The endowments of the colleges arise chiefly from land. A part of their funds usually goes to the students under the name of exhibitions or scholarships; a part to the head and fellows; and a further part, consisting in church-livings, devolves on the clerical fellows in succession, and leads to their removal from the university. According to the returns made to Parliament in 1818, there were then in England 4187 endowed schools, with a revenue amounting to 3,000.525/.; 14,282 unendowed schools; and 5102 Sunday schools. By means of these schools 044,282 children, chiefly of the workingclasses, received instruction; of whom 322,518 were taught gratuitously, and 321,704 paid for their education. There have not been any official returns on this subject since 1818; but from the answers to the circular letters of Mr. Brougham (the present Lord Chancellor), in 1828, it-was estimated that, in 1829, there could not be less than a million and a half of the children of the humbler classes who were then receiving in England the advantages of education.
We must, however, contrast the above statement with the following, as set forth in a petition printed on the 24th July, by the Greenwich and Deptford Political Union :—" The Petitioners have remarked that a large majority of the persons arraigned as criminals in the Courts of Law, are in a state of pitiable ignorance, and seem rather the inhabitants of a country just emerged from savage life than the inhabitants of the United Kingdom, which boasts of its civilization, of its charity, and of its wealth. In proof of the deplorable absence of the simplest signs of school instruction among a large portion of the people, the Petitioners beg to present the following statement to the House:—At the last assizes of the county of Hereford, there were 52 prisoners for trial, of these 19 only could read, 12 only could write, so that out of 52 prisoners 33 could not read, 40 could not write; of 30 prisoners tried at Abingdon, C only could read and write, 11 only could read, and that imperfectly, so that out of 30 prisoners 24 could not write, and 19 could not read; of 138 prisoners committed to Reading Gaol, 25 only could write, 37 only could read, so that out of 138 prisoners 113 could not write, 101 could not read: whence it follows, that of the whole 220 prisoner*, not one in three could read, nor one in five write."
Wrought iron Sfeam-vttsel.—A Bteam▼essel has just heen completed for the Honourable East-India Company, which is formed of wrought iron, under the superintendence of Lieutenant Johnson. She has been built by Messrs. Maudsley and Co., who furnish the steam-apparatus for the Government steam-packets, at their wharf in the Belvidere-road, near Westminster-bridge, and is the first vessel of the kind ever built. This extraordinary steamer is intended for towing vessels on the river Ganges. The whole of the vessel is of iron, with the exception of her deck, which is of plank. She is flatbottomed. The iron is half an inch thick, in large plates, which are riveted together by curiously contrived rivets, on an improved method. What are termed the timbers of a vessel are also of iron of immense strength, of a peculiar angular construction. Her length is 125 feet, and she is about 24 feet in breadth, and is 11 feet between decks. The number of rivets used in building this vessel is upwards of 30,000, and it is expected that she will not draw more than one foot eleven inches of water. She has been seven months in building, and latterly three hundred men have been employed upon her; and when her steam-engine is on board, with all the apparatus, fittings-up, &c, it is computed that she will have cost 20,000/. Although the cost is immense, yet from the durability of the material, there is but little doubt that the Company will be gainers in the end. Her steamengine is sixty-horse power, and the interior will be fitted up with every convenience in a very handsome manner.
Paper Mills.—There are in Great Britain about 550 paper-mills, making paper to the amount of 2.500,000/. yearly. In France there are about 250 paper-mills, mostly small. In the Austrian dominions, there are 300; and in Italy 105, celebrated for the manufacture of card paper. Inthe Prussian dominions there are about 300 mills, delivering about 360,000 reams annually, value 120,000/. sterling. Saxony makes 64,000 reams, but uses three times that quantity. In Hanover there are about 40 paper-mills; in Russia there are 67; in Denmark they do not make enough for the consumption; in Sweden there are about 40 mills, but they, also, import from Holland.
Four hundred and forty-six medical students have been examined by the Society of .Apothecaries between the 1st of August, 1831, and the 1st of August, 1832; of which number, three hundred and seventy-three have received certificates of qualification.
It appears, from the Report of the Select Committee on secondary punishments, that in the last two years no less than 172,159 persons, including those committed on summary convictions, but exclusive of debtors, have passed through the different gaols in England and Wales.
From documents submitted to Parliament, it appears that the official value of the hemp, flax, and linen yarn imported into this country from foreign parts, in the year ending 5th January, 1831, was 2,494,171/- More than three-fourths of it was imported from Russia, and a large proportion of the residue from Prussia and the Netherlands. The quantity imported in future years, in consequence of the duty having been taken off, will be much increased. The importance of this trade to Russia is very great. Most other countries supply themselves to a greater extent than England does, which is consequently Russia's best customer. A war with this, or indeed any country, is scarcely to be anticipated; and there is, therefore, no great inducement afforded to our legislators, by an apprehension'of the want of this staple article of commerce, to encourage the growth of it either at home or in our colonies; but it is clear that in any case we depend mainly on Russia for a supply even for the use of our navy. The quantity annually consumed by the navy is very considerable. In 1831, above six thousand tons were purchased by the commissioners, which, at Sol. a ton, must have cost more than 200,000/.
From January 5, 1826, to May 7, this year, there have been 158 inquests on prisoners who died in the King's Bench. The Coroner is entitled to one guinea for each, paid by the friends or relations of the deceased. It appears that the fees have been received in 85 instances. The last five cases have been of cholera.
From the 25th of March, 1823, to the same day of the present year, 13,586 Irish poor have been passed by sea from Bristol, at an expense of 5i7il- 1». The number in 1823, was 999; in 1827,1643; in 1830, 2105; in 1831,3548; exhibiting a very considerable increasing ratio. The whole of these are supposed to have been brought from London.
French Statistic*.—The extent of surface cultivated in France, together with its produce, as well as that arising from every other source of industry, is out of all proportion with the numbers of its inhabitants. Whilst the income from all the productive property amounts to 255,871,280/., consisting of 124,750,000/. from the outlay on the cultivation of the soil, 09,861,000/. from outlay in mechanical, manufacturing, and commercial pursuits, and 61,260,500/. from the net produce of the preceding sources, the population has risen to 32,282,000 souls. If, therefore, the whole produce were equally distributed, and there were no taxes, each individual would possess an income of V- 18»- 6rf.; but if the population be subdivided according to their respective shares in this produce, into classes possessing incomes of 160, 100,40, 25, 16, 14, 12, 10, 8, 6, 5, and 4 pounds per annum, we shall find, in the first class, only 157,000, in the second and third, 150,000, in the fourth and fifth, 400,000, in the sixth, 1,000,000, in the seventh and eighth, (of 111. and 10/. a year,) 2,000,000, in the ninth (67.) 3,000^000, and in the three last, (varying from 41. to 6/. a-year,) as many as 25,000,000. Hence it results, that an immense proportion of the population, being eight out of every ten individuals, or twenty-five in every thirty-two, must subsist upon a sum rising from 1\d. to 3d, and, at the most, 4</. a-day, which is an impossibility; unless, indeed, so vast a majority of the people of France have actually no other sustenance than rye, oats, chestnuts, berries, and a few potatoes! Kven presuming the mere necessaries to existence to be procurable for as little as 5rf. a-day, there will yet be wanting an income of 56,000,000/. sterling and upwards, to make up the deficiency of pecuniary resources. Of the whole soil of France, which extends over a superficial area of 133,312,500 of acres, but 35.700,000 are cultivated with farinaceous food; these 133,312,500 of acres we admit to be equivalent to the appropriation of an ancient French acre to each individual; but its yearly produce, after every requisite deduction, does not exceed sixty-six gallons of farinaceous food, or one pound weight per day. The writer knows no means of remedying this serious evil but by cultivating the waste lands; and, as an eighty-seventh part of the superficial area of France consists of marshes, their desiccation would give four hundred square leagues of arable land, produce an income of nearly 1,500,000/.,
set 8,000,000/. and upwards in circulation, and represent a capital of 40,000,000/.
Letters have lately been received from M. Jacquemont, a French traveller in India. He had quitted the dominions of Ramjek Sing after his return from Cashmere, and having found it impossible to penetrate into Persia by way of Afghanistan, he had returned to Delhi, with the intention of proceeding to the Persian Gulf by way of Bombay. Ramjek Sing had in vain endeavoured to detain him, and offered him an office at his court: at his departure he made him magnificent presents of shawls and jewels. He seems to have a particular predilection for the French, and takes as many of them into his service as the jealousy of the English will permit him. His army is organized on the French system, and consists of between 40,000 and 50,000 men, with 100 pieces of cannon. His differences with the East India Company seem to be terminated for the present, though, from the relative situation of the two parties, it is difficult to foresee how long the peace may last. He lately had an interview with the Governor-general of India, and made his troops exercise before the English. He is master of the Labor, Cashmere, and the provinces of Afghanistan on the banks of the Gudna, which provinces he subdued on the death of Mohammed Schah.
In the year 1820 the Government of the United States sent an expedition to explore the Stony Mountains, and the country to the west of that chain, to the ocean. After an interval of eleven years, news has been received of tho proceedings of the travellers. They landed in Green Bay, in Lake Michigan, where they passed the winter. They then crossed Dog's Meadow to the Falls of St. Anthony, on the Mississippi. They next proceeded two hundred miles up St. Peter's Hirer, in search of lead mines, and were so fortunate as to discover some of considerable importance. Here they passed the second winter. They then proceeded down St. Peter's River to the Mississipi, and down the latter to the junction of the Missouri, and up that river to the foot of the Stony Mountains, where they passed the third winter. In the middle of August they crossed the chain, and remained eight rears on the western side of it. During this long period they were near the coast of the froien ocean, and even passed over into Asia. In the vicinity of the Columbia they were overtaken by a storm, in