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removing the obelisk presented to France. This obelisk is 80 feet high, and weighs 551,405 lbs. or 246 tons, including the encasement in wood. The base is 7 feet square. In order to form the road for conveying it to the vessel, it is necessary to pull down forty-6ve houses, cut through two sand-hills, nearly 100 feet high, and level the ground for 550 yards in length.

New Variety of Man.—M. Uureau de la Malle lias read, at the Academy des Sciences, a note upon the new variety of human species. This variety is found among the inhabitants of Upper Egypt; it is characterised by the position of the ears, which is higher up than in any other species. The head, towards the region of the temples, is much more depressed than in our species, which causes, according to M. Malle, the more elevated position of the ear. This elevation in the heads of some mummies which he examined, was from one to two half-inches, compared with the heads of Europeans. According to these characteristics, he proposes creating in the Caucasian race a new variety, or sub-species, to be named the Egyptian, and to which the branches nearest in resemblance are the Hebrew race, and then the Phoenician and Arabic.

Patents in America.— By an official document laid before Congress, it appears that no less than six thousand inventions have been secured by patent since the establishment of the Patent Office in 1793. The plough has been made to undergo 124 improvements; 119 threshing machines have been invented. That great problem, the extraction of butter from cream, without fatigue to the operator, has been solved in eighty ways by the inventors of eighty churns; and the laundress has been allowed her choice out of 125 washing machines; 123 machines have been invented for making nails; the number of new spinning machines exceeds 100; the number of improvements in the loom is 73; and in the manufacture of hats 43; the number of steain engines exceeds 100; that of stoves is nearly the same; there have been 42 new ways contrived for manufacturing combs; 4 new machines for paring apples have been invented, and 3 gridirons; pencilcases, ramrods, razors, and suspenders haveach been subjected to various improve

ments. An invention has been patented under the name of "dog-power," another termed an "elevator of pots and kettles." and a third, destined for a useful domestic purpose, under the sonorous Greek name of "Hacraagalactophorus."

American Silk. — The Americans are making great progress in the growth of silk. The people of the United States are untaxed, and their internal trade not only unrestricted, but protected by high duties on imported goods. How different is the case in England! Here we are not only prohibited from growing tobacco, for instance, for our own use, but are absolutely obliged, if we have it at all, to buy it of foreigners, and pay a duty on it to the Government of about 600 per cent. Things are managed differently in America. There the exertions, industry, and ingenuity of the people are unfettered, and the results are perfectly astonishing. The annual value of the product of the raw silk, in the United States, now considerably exceeds half a million of dollars, the chief part being produced by the spare labour of a few women and children in the small towns of the State of Connecticut. It is possible that in the next year, the ultimate product of American silk may hardly fall short of 2,000,000 dollars, and it may become 15,000,000, without injuriously affecting labour, land, or property appropriated to other purposes — simply through the application of a little time (which is now wasted) in a wholesome and highly interesting employment; one that is eminently calculated to give the youthful mind a sound direction, and lay the foundation for habits of industry and economy which cannot easily be shaken.

Crime in France.—Out of every 100 persons accused, 61 are regularly condemned. Out of the whole population, one in every 4,460 inhabitants is accused. In every 100 crimes, 25 are against the person, 75 against property. Experience shows that the number of murders is annually nearly the same; and what is still more singular, that the instruments, or means employed, are also in the same proportion. The inclination to crime is at its maximum in man about the age of 25; in woman, 5 years later. The proportion of men and women accused is 4 to 1—Revue Encyclopcdinue.

RURAL ECONOMY.

Planting Potatoes whole.—A correspondent of the "Gardener's Magazine," writing upon the above question, recommends that potatoes should be planted whole; and adds —"As a testimony, I will state an experiment of mine in 1828. I planted four plants,

containing two eyes to each; four, the crowns containing, perhaps, five or six eyes each; four small whole potatoes (what are here termed chats); four large whole ones (or what are termed ware potatoes). Now, for the weight of the produce of each kind: the

produce of the first four roots weighed 8 lbs. that of the second four, 11 lbs. that of the third four, 15 lbs. that of the fourth four, 16 lbs. I think this will make clear to any one, that the reverse of what is generally followed ought to be practised, namely, to plant crowns, or whole potatoes, in lieu of a plant with two eyes. This is even the second trial I have made, and found it the same; but I was not so particular in the first experiment as in the second, having determined by my eye, the difference was so obvious. I think this of the greatest importance to the agriculturist. If it hold good for an acre, what a difference in the produce' The object of a little extra seed bears no comparison to the extra produce; and besides, the labour of cutting is saved.

The "Journal Etranger" gives the following economical mode of procuring early potatoes:—Towards the end of February or the beginning of March, prepare a bed of fresh manure; cover it with sand, or very

light earth, to the depth of about two or three inches. When the bed shall have become heated, cover the whole of its surface with peelings of potatoes, cut thicker than when the root is intended for culinary use. Place the peelings with the skin upwards, and all in contact; cover them with light eaith, from two to three inches deep. This hotbed is to be treated in the same way as others destined for forring early crops ; viz. to be covered with matting, exposed at proper hours to the air and sun, and to be frequently watered. Vegetation will quickly proceed. When the plants shall have attained the height of from three to four inches, transplant them into borders four or five inches apart everyway. Three years' experience have given the writer confidence in asserting that the crop will be earlier than any other. The species chosen should be those which come first to maturity; and the peelings should be cut from the finest and best-formed roots.

PATENTS LATELY GRANTED

Robert William Sicvier, of Southampton-row, in the Parish of St. George, Bloomsbury, in the county of Middlesex, Gentleman, for certain improvements in the making or manufacturing of cables, ropes, whale fishing, and other lines, lathe and rigger bands, bags and parses, part of which said improved articles are applicable to other useful purposes.

Cornelias March Payne, of Stratford, In the parish of West Ham in the connty of Essex, Silk Primer, for certain improvements in printing silk, cotton, and other goods or fabrics.

Clande Marie Savoye, of Oxford street, in the connty of Middlesex, Merchant, for an improvement or improvements in mills or machines for grinding or reducing grain and other substances.

Abraham Adolp Muscr, of Canterbury-row, Kennington Road, in the County of Surrey, Engineer, for improvements in certain descriptions of fire-arms. Communicated by a certain foreigner residing abroad.

Thomas Alcock, of the parish of Claines, in the county of Worcester, Lace Manufacturer, for certain improvements in machinery already in use for the manufacture of bobbin net lace.

Isaac Stromboin, of Old Broad street, in the city of London, Merchant, for a medicinal composition or embrocation for the cure, relief, or prevention of external and internal complaints, which composition or embrocation may, alone, or with certain alterations, be beneficially used as an Internal medicine.

Daniel Ledsam, Manufacturer, and William Jones, Screw Manufacturer, bath of Birmingham, in the county of Warwick, for certain improvements in machinery for miking pins, rivets, woodscrews, and nails.

Henry Gore, of Manchester, Machine Maker, for an improvement in the machines commonly called by spinners, " throstle machines," and

spinning frames, which machines operate by spindles and flyers; and bobbin for spinning or twisting yarn or threads.

Picrrrpont Greaves, of Chorley, in the connty of Lancaster, Gentleman, for a method or methods of making ornamental or fancy cotton yarns and threads, applicable to the making, sewing, or embroidering cotton and other fabrics.

John Christopher Tobias Kreeft, of Old Bondstreet, in the city of London, Merchant, for an improved apparatus for shaping plates of metal, and for manufacturing various articles lhei%from. Communicated to him by Stephen Von Keesr, and Moritz Von Ischoffen, foreigners residing abroad.

Samne I Hall, of Basford, in the county of Nottingham, Cotton Manufacturer, for an improved piston and valve for steam, gas, and other engines; also an improved method of enbricating the pistons, piston rods, and valves or cocks of such engines, and of condensing the steam, and supplying water to the boilers of such steam engines as are wrought by a vacuum produced by condensation.

Benedict Nott, of Liverpool, Esq., for certain improvements in the construction of a furnace or furnaces lor generating heat, and in the apparatus for the application of heat to various oscful purposes, being further improvements upon a patent obtained by the petitioner, dated November 4, 1830. Communicated by a certain foreigner residing abroad.

Malcolm Muir, of Hutchinson Town, Glasgow, Scotland, Engineer, for certain improvements In machinery or apparatus for preparing boards for flooring and other purposes.

Robert Walter Wingficld, of Birmingham, in the County of Warwick, Brass Founder, for certain improvements in the construction of bedsteads, one or more of which said improvements is or are likewise applicable to other articles.

LIST OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.

BIOGRAPHY.

Annual Biography and Obituary for 1832, Vol. XVI. 8vo. 15s.

lord Byron's life and Works, in 14 vols. Vol. I. reap. 2s.

National Library, No. XIII.—Lives of Celebrated Travellers, Vol.111. 12mo. 6s.

Nicolas's Memoirs of Lady Jane Grey, 8vo. 1*»

Private Correspondence of David Garrick, Vol. II. 4to. it. 12s. iid.

BOTANY.

Haund's Botanic Garden, or Magazine of Hardy Flowering Plants, Part VII. and No. 85. Botanic Annual for 1832, crown 8vo. 15s.

EDUCATION.

The Gospel of St. John, in French, by Fenton, 12mo. 4s.

Kev. H. J. Tayler's Eton Greek Grammar, translated into English, 12mo. 4s.

Fenton's French Genders made Easy, 18mo. 6d.

Fenton's French Speaker, 12mo. 4s.

Hall's Radiments of Latin Grammar, 12mo. 3a.

JURISPRUDENCE.

Stewart's Practice in Bankruptcy, 12tno. 6s.

MEDICAL. Hooper on the Uterus, 4to. 3/. 3s. Dendy on the Phenomena of Dreams, &c. ISmo. 4s.

MISCELLANEOUS.

Lardner's Cyclopaedia, Vol. XXVI.—Treatise on Porcelain and Glass, fcap. 6s. Kearsley's Tax Tables for 1831-2, Is. Williams's Abstracts of the Acts for 1831, 8vo.

ra.

The Mother's Book, by Mrs. Child, rl. ISmo. 4s.

Valpy's Classical Library, No. XXV.—Plutarch, Vol. HI. ISmo. 4s. 6d.

Select Library, Vol. V.—Slewart's Visit to the South Seas, abridged by Rev. W. Ellis, 12mo. 6s,

Burn on Emigration, 12mo. 6s.

Hansard's Debates, Third Series, Vol. V. 2nd Vol. of the Session of 1831, royal 8vo. 1/. 10s. and

u. las. ed.

Mrs. Holland's Elizabeth and Beggar Boys, ISmo. 2s. 6d.

Dublin Delineated, iu Twenty six Views of the principal Public Buildings, 8vo. 8s. 6d.

Woud on Rail-Reads, 2nd edit. 6vo. 18s.

Memoirs of the Wemerian Society, Vol. VI. 8vo. 18s.

Chambers's Scottish Jests, 12mo. 6a. Oil.

Le Talisman, 1832, 12s.

Lyell'a Geology, Vol. II. 8vo. 12s.

Acland's Illustrations of the Vaudois, royal 8vo. 10s. 6d. India proofs, 15s.

Landscape Illustrations of the Waverley Novels, Prints 2 vols, royal 8vo. 4f. 4s. India proofs, 2 vols, royal 4to. 71. 7s. proofs before letters, 10/. 10s.

Ceeil's Three Discourses on Practical Subjects, lzmo. 2a. cl.

Selection of Fables in French, with interlinear Translation and Notes, by Fenton. 12mo. 2s. 6d.

Rev. J. Scott's Narrative of the Plague, 12mo. 3a. til.

Hoyle made Familiar, by E. Trevor, Esq. 24mo. 2s. 6(1. with case, 3s. in roan 3s. 6d.

The Producing-Man's Companion, ISmo. Is. and Is. 3d.

Parson's Horn-Book, 8vo. 10s. 6d.

Stories of Travels in Turkey, 12mo. 5s.

Martin's Mensuration, 12ino. 3s. 6d.

The Republic of Letters, a Selection in Poetry and Prose, Vol. I. 12mo. 6s. Od.

Knights of the Round Table, First Series, royal 18mo. 5s.

A Companion to the Endless Amusements, 18mo. 2s. 6d.

The New Sphinx, 18mo. Is. 6d.

The Hive, 18mo. 3s. and 5s.

Stories from Natural History, 18mo. 2s. fid.

NOVELS, TALES, &C.

Eugene Aram, by the Author of "Pelham," &c. 3 vols, post 8vo. It, lis. 6d.

Probation and other Tales, by the Author of "Selwyn," "Tales of the Moors," &c. 8vo. 10s. 61.

Standard Novels.Vol. XI.—Hungarian Brothers, by Anna Maria Porter, 12mo. 6s..

The Modern Novelists, with Prefatory Remarks, 50 vols, post 8vo. 15/.

Roscoe's Novelist's Library, Vol. VII.—Joseph Andrews, fcap. 5s.

Legends and Stories of Ireland, by Samuel Lover, riino. 2nd edit. 6s.

The Opera, by the Authoress of "Manners of the Day," 3 vols, post 8vo. 1/. lis. 6d.

Norman Abbey, a Tale of Sherwood Forest, by a Lady, 3 vols, post Svo. 1/. 4>.

POETRY,

Catherine of Cleves, and Heinani, Tragedies translated by Lord Leveson Gower, ovo. 8s.

THEOLOGY.

Saturday Evening, by the Anthor of " Natural History of Enthusiasm," Svo.

Hints to a Clergyman's Wife, or Female Pa. rochial Dutiee practically illustrated, 12ino.

Dr. Adam Clarke's Succession of Sacred Literature, Vol.11. 8vo. 15s.

The Crucified Jesus, by Dr. Horneck, I2mo. 6s. 6d.

Hughes's Divines, No. XX Hall's Contemplations, Vol. 111. 8vo. 7s.6d.

Arnold's Sermons, Vol. II. 8vo. 12s.

A Practical Exposition of the Assembly's Shorter Catechism, byH. Belfrage, DD. 12mo. 7a.

Brown's Self interpreting Bible, demy 4to. II. 5s.

Hincher's Sacred Imagery, 18mo. Is. fid.

Maitland's Discourses on the Humanity of Christ, 12mo. 6s. fid.

VOYAGES AND TRAVELS.

Observations on the Mossulmannfl of India, by Mrs. Mecr Hassan Alt, 2 vols. 8vo. 21s.

LITERARY REPORT.

Some further specimens of the rich native humour, and curious store of anecdote, which have given popularity to the two volumes of Sir Jonah Barrington's "Personal Sketches of his Own Times," are promised in a third volume of the came work, which has been just completed by the author.

"Legends and Traditions of the Castles of England." A work with this title is, we arc inform ed, in course of preparation, by Mr. Roteoe and Mr. Leitch Ritchie, authors of the " Landscape and Heath's Picturesque Annuals;" and is to be published by subscription, in Twelve Monthly Parts, with Engravings. It is proposed to comprise, not only a genuine narrative of the fortunes of the English Castles, but, in a more particular manner, the events of what may be termed their privaleliistory,founded uponlegendsand traditions.

Mr. Ainswoith is preparing for publication, "Observations on the Pestilential Cholera, as it appeared at Sunderland in the months of November and December; and on the Measures which were taken for its Prevention and Care.

"The Mythology of the Hindus, with Notices of various Mountain and Island Tribes who inhabit the Two Peuinsulas of India and the neighbouring Islands," by Charles Coleman, Esq.

A new literary Annual, entitled the " Aurora Borealis," to be conducted by Members of the Society of Friends, is announced at Newcastle. The prospectus speaks, with proper exultation, of the progress of literary taste, and the increase of literary talent among the youth of that Society.

"Selections from the Proee Works of Robert Southey," chiefly for the use of Schools and

Young Persons, are announced; to consist of Extracts from his History of Brazil, Life of Nelson, Espriella's Letters, Book of the Church, &c.

The two remaining volumes of the "Tour of a German Prince," with a Portrait; containing, inter aha, his Observations on the Society and Manners of the Metropolis, &c.

Mr. Wood is pre paring for the press " a complete Illustration of the Lcpidoptcrous Insects of Great Britain."

'* A Manual of the History of Philosophy," from the last German edition of Tennemann, by the Rev. Arthur Johnson.

"The Journal of a Tour, in the years 18380, th-cugh Styria, Carniola, and Italy," whilst accompanying the late Sir Humphry Davy, by Dr. Tobbeir.

Keighlley's Mythology of Greece and Italy," ab-idged for the use of the junior classes in schools.

* The Cabinet Annual Register, and Historical, Political, &c. Chronicle for the year 1831," is in the press.

Messrs. Visetelly, Branston, and Co. announce the " Georgian Era ;*' comprising Memoirs of the most eminent Persons who have flourished in Great Britain from the Accessiou of George the First to the Demise of George the Fourth. The work is to occupy four volumes, and to comprise Twelve Hundred Lives, embellished with Portraits on steel and wood.

"A Clinical Report of the Royal Dispensary for Diseases of the Ear, with Observations on the Deaf and Dumb," by J- H. Curtis, Esq., is about to be published.

BIOGRAPHICAL PARTICULARS OF CELEBRATED PERSONS, LATELY DECEASED.

DR. TURNER, BISHOP OF CALCUTTA.

To the names of Middleton, Heber, and James, already inserted in our obituary, is now unhappily to be added that of Dr. J. M- Turner, as another victim to the fatal climate of India, and the labours and anxieties of a diocese which might very properly be divided into four. Dr. Turner was indebted to no adventitious circumstances for the high station he held in the Knglish Church, as his father died while he was yet young, and left his family but moderately provided for. lie was educated at Christ Church, Oxford, where he was distinguished by the notice and friendship of Dean Jackson, and passed his academical examinations with great credit. Immediately after taking his degree of li. A., which he did at an earlier age than usual, he became private tutor in the Marquis of Donegal's family, and was afterwards at Eton for many years with Lord Belfast and Lord Chichester, and subsequently with the present Lord Castlereagh, and was very much in the confidence of his Lordship's numerous con

nexion, especially of his grandfather, the late Lord Londonderry, and his father, the nobleman who still holds that title, with whom he spent some time at Vienna. It was this connexion which made him known to Lord Ellenborough, through whose recommendation he was afterwards promoted to the see of Calcutta. In 1823 he was presented to the vicarage of Abingdon, whence he removed in 1824 to the rectory of Wilmslow, in Cheshire, to which he was presented Ly the late Lord Liverpool. On settling there he married Miss Robertson, a sister-in-law of the present Bishop of Chester, to whom he had long been attached. This lady unfortunately died without issue a few months previous to his appointment to Calcutta. She was a woman of exemplary

fiiety, and recommended her husband with ler dying breath not to refuse the labours he had then in contemplation, with whatever consequences to himself they might be attendee!. In July 1829, Dr. Turner set sail from Portsmouth for his distant diocese. His friends had previously remarked that his state of health did not promise a very extended career in the important station to which he had been appointed; and their apprehensions were too well verified by the event. An unremitting attention to his episcopal duties, and too frequent exposure to the dangerous climate of the East, called into activity the seeds of disorders previously contracted in England; and on the third of Jaly 1831, this pious and universally esteemed individual expired at Calcutta on his return from a voyage to Penang, which had been recommended by his medical attendants in the vain hope of its proving efficacious to retard the progress of his malady. His death was as exemplary as his whole life had been eminently useful, and both the church of which he was so eminent a minister, and the inhabitants of the country over whose religious interests he presided, will long have occasion to lament his premature removal. It is to be hoped that this last instance of the fatal effect of duties by far too extensive for one individual to fulfil, will induce Government to consider the propriety of appointing another, or even a third Bishop to the vast peninsula of India. The extreme inconvenience of the present system (to say nothing of the sacrifice of valuable lives attendant upon it) may be shown from the fact, that during the last twelve years the diocese for one-half of the time has been without the superintendence of any Bishop whatever.

1832. Admiral Sir C. H. Knowles, Bart General Torrijos. 81

ADMIRAL SIR CHARLES HENRY KNOWLES, BART. G.C.B.

On the 28th or November, in the 78th year of his age, Admiral Sir Charles Henry Knowles, Bart. G. C. B. The venerable Admiral succeeded his father, the late Baronet, (who attained the rank of Rear-Admiral of England, and became President of the Council of the Admiralty to Catharine, Empress of Russia,) in 1777, and after passing through the subordinate stations of the service, was advanced to the rank of Post Captain, 1780, in which year he commanded the Porcupine frigate on the Mediterranean station. Towards the conclusion of the American war, Sir Charles commanded the San Miguel, of 72 guns, and was employed as senior officer of the naval force stationed at Gibraltar, to the garrison of which place he afforded the greatest assistance, by his active co-operation in repelling the attacks made by the enemy, with the view of regaining possession of that important fortress. Soon after the commencement of hostilities against the French Republic, Sir Charles commanded the Daedalus 32, in which frigate he proceeded to North America. The Dsdalus returned to England the following year, and Sir Charles was shortly afterwards appointed to the Edgar 74, stationed in the North Sea. from Fel.Vol. xxxvi. No. cxxxiv.

this ship he was removed into the Goliah, and was present at the memorable victory off Cape St. Vincent, Feb. 14, 1797, and, in common with the other Captains, received a gold medal for his services on that occasion. Sir Charles rose to the rank of HoarAdmiral. Feb. 14, 1799; Vice-Admiral, April 23, 1804; Admiral of the Red, July 10, 1810; and in May 1820, he was created an extra Knight Grand Cross of the Bath. By his marriage, in 1800, with Charlotte, daughter of Charles Johnstone, Esq. of Ludlow, he has left Francis Charles Knowles, (the present Baronet,) and other children.

GENERAL TORRIJOS.

Don Jose-Maria Torrijos, who, with his companions, was treacherously murdered at Malaga, was descended from one of the most distinguished families of Madrid. He received his education at the College of the King's Pages; upon leaving this establishment each student has his choice of becoming a Canon or a Captain—Torrijos preferred the Army to the Chapter. This was at the period of the French invasion, when all Spanish patriots were called to take arms for the defence of the country. He continued in the army as long as the war of independence lasted. He obtained the different grades with honour to himself, until he at last attained the rank of Colonel on the field of battle. The regiment in which he served was called "Ferdinand VII." Torrijos, after the restoration in 1814, shared in the disgrace incurred by all those whose lives and exertions had rescued Ferdinand from captivity. Emulating the fame of Lacy and Porlier, who had fallen victims, and of Riego, who had succeeded, Torrijos thought of nothing but the emancipation of his native country. However, his plans were betrayed, and he was thrown into the dungeons of the inquisition at Murcia, where he languished for more than a year, when the revolution of 1820 effected his liberation. In recompense of his services, the Cortes appointed him to the rank of Field Marshal, and Chief Commandant of Navarre and the Basque provinces. He took a most active part in all the political movements during the Constitutional regime. When, upon an order from the Congress of Verona, Louis XVIII. sent 100,000 Frenchmen to extinguish the infancy of liberty in Spain, Torrijos did not despair, until the last moment, of making a successful resistance. He signed a capitulation at Carthagena, after Cadiz had opened its gates, and would at last only allow General Mina the honour of forcing him to give up his arms. He lived in exile from the year 1823 until the glorious days of July, when a glimmering of hope shot across his mind, and the chance of saving his country from

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