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of game, fish, fruit, and vegetables. The woods afforded him much amusement. In these he killed several kinds of birds, some of which he had never seen before: he also saw two species of deer; one about the size of the English roebuck, and the other much smaller. On the whole, he was here so happy and so much respected, that he could almost have engaged never more to have changed his situation.
It is to be remarked that Joanna, though still a slave, was permitted to reside with him. The history of this interesting and amiable female, and of Captain Stedman's endeavours to rescue her from slavery, is dwelt upon in his narrative at considerable length ; but it is requisite to omit it in this abstract, as wholly foreign to the object at present in view.
The Hope estate consisted chiefly of an extensive sugar plantation. Captain Stedman consequently had now an opportunity of observing the whole process adopted for the manufacture of sugar. He says, that the buildings usually consist of a dwelling-house for the planter, outhouses for the overseer and book keeper, a carpenter's lodge, kitchens, storehouses, and stables. The expense of a sugar-mill is usually from four to seven or eight thousand pounds. It consists chiefly of three immense cylinders or rollers of cast-iron, supported underneath by a strong beam; and so close together, that, when in motion, they squeeze as thin as paper whatever comes between them. Most of these mills are put in motion by a large horizontal wheel, which is drawn round by horses or mules. Adjoining to the mill-house is a large apartment, that contains the coppers or large caldrons, in which the liquid sugar, after it has been squeezed out of the canes, is boiled. Opposite to these are large flat-bottomed vessels, into which the sugar is put to cool and crystallize. After this it is packed in hogsheads for exportation. Adjoining to this apartment is the distillery, where the dross or scum of the boiling sugar is converted into a pernicious kind of rum, called “ kill-devil,” which is
much drunk in this colony, and is the only kind of spirit allowed to the negroes.
Each of the estates in this colony contains five or six hundred acres ; and the parts appropriated to cultivation, are divided into squares, where pieces of cane, about a foot long, are stuck into the ground, in an oblique position, and in parallel rows. The shoots, or canes, that spring from them are twelve or sixteen months arriving at maturity. They then become yellow, of the thickness of a German Aute, and from six to ten feet in height: they are jointed, are furnished with pale green leaves, and have a very beautiful appearance.
Some of the estates have more than 400 slaves each; and the expense of purchasing these, and of erecting the buildings, frequently amounts to twenty or five and twenty thousand pounds sterling, exclusive of the value of the ground.
During the time that Captain Stedman was at the Hope, lie was so amply supplied with provisions of almost every description, that he was able to send a large boat load of them to Colonel Fourgeoud, who was encamped, with a considerable body of troops, at a post near the source of the Comewina, called Magdenberg.
On the 20th of April Colonel Fourgeoud moved, with all his men, from this place, to a lower part of the river, where such of his men as were sick could be taken better care of. Hitherto his excursions against the negroes had been wholly unsuccessful, and his troops, by the hardships they had undergone, had been reduced to a most deplorable state. On the 29th be was rowed down to Paramaribo, accompanied by a few of his officers. They went thither to refresh and recruit themselves, and indeed they had great need of refreshment, for they were all extremely weak and emaciated. The troops that were left behind were reduced to a small number, and, though in a state totally unfit for service, were directed to take the management of an armed barge, and to row it up and down the river. Captain Stedman was directed as before, to protect the adjacent plantations, and to attack the rebels if he could discover them, and if it was probable he could attack them with success. During the absence of the colonel, the rebels began to plunder two of the estates, but were beaten back by the plantation slaves. On another occasion, three or four of them were killed, and a few more were taken prisoners. .
Fourgeoud returned on the 9th of May. During his absence Captain Stedman, in consequence of a blunder of one of the surgeons, who had given him an improper medicine, bad suffered a dreadful illness; and he was not yet recovered. Notwithstanding this, the colonel intimated that his services would be immediately required, as he was now resolved to push on the war with redoubled energy. The surgeons, however, declared that the captain was wholly incapable of service; and on the 29th he experienced so severe a relapse, that it became necessary to appoint another officer to take the command of the river. He was desirous of returning to Paramaribo, but this the colonel would not allow, and he was compelled to remain at his station. His only amusements now were to make drawings of such natural objects as the vicinity
of the place supplied, and to walk out with his gun, , whenever his strength would permit him to do so.
In the mean time the colonel, with about a hundred troops, marched into the forest, in search of the enemy. He discovered and destroyed some of their fields, but further than this his progress was attended with little success. The frequent miscarriages that had been experienced in the course of this campaign, fully evinced how difficult it was for European troops to carry on a war in the forests of South America.?
The operations were continued, with various interruptions, for many successive months. At length, on the 18th of January, 1774, Captain Stedman bade a
last farewell to the Hope, and returned to Paramaribo. He rowed down the river at the ebb of the tide, by which an opportunity was afforded him of seeing the mangrove trees that line the banks. The branches of the mangroves, from the waters edge to high-water mark, were stuck full of oysters. These attaching themselves to trees, as others do to rocks, has given rise to a vulgar error, that they grow or vegetate like fruit.
To detail the proceedings of the troops in all their operations against the rebels, would be extremely tedious and uninteresting. During the whole year, 1774, nothing was effected. In the beginning of 1775, Colonel Fourgeoud obtained reinforcements from Holland. With these he entered the woods, but still was unable to bring his opponents to a pitched battle. By his constantly traversing the upper parts of the rivers, however, and scouring the skirts of the colony, he prevented many depredations on the estates; but this, though an essential service to the inhabitants, was not effected without a dreadful expence both of blood and treasure.
On the 14th of June, intelligence was brought that some rebel huts had been discovered near the sea-side; and that a party of troops had been attacked by the negroes, and beaten back with great loss. Orders were consequently issued for all the troops, that were able to march, to hold themselves in readiness. The commander, however, for reasons best known to himself, delayed liis movements for more than two months. On the 3d of July, be proceeded towards Barbacoeba, on the river Cottica, a place which he appointed for the general rendezvous, previously to a grand attack on the rebels. Before he left this place, Captain Stedman joined hinr. The troops, in general, were in high spirits, and eager for service; some in hopes of plunder, some from motives of revenge, and some from a wish to see a termination of the war. Others, however, were worn down with continued illness and hard
service, in a tropical climate, on a morassy soil, under a scorching sun, and environed by an unbounded forest.
The rebels, being apprized by their spies, that Fourgeoud was at Barbacoeba, set fire to all the huts which had been left standing by his patroles, and, on the 15th of August, continued shouting and hallooing through the whole night. This so much enraged the commander, that an hour before day-break he entered the woods in pursuit of them. The number of his men fit for service was exactly 200 Europeans. They proceeded in a course due east; and, after having marched about eight miles (a great distance in this country, where pioneers with bill-hooks must open all the path), they erected huts and encamped. On the ensuing day they continued their march, but to a less distance, and at night they were ordered to sling their hammocks among the trees, and to sleep without any covering. This was done to prevent the enemy from hearing the sound of cutting the trees. No fires were lighted, not a word was suffered to be spoken, and a strict watch was kept round the camp. The adjacent ground was marshy, and the musquitoes were more numerous and troublesome than Captain Stedman had found them even on board the fatal barges in the river Cottica. Some of the men were so much annoyed by them, that they dug holes with their bayonets in the earth : into these they thrust their heads, stopping the entry, and covering their necks with their hammocks, whilst they slept with their stomachs on the ground. To free himself from these troublesome insects, Captain Stedman, by the advice of a negro slave, ascended, with his hammock, to the top of the highest tree he could find. There, at the height of a hundred feet above the ground, he slept in quiet, unable to see his companions for the myriads of musquitoes below him. Besides musquitoes, the men were annoyed by the stings of an immense army of small ants.
The march was continued the ensuing day; and about midnight Captain Stedman was roused from a profound sleep, by a heavy shower of rain, and by the hallooing