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Shall we scruple to ask her to save us when the way of salvation is open to none otherwise than through Mary,” as a certain author remarks.' -P. 135.

As Pharaoh said to Joseph, “ The land of Egypt is in thy hands," and addressed all who came to him for food to Joseph, “Go to Joseph,” so does God send us to Mary when we seek for grace:

"Go to Mary." P. 136.

'Cassian says, absolutely," that the salvation of all depends on their being favoured and protected by Mary.” He who is protected by Mary will be saved; he who is not will be lost.'-Ibid.

Towards the end of this chapter, S. Alfonso enters into a short dissertation, to show that it is probable that all the other saints do not intercede directly with God, but with Mary.

What difficulty can there be in saying, that God, in order to 'honour His mother, and having made her Queen of Saints, and willing that all grace shalĩ be dispensed by her hands,

should also will that the saints should address themselves to her to obtain favours for their clients? Here we see the germ of a development which may end in transferring prayers from S. Mary to some other saint, such as S. Joseph, just as at present they are transferred from her Son to her.

The sixth chapter consists of three sections, which are respectively headed Mary is an Advocate who is able to save all, (where Mr. Duffy substitutes, to obtain salvation for all

“ through the merits of her Son') Mary is so tender an Advo

cate that she does not refuse to defend the cause even of the niost miserable,' and Mary is the Peace-maker between sinners and God.'

S. Peter Damian addresses her in these words: “ All power is given to thee in heaven and on earth, and nothing is impossible to thee, who canst raise those who are in despair to the hope of salvation." ?—P. 145.

““ At the command of Mary all obey, even God.” S. Bernardine fears not to utter this sentence, meaning, indeed, to say, that God grants the prayers of Mary as if they were commands.' And hence, S. Anselm, [the treatise referred to is forged,] addressing Mary, says, Our Lord, O most holy Virgin, has exalted thee to such a degree, that by His favour, all things that are possible to him should be possible to thee." “For thy protection is omnipotent, O Mary,” says Cosmas of Jerusalem. “Yes, Mary is omnipotent,” repeats Richard of S. Lawrence: “for the Queen, by every law, enjoys the same privileges as the King." " And as,” he adds, “ the power of the Son and that of the mother is the same, a mother is made omnipotent by an omnipotent Son." “ And thus," says S. Antoninus, “God has placed the whole Church, not only under the patronage, but even under the dominion of Mary." '—P. 146.

· Blessed Albert the Great makes Mary say: “I have to be asked that I may will; for if I will a thing, it is necessarily done.”—P. 147.

• Mary has only to speak, and her Son executes all.”—P. 149.

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| Translated in the American edition: S. Bernardine of Sienna does not hesitate to say, that all obey the commands of Mary, even God himself, signifying by these words, that God listens to her prayers as though they were commands: The Latin is Imperio Virginis omnia famulantur, etiam Deus.


'S. Antoninus says, that the prayers of the Blessed Virgin being the prayers of a mother, have in them something of a command, so that it is impossible that she should not obtain what she asks.:—P. 151.

S. George, Abp. of Nicomedia, says that Jesus Christ, even as it were to satisfy an obligation under which He placed Himself towards His mother, when she consented to give Him his human nature, grants all she asks. “ The son, as if paying a debt, grants all thy petitions.”—P. 152.

The ensuing example seems to be the last over again, with a few alterations made in it. We shall again mark Mr. Duffy's insertions and omissions.

• Father Razzi, of the Camaldolese Order, relates that a young man of the name of John, on the death of his father, was sent by his mother to the court of a prince. His mother, who had a tender devotion towards Mary, before bidding him farewell, made him promise that he would every day say the “Hail, Mary !” adding at the end of it these words : “O most Blessed Virgin, help me at the hour of my death.” After having been at court for a short time, he became so dissolute, that his master was obliged to dismiss him. No longer knowing how to obtain a living, in despair he became a highway robber and murderer ; but during this time even, he never neglected to recommend himself to our Blessed Lady, according to his promise. At length he was taken and condemned to death. When in prison, and the day before his death, reflecting on his own shame, on the grief of his mother, and on the death he was about to endure, he wept bitterly; and thus the devil seeing him disconsolate and filled with melancholy thoughts, appeared to him under the form of a handsome youth, and told him that he would deliver him from prison and death if only he would obey him. The culprit said, he was ready to do all he might ask. The youth then told him that he was the devil come to aid him. In the first place, he required that he should deny Jesus Christ and the most holy sacraments. To this he consented. He then demanded that he should renounce the Blessed Virgin Mary and her protection. “Ah, that I will never do!" answered the young man ; and, raising his heart to her, he repeated his accustomed prayer, “O Blessed Virgin, help me at the hour of my death.” At these words the devil disappeared. The young man was immediately filled with the most bitter grief for the crime he had committed in denying Jesus Christ ;* but having recourse to the most Blessed Virgin, she obtained him true sorrow for all his sins, and he confessed them with great sighs and contrition. On leaving the jail to go to the scaffold, he passed on the road a statue of Mary, and saluted it with his ordinary prayer, “() most Blessed Virgin, help me at the hour of my death;" and the statue returned his salutation in the presence of all by bowing its head. Moved with tenderness, he begged leave to kiss the feet of the statue. The guard refused, but at length consented, on account of the acclamations of the people. The youth stooped to kiss the feet, when Mary extended her arm, took him by the hand, and held him so tight, that it was impossible to remove him. At the sight of such a prodigy all began to cry out, “ Mercy, pardon, forgiveness ;” and it was granted. The young man returned to his own country, and led a most exemplary life, and always filled with the most tender affection for Mary, who had delivered him * from both temporal and eternal death.' -P. 153.

Omitted by Mr. Duffy. 2 "On account of his sins' is substituted by Mr. Duffy.

By whose prayers, presented in the name of her Son, he was delivered,' substitutes Mr. Duffy.

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Thus the direct cause of the salvation of this youth and of the young nobleman before mentioned is, that they had a love for the creature which was greater than that which they had for God and for Jesus Christ.

“With good reason, nen, does Denis the Carthusian call the Blessed Virgin the singular refuge of the lost, the hope of the most abandoned, and the advocate of all sinners who have recourse to her.'-P. 156.

""Be comforted, then, O you who fear,” will I say with S. Thomas of Villanova ; “ breathe freely and take courage, O wretched sinners. This great Virgin, who is the mother of your God and Judge, is also the advocate of the whole human race; fit for this office, for she can do what she wills with God; most wise, for she knows all the means of appeasing Him; universal, for she welcomes all, and refuses to defend no one. P. 161.

O my own beloved Mother, if by thee I save my soul, as I hope to do, I shall no longer be ungrateful. I shall make up for my past ingratitude, and for the love thou hast shown me, by my everlasting praises, and all the affections of my soul. Happy, in heaven where thou reignest, and wilt reign for ever, I shall always sing thy mercies, and kiss for eternity those loving hands which have delivered me from hell as often as I have deserved it by my sins. O Mary, my liberator, my hope, my queen, my advocate, my own sweet mother, I love thee, I desire thy glory, and I will love thee for ever. Amen, amen! Thus do I hope.'—P. 163.

Ten pages are devoted to showing that Mary is the Peacemaker between sinners and God. She is the Dove of Noah's Ark, the rainbow round the Throne of God, the Moon. Her chief office, on being placed in this world,' was to raise up

6. souls that had fallen from Divine grace, and to reconcile them with God' (p. 167.) Among a number of spurious passages from S. Chrysostom, s. Anselm, and others, occurs the following quotation from Cardinal Hugo, which is an average specimen of these ten pages :

"“ Mary is the great Peace-maker, who finds and obtains the reconciliation of enemies with God, salvation for those who are lost, pardon for sinners, and mercy for those who are in despair.” —P. 165.

Next we come to a paraphrase of the words, “Turn thou thine eyes

of mercy towards us. We will give three passages, as specimens of the rest.

* It was revealed to S. Gertrude that when these words are addressed with devotion to the most Blessed Virgin, “ Turn thou, O most gracious Advocate, thine eyes of mercy towards us,” Mary cannot do otherwise than yield to the demands of whoever thus invokes her.'-P. 178.

“ The prophet Isaias foretold that, together with the great work of the redemption of the human race, a throne of Divine mercy was to be prepared for us poor creatures : “And a throne shall be prepared in mercy.” What is this throne ? S. Bonaventure answers, “ Mary is this throne, at which all, just and sinners, find consolations of mercy.” He then adds, “ For as we have a most merciful Lord, so we have a most merciful Lady. Our Lord is plenteous in mercy to all who call upon Him, and our Lady is plenteous in mercy to all who call upon her." 'Ibid.

The Abbot Guarric thus addresses the Mother in the name of Jesus

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Christ : “My Mother, in thee will I establish the seat of my government; through thee will I pronounce judgments, hear prayers, and grant the graces asked of me. Thou hast given me my human nature, and I will give thee my Divine nature, that is, Omnipotence, by which thou mayest be able to help to save all whomsoever thou pleasest.” –P. 179.

We add the Example :

'In the chronicles of the Capuchin fathers it is related, that in Venice there was a famous lawyer, who, by fraudulent dealings and bad practices, became rich, so that he lived in a state of sin. The daily recitation of a particular prayer to the Blessed Virgin was probably the only good thing that he ever did. And yet this slight devotion obtained him, through the mercy of Mary, deliverance from eternal death. It was thus. He, happily for himself, took an affection for Father Mathew de Basso, and entreated him so often to come and dine at his house, that at length this good father complied with his request. When he got to the house, the lawyer said, “Now, father, I will show you a thing you never saw before. I have a most extraordinary monkey, who serves me as a valet, washes the glasses, lays the table, and opens the door for me. Ah," replied the father, "take care; perhaps it is not a monkey, but something more; bring it here.” They called again and again for the monkey, but no monkey appears; they seek for it everywhere, but it is not to be found. At length they discovered it concealed under a bed, in a lower part of the house ; but no, the monkey would not come out. “Well, then," said the religious, “let us go to it;" and when the lawyer and he reached the place where it was, the father cried out, “ Infernal beast, come forth, and on the part of God I command thee to say what thou art.” The monkey replied, “ that he was the devil, and that he was only waiting for that sinner to omit

, for a single day, his ordinary prayer to the Mother of God; for, the first time he omitted it, he had permission from God to strangle him, and carry him to hell." On hearing this, the poor lawyer cast himself on his knees to ask for help from the servant of God, who encouraged him, and commanded the devil to leave the house without doing mischief. said he, “I permit thee to make a hole in the wall of the house, as a sign of thy departure.” He had scarcely said the words than, with a tremendous noise, a hole was made in the wall, and which, though often closed with mortar and stone, God permitted should remain open for a long time, until at length the servant of God advised that it should be covered with a marble slab, with the figure of an angel on it. The lawyer was converted, and, as we hope, persevered until death in his change of life.'-P. 181.

As he advances, our author grows more bold and enthusiastic. The next chapter is divided into three sections, which are thus headed : Mary delivers her Clients from Hell—Mary succours her Clients in Purgatory—Mary leads her Servants to “Heaven.' It begins with the following sentence: 'It is impossible for a client of Mary who is faithful in honouring and

recommending himself to her, to be lost. Having made this statement, S. Alfonso begs his readers to know that it is to be

understood of those clients who, with a sincere desire to amend, 6

are faithful in honouring and recommending themselves to the • Mother of God. On which we might ask—first, why this necessary condition of repentance is not stated at once ? and next, why he has confirmed his original proposition with further

“ Only,"

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statements and tales, in which there is no mention whatever of repentance, and which must lead simple, childlike minds to the belief that repentance is not necessary? To make out his point, S. Alfonso first declares that he will examine what other saints and learned men have said on the subject. Accordingly he appeals—1st, to S. Anselm; the passage which he quotes is forged. 2d, to S. Antoninus, from whose words he concludes,

consequently the clients of Mary will necessarily be saved.' 3d, to Blessed Albert, who says that all those who are not thy servants, O Mary, will perish' 4th, to S. Bonaventure, who

. says, 'that not only those from whom Mary turns her face will not be saved, but that there will be no hope of their salvation.' He then claims S. Ignatius the Martyr and S. Chrysostom, in the following words:

· Before him, S. Ignatius the Martyr said, “ that it was impossible for any sinner to be saved without the help and favour of the most Blessed Virgin ; because those who are not saved by the justice of God are, with infinite mercy, saved by the intercession of Mary.” Some doubt as to whether this passage is truly of S. Ignatius ; but, at all events, as Father Crasset remarks, it was adopted by S. John Chrysostom. It is also repeated by the venerable Raymond Jordano.'-P. 185.

Again, three pages lower :

"No," says S. Ignatius the Martyr," he who is devout to the Virgin Mother will certainly never be lost.” –P. 188.

There is something very perplexing in this : not in finding such an authority for such doctrine, because none of our readers will require to be informed that the passages are forgeries, and are not found in any works of S. Ignatius or of S. Chrysostom, nor, to the best of our knowledge, in any writings attributed at any time by any person to S. Ignatius or S. Chrysostom, previous to the time of the Jesuit De Celada, in the appendix to whose commentary on Judith, writing in the year 1537, after the waste of much labour, we at length found it. But it is perplexing to find that a man of devout mind, writing in behalf of religion, can so entirely divest his mind of the obligation of speaking the truth with regard to historical facts. Whether the venerable Raymond Jordano has repeated it or not we do not know: this venerable abbot, who lived at the end of the fourteenth century, out of humility,' we are told, surnamed himself The Idiot' (p. 235).

The following is one of the methods by which Mary delivers her clients from Hell :

It is the opinion of many theologians, and of S. Thomas in particular, that for many who have died in mortal sin the Divine Mother has obtained from God a suspension of their sentence, and a return to life to do pen



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Trustworthy authors give us many instances in which this has occurred. Amongst others, Flodoardus, who lived about the ninth century,


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