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adulterated and unwholesome foods and drugs, adding new safeguards and repealing several acts relating to this subject. The new law became operative November 1st, 1901, and its provisions will be enforced by the State Board of Health. The following acts are repealed by the new law : “An act to protect butter and cheese manufacturers," approved March 23d, 1865; "An act relative to the dairy commissioner," approved June 13th, 1895; “An act to prevent the adulteration and to regulate the sale of milk," approved March 14th, 1882, and all acts supplementary thereto and amendatory thereof; “An act to prevent the adulteration of food and drugs," approved March 25th, 1881, and all acts supplementary and amendatory thereof; "An act to prevent the adulteration of candy," approved March 14th, 1895, and “An act to prevent deception in the sale of cake and biscuits and to preserve the public health," approved March 220, 1895. It will be noted that the act to prevent deception in the sale of oleomargarine, butterine and other dairy products has not been repealed, but remains operative, and that, together with the “Act to prohibit the sale of adulterated and skimmed milk in cities," approved March 23d, 1883, and the "Act to prevent adulteration and deception in the sale of linseed oil,” approved May 18th, 1898, it will hereafter be enforced by the State Board of Health. The adulteration of foods, as at present conducted by producers, manufacturers and dealers, consists almost entirely in the substitution of cheaper materials for those nominally or properly composing the article, and poisonous additions are very rarely found. In recent years the methods of falsification have become more numerous, more complex and more difficult of detection outside of the laboratory, and it has been found that in states where food inspection has been actively conducted, and where numerous arrests and convictions have occurred, sophisticated goods have been driven across the borders, into localities where no provision has been made against this evil. It has been estimated that efficient inspection of foods, under laws providing deterrent penalties, saves to the consumer one-fourth of the nutritious elements of his daily supply, and while food adulteration is conducted solely for the purpose of cheating the pocketbook of the buyer, yet it does in fact also diminish the nutrition of the consumer and impair his strength and health. By far the most prevalent food adulteration in New Jersey during the past four or five years has been the addition fo preservatives, and all classes of perishable foods have been thus treated at the hands of unscrupulous producers and dealers. After much agitation relating to the injurious effects of the more common antiseptics, when added to foods, there is now but little disagreement among physiological chemists and hygienists concerning the unhealthful influence which attend the continued ingestion of even small quantities of formaldehyde, boric acid, salicylic acid and certain other chemical substances which are capable of retarding fermentation, and the addition of these articles cannot be justified on any plea. In practice it has been found that fresh meat can be preserved for weeks by low temperatures only, and in the case of milk, if cleanly methods are employed in its collection and storage, it will not undergo decomposition for at least forty-eight hours, which is quite long enough to permit of its being distributed to distant points. It is believed that the new law will afford better protection against the sale of diseased meat than has heretofore been possible, and that by its energetic enforcement the further shipment of tuberculous beef to market will be stopped. Sections 3 (paragraph 5), 7, 8 and 9 of the new law govern the sale of milk, and especial attention will be given to the enforcement of these provisions.
In choosing the inspectors who are to be authorized to represent the State Board of Health in making the inquiries and investigations which are contemplated by the law, the board has proceeded in accordance with rules adopted at a meeting held April 10th, 1896, which read in part as follows: “That a new standing committee shall be appointed,
and to this committee shall be assigned the duty of conducting suitable examinations for fitness in the case of all persons who may hereafter apply for appointment to any position within the control of this board.
All examinations shall be written as far as possible, and all examination papers and ratings shall be preserved for reference. Appointments will be made from an eligible list of applicants, certified by the said committee to have passed a satisfactory examination in the line of service required.”
Acting under the rules above quoted, the standing committee made inquiry concerning the qualifications of the ten applicants for the four appointments as sanitary inspectors under the act referred to. The following questions were presented at the first examination: (1) What protection is afforded by law against the sale of impure 'milk? (2) Does the law permit the addition of preservatives to food ? (3) What duties does the law impose upon State inspectors of foods? (4) What precautions should be taken by inspectors in the collection of samples
of food and drugs? (5) Name ten foods which are frequently adulterated ? (6) Name ten drugs which are frequently adulterated ? (7) How is the presence of trichinæ detected in meat ? (8) What are ptomaines? (9) What effect has temperature upon the working of the lactometer? (10) What are the legal requirements for selling
? oleomargarine ? An oral examination was also conducted by the committee, and stenographic notes were taken of the questions and replies, all of which are on record.
The sole purpose in view in this sifting of the applicants is to bring to the service of the board the most intelligent and capable men whom the salary will attract, and as the act wisely provides for the prompt removal of inefficient appointees, opportunity is afforded to replace those who are found after trial to be incompetent, and the group of men who are finally retained will doubtless rapidly acquire acquaintance with the duties imposed by the laws.
Transportation of the Dead.-To obtain expressions from undertakers throughout the State concerning the advisability of making changes in the regulations which have been on trial during the past year, the following circular letter was sent to seventy-five persons who are engaged in the undertaking business in New Jersey :
“BOARD OF HEALTH OF THE STATE OF NEW JERSEY,
“TRENTON, April, 1901. “DEAR SIR-Alterations in the rules relating to the transportation of the dead are now under consideration, and you are requested to suggest any changes which in your judgment will improve the methods prescribed in the recently amended rules, a copy of which is enclosed. These rules are designed to prevent the causation of a nuisance by the escape of offensive gases and fluids from burial cases containing dead human bodies, during transportation in public conveyances.
Only twelve replies were received to the foregoing communication, but the views of those who expressed their opinions seemed to warrant certain changes in the regulations, and at a meeting of the State Board of Health, held April 9th, 1901, the alterations referred to were adopted. Following is a copy of the revised regulations :
Rules regulating the transportation of dead human bodies by com
mon carriers, issued by the Board of Health of the State of New Jersey under authority contained in chapter 156 of the Laws of 1900. 1. The transportation of bodies dead of small-pox, Asiatic cholera,. yellow fever, typhus fever and bubonic plague is forbidden except a license therefor is first obtained from the State Board of Health, or from an inspector or officer of said board, and no license for the transportation of bodies dead of said diseases will be issued until it is shown that said bodies have been prepared in accordance with the written requirements which shall in each case be specified and made a part of said license.
When the dead body is not to remain unburied longer than seventy-two
2. The bodies of human beings dead of diseases not named in rule number one shall not be transported by any common carrier unlesssaid bodies shall first have been treated as follows: (a) Remove all garments from the dead body and apply to the surface a solution of bichloride of mercury prepared as follows: one part each of bichloride of mercury and muriate of ammonia to 1,000 parts of water. (6) Fill all openings with cotton wool which has first been saturated with the mercurial solution and allowed to dry. The cotton should be used dry and be firmly packed. (c) The body should be placed in a coffin or casket, and should rest upon a layer of sawdust or other absorbent material not less than two inches in thickness. After the body has been placed in the coffin the coffin should be securely closed. (d) The coffin or casket containing the dead body should be placed in an outer box, strongly made of seven-eighths boards.
When the dead body is to remain unburied longer than seventy-two
hours, and in all cases of diphtheria, membranous croup, scarlet
fever, chicken-pox, measles and erysipelas. 3. After being prepared as required by rule two, the dead body, contained in the coffin or casket, should be placed in a substantial metallined box, and said metal lining should be made air-tight by soldering all of the joints and seams.*
* The preparation of dead human bodies for transportation by public carriers, as provided for in these rules, does not preclude the employment of additional precautions against the decomposition of the remains.
4. In cases of dangerous communicable diseases the body should not be accompanied by persons or articles which have been exposed to the infection of the disease unless a certificate has been issued by the local board of health, or its authorized officer, showing that said persons or articles have been rendered free from infection.
5. Every dead body transported by any common carrier must be accompanied by a transit permit showing name of deceased, date and hour of death, age, place of death, cause of death, and the point to which the body is to be transported, and also the name of the person authorized to accompany the body, if any person is so authorized. The duplicates of the physician's and undertaker's certificates, and the transit permit, shall be securely attached to the outside of the coffinbox. Said certificates and the transit permit shall not be mutilated in the process of being attached to the coffin-box.
6. No disinterred body shall be offered for transportation to any common carrier unless the disinterment has been authorized in writing by the local board of health, nor unless written consent for such transportation shall have been obtained from the health authorities of the locality to which the said disinterred body is to be consigned. AM disinterred bodies shall be enclosed in an air-tight, metal-lined box, and all joints and seams in said metal lining shall be soldered. Bodies placed in receiving vaults shall be treated in the same manner as bodies buried. By order of the Board of Health of the State of New Jersey.
C. F. BRACKETT,
President. HENRY MITCHELL,
Secretary. June 28th, 1901.
Cemeteries. During the past year four descriptive maps, showing the location of new cemeteries, or additions to cemeteries already established, have been filed in the office of the State Board of Health.
An application from John H. Francisco and others for reversal of the action of the local governing board and the board of health of the town of Bloomfield, dated April 5th, 1901, was granted by the State Board of Health at a meeting held June 28th, 1901. A writ of certiorari was issued by Justice Franklin Fort, directing that the proceedings of the State Board of Health in this case be reviewed, and return was made as follows: