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MR. COBBETT'S METHOD OF in that state for ten minutes, then. MAKING ENGLISH GRASSES took it out and laid it very thinly ANSWER FOR FINE STRAW on a closely-mowed lawn in a garHATS.
den. But I should observe, that (From the Transactions of the Society before I put the grass into the tub, for the Encouragement of Arts.) I tied it up in small bundles or
m sheaves, each bundle being about MR. Cobbett has received the
the six inches through at the butt-end. large silver medal of the Society This was necessary in order to be for the Encouragement of Arts, for able to take the grass, at the end a method of bleaching English of ten minutes, out of the water, grasses, so that they may be sub-, without throwing it into a confused stituted for Leghorn straw, in the mixture as to tops and tails. Being manufacture of hats. There seems tied up in little bundles, I could so many advantages in spreading
easily, with a prong, take it out of a knowledge of this useful method,
the hot water. The bundles were that we shall here transcribe as put into a large wicker-basket, much of his own account of it as Carrie
carried to the lawn in the garden, may serve to make our readers and there taken out one by one, acquainted with the process, Mr. and laid in swarths as before-menCobbett, it appears, was induced tioned.*** to turn his attention to the subject
“ It was laid very thinly, almost by hearing that grass was dried in
might I say that no stalk of grass America. He accordingly got
Tere some information concerning it
turned once a day. The bleaching from his son, who was then in that
was completed at the end of seven country, and who also sent him days from the time of scalding and over some specimens of the grass. laying out. June is a fine month. When he saw these and some Leg. The grass was, as it happened, cut horn straw, he was convinced that on the longest day of the year; and both were made from two or three the weather was remarkably fine sorts of our common grasses, and and clear. But the grass which I of oats, wheat, and rye. He had afterwards cut in Sussex, was cut at first some doubts whether it in the first week in August; and, could be bleached in this country, as to the weather, myjournal speaks but he immediately set about try- thus: ing. He then gives the following
August, 1323 e mesloot account of his proceedings:
2nd. - Thunder andrain. -Began “First, as to the season of the cutting grass. openediggsbak year: all the straw, except that of 3rd. -- Beautiful day. For one sort of couch-grass, and the 4th.--Fine day.
osidad long coppice-grass, which two were 5th. Cloudy day. Began scaldgot in Sussex, were got from grassing grass and laying it out. cut in Hertfordshire, on the 21st 6th. Cloudy greater part of the of June. A grass headland in a day.
bir tasdy to tedt wheat-field had been mowed during 7th. Same weather.
1997 the fore part of the day, and, in 8th. Cloudy and rather misty. the afternoon, I went and took a Finished cutting grass. sofort handful here and a handful there 9th. Dry, but cloudy. out of the swarths. When I had 10th: Very close and hot, Packcollected as much as I could well ed up part of the grass.com carry, I took it to my friend's house, 11th, 12th, 13th, and 14th. Same and proceeded to prepare it for weather.. bleaching according to the infor- 15th, Hot and clear. Finished mation sent me from America by packing up grass. +2 tengah my son; that is to say, I put my "The grass cut in Sussex was grass into a shallow tub, put boil- as well bleached as that cut in ing water upon it until it was co- Hertfordshire ; so that it is evident vered by the water, let it remain that we never can have a summer
that will not afford sun sufficient "Cynosurus cristatus ;ior, crestfor this business. - r - B e d dog's-tail grass. <!
"The part of the straw used for . Anthoxanthum odoratum ;'or, platting is that part of the stalk sweet-scented vernal grass. which is above the upper joint; " Agrostis canina; or, brown that part which is between the up- bent grass. ., per joint and the seed branches. “These names are those given This part is taken out, and the rest at the Botanical garden at Kew. of the straw thrown away. But But tbe same English names are the whole plant must be cut and not, in the country, given to these bleached; because, if you were to sorts of grass. The fiorin grass, the take off, when green, the part above yellow oat-grass, and the brown described, that part would wither bent, are all called couch-grass; up to next to nothing. This part except that the latter is, in Sussex, must die in company with the called red-robin. It is the native whole plant, and be separated from grass of the plains of Long Island, the other parts after the bleaching and they call it red-top. The rayhas been performed.
grass is the common field grass, " The time of cutting must vary which is all over the kingdom sown with the seasons, the situation, and with clover. The farmers in a great sort of grass. The grass which I part of the kingdom call it bent, or* got in Hertfordshire, than which bennct-grass; and sometimes it is nothing can, I think, be more beau- called darnal-grass. The crested tiful, was, when cut, generally in dog's-tail goes, in Sussex, by the bloom; just in bloom. Tho wheat name of Hendon-bent, for what ! was in full bloom; so that a good reason I know not.' The sweettime for getting grass may be con- scented vernal grass I have never, sidered to be that when the wheat amongst the farmers, heard any is in bloom. When I cut the grass name for." in Sussex the wheat was ripe, for "He then goes onreaping had begun; but the grass “Having thus given you an acis of a very backward sort, and be- count of the time and manner of sides, grew in the shade, among cutting the grass, of the mode of coppice-wood, and under trees, cuttiag and bleaching; having which stood pretty thick.'
given you the best account I am “ As to the sorts of grass, I have able as to the sorts of grass to be to observe, generally, that in pro- employed in this business; and portion as the colour of the grass having, in my former communicais deep, that is to say, getting fur- tions, given you specimens of the ther from the yellow and nearer to plat wrought from the several sorts the blue, it is of a deep and dead of straw, I might here close my yellow when it becomes straw. letter; but, as it may be useful to Those kinds of grass are best which speak of the expense of cutting and are in point of colour nearest to bleaching, I shall trouble you with that of wheat, which is a fresh pale a few words relating to it. If there green. Another thing is the qua- were a field of ray-grass, or of lity of the straw as to pliancy and crested dog's-tail, or any other toughness. Experience inust be good sort, and nothing else grow. our guide here," od
ing with it, the expense of cutting - Mr. Cobbett has found the fol- would be very little indeed, secing
lowing species of grass answer :- that a scythe would do the business 906 Wheat.is,
at a great rate. Doubtless there “ Melica Cærules; or, purple will be such fields; but, even if 'melida grass. Dins lo
the grass have to be cut by the “Agrostis Stolenifera; or, Fiorin handful, my opinion is, that the gráss; 1. e. one sort of couch-grass. expense of cutting and bleaching M Lolium perenne; or, ray-grass. would not exceed fourpence for : } Avena flavescens ; or yellow straw enough to make a large bondat-grass.
: net.' I should be willing to con-'
tract to supply straw at this rate all is this: that, to obtain the ma. for half a million of bonnets. The térials for the making of this arscalding must constitute a consi- ticle, of dress, at once so gay, so derable part of the expense; be- useful, and, in some cases, so excause there must be fresh water pensive, there requires not a penny for every parcel of grass, that you of capital.“ Many of the labourers put in the tub. When water has now make their own straw-hats to scalded one parcel of cold grass, it wear in summer'; poor rotten will not scald another parcel. Be- things, made out of the straw of sides, the scalding draws out the ripened grain. With what satisse sweet matter of the grass, and faction will they learn that straw, makes tbe water the colour of twenty times as durable, to say London porter. It would be very nothing of the beauty, is to be got. good, by the by, to give to pigs. from every hedge! In short, when Many people give hay-tea to pigs the people are well and clearly in and calves, and this is grass-tea. formed of the facts which I have, To scald a large quantity, there through you, Sir, had the honour fore, would require means not to lay before the Society, it is next usually at hand, and the scalding to impossible that the manufactory, is an essential part of the business. should not become general through Perhaps, in a large and very con- out the country. In every labour venient farm-house, with a good , er's house a pot of water can be brewing-copper," good fuel and boiled. What labourer's wife can? water handy, four or five women not, in the summer months, find might scald a waggon load in a time to cut and bleach grassls day; and a waggon would, I think, enough to give her and her chilar carry straw enough (in the rough) dren work for a part of the winter to furnish the means of making a Thero is no necessity for all to beni thousand bonnets. However, the platters. Some may eut and bleach' scalding Inight take place in the only. Others may prepare the'p field itself, by means of a portable straw, as before mentioned in thigro boiler, especially if water were at letter. And, doubtless, aga thel hand; and, perhaps, it would be farmers in Hertfordshire now self better to carry the water to the their straw to the platters gråga field, than to carry the grass to the collectors, and bleachers and prelio farm-house ; for there must be parers would do the same so that 12 ground to Jay it out upon the mo- there is 'scarcely any èountry laut ment it has been scalded, and no bourer's family that might not deeg ground can be so proper as the rive some advantage from this dissue newly-mowed ground where the covery; and, while I am convincedup grass has stood. The space, too, that this consideration has been la must be large for any considerable by no means soverlooked by the di quantity of grass. As to all these Society, it has been, I assure you, vd things, however, the best and the great consideration of all withids cheapest methods will soon be dis me." U n e 6 1645 bauoi covered, when people set about All travellers have wobserved.lon the work with a view to profit.", and we ourselves, have witnessed">
“ Here there is no power of ma, the truth of the observation, thats! chinery or chemistry wanted. All there is no part of Italyiwhere théid is pexformed out in the open fields, peasantry are so well prbvided for, ou or sitting in, the cottage. There none where they are so cheerfapde wants no coal mines and no rivers and happy, as in that large andido to assist, no,, water-powers nor fertile district, thes Vale of Aring,00 powers of fire. No part of the where most of the straw is prebas kingdom is unfit for the business. pared which is known in all Eug of Every where there are grass, wa- rope by the name of Leghorn plat.lim ter, sun, and women and children's The contrast between this distriệt 26 fingers, and these are all that are and other parts of Italy tigs Lo NOT wanted. But, the great thing of striking not to have been noticed.232 There, and perhaps there only, in accordance with political and civil unfortunate Italy, do you see a wisdom. ' It máy, therefore, be well fed and well clothed pea.. wished that women should not be santry. At every house groups of compelled to contribute towards sunburnt nymphs are met with of the subsistence of a family more. an evening, splitting or platting than those domestic cares which the straw, while they sing merrily double a man's 'money, and mul-! or chat animatedly and cheerfully. tiply his comforts beyond calIf our country is not yet far enough culation. If they must contribute advanced in civilization and in towards the subsistence of their gallantry to rescue our women families by labouring for hire, then from those irksome and severe surely it may be wished that most tasks necessary to procure a sub• of them may find employment in sistence for their families; if from that health bringing occupation, too large a leaven of the barbarity for the introduction of which the of, our ancestors yet remaining country is indebted to Mr. Cobamongst us, we will contime to bett. '; drive our females from the domes.
11330M 91.2 tic, hearth and the care of their II T TIET I TOTES children, out to labour, let us at CHEMICAL SOCIETY. 418! least hope that the cheerful, the The following letter was açcom healtby, labour Mr. Cobbett has panied by the real address of Luzidescribed, may be substituted for tanus.- ED. b.
ws 14900* the less healthy and more disagree
To the Editor of the Chemistasi padar
the Editon able toils of potatoe digging, brick-' making, cotton-spinning, and cot- SIR - I have seen with sincero ton, tambouring. It has been de- pleasure the suggestion of your"? monstrated, and is, on all the correspondent, A. W* (published principles of political economy, in No. XI, of your valuable Jour! quite certain that in all those oc- nal) regarding the establishment of cupajigps in wbich the women and a Society for the instruction of children of a family labour, the young Chemists. I enter so much wages of the whole do not exceed into the views of your correspond those, which a single man gains in ent, that I think it would be de! occupations in which he is unas- sirable immediately to call a meet sisted by his wife and his children. ing of the friends of the Society.h! The reason, too, is plaid. The wa.' for the purpose of preparing its rout ges of labour are never more than gulations, and doing whatever may ! sufficient to bring up the requisite be necessary to lay its foundation quantity of labourers, and they will on a solid basis. The first esta-1 always be sufficient for this wheblishment will necessarily requires theniearned bs the mann alone, or a fund to defray the expenses, and by the man, shis wife, and two or for this purpose I am ready to con three childrennokte is consequently tribute the sum of five guineas.eu found that a sunith, who is not. I shall also be happy to lend to helped by women and children, the Society all the works on cheros gets, as much wages, lasiaowliolemistry that my library contains, family of weaverslo Considered in until the funds will admit the purtbis general point of view, there is chase of, then for the Society no motive,vtherefore, why women amongst them. I bave Parkes o Aed ?i shquld, be forced to yndglect their cum, Mackenzie, Chaptal, Cadet, 10 children, and why those cbildren Herpin, &o. I am, Mr. Bditor, lilaw should be drutalized by too early . Your obedient servants of and too long continued toit, in orderd * 31st May, 1824,2 LUZITANUS.":04 to procure subsistance ifor the fa
biel o s I i II 1.l. milys Well understood nespeict, or,
310 TT TTS (Tv as it is sometimes called, cbivalóiT * A note from this gentleman, informas 195 rourogallantry Itowards the other
us, that we have made a mistake in his ant
signature, and that it should be A. Men sex,bis bus found to be strictly iniinot A, WITT 11913
"ANALYSIS OF SCIENTIFIC tions of the American PhilosophiJOURNALS.
: cal Society. There are three more . (Continued from p. 140.) original articles: one entitled;“ Spe
· ANNALS OF PHILOSOPHY. culations and Inquiries respeeting This scientific journal is extremely 'the Action and Nature of certain uninteresting this month. Mr.Baden Compounds of Sulphur;" having a Powell continues his lucubrations close relation to the doctrine of on solar light and heat, the tendency atoms, which is to chemistry what of which we are scarcely acute the ancient doctrine of universals enough to discover. The heating was to metaphysics, viz. its alloy effect of light is described in the of nonsense : another is, a Review next page to that in which we are of the London Pharmacopoeia, by cautioned not to assume any posi- Mr. Phillips; which shows, that tion till it has been proved by ex- even the Icarned College of Physiperiment. As if light were not the cians are not over wise, and may unknown cause of vision; as if heat yet be improved by that collision meant any thing more than the un- of intellect, which only dolts (for known cause of the sensation of wise men know it is the source of heat; and as if it were distinctly excellence;) by charters and priviproved, that the proximate cause leges to secure a monopoly of the of both were known, and the rewards of skill seek to avoid. We same, or had some close and inti- presume, however, some little feelmate connexion with each other. ing of rivalry may enter into the We say there is no proof whatever, composition of this article, for the that these two unknown causes are chemical part of the London Phar the same; and we add, that their macopoeia is the work of another effects, one producing sensations chemist and another lecturer. We of heat, the other producing sen- shall extract the only article of the sations of vision, are so different, least value in the Annals of Philothat there is every reason to believe sophy, and that is, An Analysis of them to be totally different. While the Argillaceous Iron Ore, by R. learned men continue to talk non- Phillips, F.R.S. &c. is. sense, and we are afraid they are It is well known that the greater ever the last to abandon it, there part of the immense quantity of iron cannot be much progress made in yielded by the mines of this kingaccurate theoretical knowledge. dom is obtained from what is called Professor Henslow's remarks on Dr. the argillaceous iron ore. A speBerger's reply, relative to the geo- cimen which I analyzed was of that logy of the Isle of Man, may be variety, which is called at Low amusing to those who like bandy: Moor Iron Works, near Bradford, ing hard words, but cannot add Yorkshire, Black Iron Stone. S much to the general stock of know . Its colour, as its name imports, ledge, and are therefore useless, as is nearly black; its specific gravity far as we are concerned. The re. 3.055; it yields easily to the knife, maining articles are nearly all éx- and becomes magnetic when heattracts.
ed by the blowpipe. There is an account of the LOGAN 6. 100 grains of this ore reduced Rock, which some sailors recently to powder, and moderately dried ¢ toppled from its base," taken on a sand-bath, lost one grain, from A Guide to the Land's End." which was cridently mere hygro. Then comes M. Gay Lussac's and metric moisture. M. Liebig's article on Fulminate of. b. As it effervesces strongly when Silver, which appeared in our Jour- put into an acid, 100 grains were nal a fortnight ago, taken from the put into a vial containing sulphaAnnales de Chimie et Physique. After- ric acid, the weight of which, and wards, there is an extract from the its contents, were together noted. “ Medical Jurisprudence of Dr. After the effervescence was over, Paris, and Mr. Fonblanque;" and which took place slowly, it was also an article from the Transage found that 29-3 grains of carbonio