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still is at work. To meet both these cases ingenuity has contrived another kind of still, of which we Shall hereafter give a representation. The present is an old fashioned and common still, a is the body, and b the head. The spirit or volatile product, as it rises from the material subjected to heat in a, is carried up to b, whence it is transmitted into a pipe coiled spirally in the tub, d, and called the worm, and terminating and coming out of a hole in d, at c. The tub is filled with cold water, and the volatile product in its passage through the spiral tube is condensed and flows out at c, as a fluid, into whatever is placed to receive it. As we intend shortly to enter fully into the principles and practice of distillation, we shall now say no more on the subject.
DICTIONARY OF CHEMISTRY.
Aphrite, earth foam, schaumerde. A species of carbonate of lime, found in Thuringia and the north of Ireland.
Aplomb. A variety of the garnet; a mineral of a deep orange brown colour.
- Apparatus. We only give this as a chemical word, because in some authors the whole of the contents of a laboratory is described under it.
Apvrous, refractory. Bodies which resist the action of heat, or are unaltered by it, have been called Apyrous; but the term refractory is at present most generally used,
Aqua-fortis, strong water, nitric acid in a weak and impure state. It is called single and double, as it is weak or strong, and when much concentrated is distinguished by the name—spirit of nitre.
Aqua Marine, beryl. A precious stone.
Aqua Regia, or Regis, nitremuriatic acid, A mixture of these two acids, formerly so called from its great solving powers.
Aqua \\tx., low wines, ardent spirit of the first distillation. A general name, for all strong drink, the
words signifying "tho water of life."
Aqcila Alba, aquila mitigata, wercurius dulcis, calomel, mild muriate of mercury. A combination of muriatic acid and mercury, employed as a medicine.
Arbor Dianje; An amalgamation of mercury and silver, made by mixing a solution of chloride of stiver in ammonia with cunning mercury.
Arcanum Dvplicatvm,vitriolated tartar. A salt very early known, to which a variety of names have been given; now generally called "sulphate of potash.
Arcanum Tartari, secretfwlaled earth of tartar, essential salt of wine, regenerated tartar, diuretic salt, digestive salt of Silvius; now acetate of potash.
Archil, lichen rocella, archilla, orseille. Properly speaking, archil is the name of a purplish-red dye, prepared by grinding the lichen rocella between stones, so as to bruise but not pound it, and then moistening it with urine mixed with lime. In a few days it becomes of a purplish-red, and is then called archil, and at length of a blue colour, and then it is called lacmus or litmus. It is a costly dye, and is seldom used by itself, as it is very fugitive, except with marble, to which it is said to impart a durable and beautiful violet colour. Litmus is employed in chemistry to make a test paper, and is then' improperly called tincture of turnsole. The plant from which the archil is made is a whitish lichen, and grows at the Canary and Cape de Verd Islands, and in the south of France.
Ardent Spirit, alcohol, spirit of wine.
Areometer. An instrument for measuring the specific gravity of fluids.
, ARGAL, argot, bitartrale of potash, crude tartar. A substance deposited on the inside of wine casks.
Argentate Of Ammonia, fulmiminuling silver,
CHEMISTRY AS A SCIENCE.
Both these metals are so generally in use, that their appearance, and most of their properties, must be well known to our readers ; we shall, therefore, only advert to such facts as they are most probably not so well acquainted with. The ores of tin have been found and worked chiefly in England, in Germany, and in South America; and they occur only in that description of mountains 'which geologists call primitive, from supposing them to be the most ancient parts of the world. In England, the ores of this metal are found chiefly in Cornwall, and from that part of the country our whole supply is obtained, and some sent abroad. After the ore is extracted from the mines, it is cleansed by the hand as much as possible; it is then reduced to powder in a stamping-mill. This consists of a large cistern, or other contrivance, such as large shelves laid on a slant, and stampers or heavy beams, armed at the ends with iron, and which are moved upwards and downwards by a wa., ter-wheel. A stream of water passes through the cistern or over the shelves; and as the ore is bruised by the stampers the water washes away all the lighter parts, and leaves the metallic part of the ore free from earthy substances. Great attention, however, is necessary in performing this part of the i operation, and also in placing the ,vvessels into which the water flows, • ,so that the heaviest substance is „ left behind. When the tin ore has been thus pulverized and cleansed, it is roasted in a reverberatory furnace to drive off the sulphur, a part of which, however, is acidified, and unites with the copper and the iron 'generally contained in the ore. It is then again washed, mixed with one-fifth of its weight of culm, and ffixoWn again into a furnace for £ftout six hours, which reduces the olffde of tin, and the metal collects at the bottom of the furnace. It is afterwards drawn off into a shallow
pit, where it is freed from the seoria which cover it, and is then taken out with ladles and poured into moulds. It is again exposed to a gentle heat, and the purest part which melts first is drawn off, . and forms grain tin; the remainder contains a small portion of iron, copper, and arsenic, and is called common tin. What is denominated stream tin stmies in Cornwall, being found in a state of powder, is melted in a somewhat different way. After being washed it is passed through wire sieves, it is then thrown with charcoal into a blast furnace, in which it is reduced to the metallic state and flows out below. It is afterwards fused in an iron pot, and purified by the addition of pieces Of charcoal. When it appears bright like silver,. it is judged to be pure, is drawn off into moulds, and forms good grain tin. In this manner the industry and ingenuity of man extracts from the apparent rubbish which he has brought from the bowels of the earth this useful metal.
The means of procuring tin seems to have been known from the most remote antiquity; for we find both Moses and Homer mention it, and both the coins and the weapons of the ancients were made of an alloy of tin and copper. At present it is notemployed for either of these purposes. The discoveries of art have so improved the manufacture cf iron and steel, that weapons are in Europe now made exclusively from them; and the greater durability of gold and silver, as well as their greater value, which renders a much less quantity of them necessary, have entirely superseded the use of tin as a coin. In its metallic state at present it is principally employed for covering sheet iron to prevent its rusting; to form plumbers' solder, speculum pewter, boilers for dyers, worms for rectifiers' stills, and many other utensils; as also for coating the inside of copper and iron vessels, and other similar purposes. What is usually called tin, however; that substance of which pots, pans, &c. are made, is, in fact, iron coated with tin; and the process by which this is done is as follows:—The iron is rolled into very thin plates, which are thoroughly cleaned by being rubbed with sand, and by being immersed for 24 honrs in water, acidulated by muriatic acid. They are then heated in an oven to remove the scales that may be attached to them, are afterwards hammered smooth, and are again immersed in an acid solution; they are then dipped one by one in melted tin, which not only adheres to the surface but penetrates the metal completely and gives it a white colour. Tin is further employed as a material of bell-metal, bronze, brass for cannon, and a variety of other well known alloys. Pure metallic tin, of which there are two kinds, called block tin. and grain tin, does not, however, differ in colour from the tin which forms the covering of the iron sheets. We should probably here remark, as it is common to describe a particular kind of sheet tin by the name of block tin, that we do not mean this which consists of iron sheets tinned, but the metal as it is run into blocks. In this state tin is chemically described as a white metal of great brilliancy, emitting a particular smell when rubbed; not very ductile, but very malleable, as it is beat into leaves only one-thousandth part of an inch thick, and might be made thinner if wanted; it is very flexible, and produces a remarkable crackling noise; it is harder than lead and not so hard as gold; it melts at a temperature of 442°, but it requires a violent heat to cause it to evaporate. It forms alloys with most of the metals; and what is singular, when alloyed with lead, the compound is harder and and possesses more tenacity than tin, the hardest of the two. These qualities are greatest when the alloy is composed of three parts of tin and one of lead. Like most of the other metals, tin combines readily with oxygen, and forms two oxides, one of which, the yellow oxide, is found in commerce
under the name of putty, and is used for polishing glass; the other is used in forming the opaque kind of glass called enamel.
Copper, like tin, has been long known, and was even more employed than it in the times of the Greeks, and in still more remote antiquity. At present it is chiefly procured in Cornwall and in Anglesea in Britain, in Germany, and in Hungary. The ores from which it is obtained are sulphurets, or contain sulphur, and they are thus treated: — In Cornwall the ore, broken into small pieces,is roasted, being frequently stirred, in a furnace having a long chimney to carry' oil'the sulphur and arsenic; it is then put into a small furnace with a little lime, and fused. The.inl-£ purities collect on the surface^andare raked off, from time to time, into oblong moulds; they form hard masses when cold, and are used as building materials; the copperflows out through a hole in the lower part of the furnace. Fresh quantities of the ore are put in from time to time, and the process is kept up for a considerable period.'' To free the metal from the arsenic and sulphur with which it is still mixed, it is heated in a furnace, and then suspended in a weilj through which a stream ofwateBiruns. During these processeaithe■'< slag collects on the surface of-theci metal, but as this contains coppery it is again thrown into the furnace with fresh ore. The copper is kept < at a low red heat for two days, and is then repeatedly fused and east' into small moulds. Lastly, it'isb put with a small quantity of char*■> coal into a refining furnace and is again fused, when if it bears, the s; hammer, it is fit for sale. .Whew the fused copper is run into moulds-,-: the purest part of it rises to >t|iej.' top, and may be easily separated^ from the rest. In Anglesea-iflJe ore, after being., reduced ft»ifj;ag*o ments, is put into a kiln, the Hues of which terminatein a, close, chain*!' ber, where the sulphur- obtained!) from the roasting the, ore;is>con-.r densed. Here the roastiug'isrkstpbo up for months together. In Ht*tt-»
•" !•'! »!;*ijij Jj to £ju!00'"id sil gary the process is nearly similar, but the copper is fused with about one-twelfth of its weight of lead; and the..impurities which it separates are removed as they form, ed. To ascertain when the impuri ti es are all removed, the workman takes out a little of the melted metal on the end of a smooth iron rod, and if the metal be pure, it falls oil' when the rod is dipped in cold water. When the impurities have been removed, the metal is allowed to cool, and when about to become solid, a wet broom is drawn along its surface, which converts a thin layer instantly into the solid form. This is as instantly removed and plunged into water, which gives it a fine red colour. The process is repeated till the whole is formed into thin sheets; and these are the copper sheets used in the arts. Copper is also procured from those waters which contain sulphate of copper. Pieces of iron are put into the water; they unite with the sulphuric acid, and copper is precipitated. When the iron is all dissolved, the matter deposited is raked out and fused. This process ts-said to have been discovered by a workman accidentally dropping a shovel in such waters, which, after laying there some time, was found covered with copper. Copperis of a peculiar reddish brown colour; it has a styptic and nauseous taste, and when the hands are rubbed over it they acquire a disagreeable smell. It is harder than silver, ana is very malleable, very dactiie, and possesses great tenacity. At a degree of heat considerably below ignition, the surface of a piece of polished Copper is covered With various stripes of the prismatic rays, the red of each stripe being nearest the most heated end of the copper.
This curious effect is probably owing to the oxidation of the metal, the oxide being thickest where the heat is greatest. A greater degree of heat oxidates it rapidly, so that thin powdery scales form on its surface, which may be easily rubbed off; at the same time the flame becomes of a beautiful bluish
green colour. Copper melts at a heat nearly the same as is requisite to melt gold or silver,- and then is also of a bluish-green; by a more violent heat it may be made to boil and assume the form of vapour. If allowed to cool slowly, it crystallizes, or ranges itself in a determinate manner. It does not burn till it is exposed to a heat more than sufficient to melt it, but in a stream of oxygen gas it burns with a blue flame. It does not burn, however, so easily as iron; and is not liable, like it, to fly off by collision in fragments which catch fire; it is, if we may so speak, a much safer metal, and is therefore employed instead of iron to make hoops for powder barrels, and for various other purposes, wherever powder is manufactured or used. The poisonous nature of this metal is well known; and great care should be taken, wherever copper vessels are used for culinary purposes, to keep them thoroughly clean, and never to allow any thing to cool in them. Copper rusts, or becomes covered with a green crust, by exposure to the air; but this process goes on slowly, and the crust, which is very thin, protects the remainder of the metal from further corrosion. This crust is an oxide of the metal combined with carbonic acid gas.
The uses of copper are so numerous and familiar, that we shall not enumerate them. We have already mentioned several of the alloys, such as pinchbeck, bronze, and gun metal, of which it forms a part, and therefore we only think it necessary to add, that gun metal is generally formed of about 100 parts of copper and 10 or 12 of tin. Its oxides are employed in enamel painting, and are manufactured into several colours.
TO OBTAIN LIQUID SULPHUROUS ACID.
Pass sulphurous acid gas, obtained by the ordinary methods, first through a tube filled- with pieces of chloride of calcium, (muriate of lime,) and then into a ma
rass, .surrounded by a mixture of two parts of ice and one part seasalt. Sulphurous acid is thus liquefied completely under the pressure of the atmosphere, and at a temperature not lower than 18° to 20° of the centigrade thermometer, or from 0° to 4° of Fahr. It is then transparent, inodorous, and heavier than water. At 14° Fahr. it boils, but may be preserved liquid for a long time, without having recourse to pressure, because the part which is converted into vapour absorbs so much caloric as to preserve the remainder below its boiling temperature. Poured into the hand, it produces the most intense cold, and is completely evaporated.
TO CONVERT WATER INTO ICE.
Pour some of this sulphurous acid into water; one part is converted into vapour, another dissolved by the water, but as the water begins to be saturated, the acid collects in drops at the bottom of the vessel, like an oil heavier than water. If it'be touched with atubo, or rod,it is converted into a vapour, and occasions a species of ebullition; the temperature of the water sinks, and its surface is covered with a coat of ice; and the whole of the water may be frozen by adding the acid in proper quantity.
TO PRODUCE AN EXCESSIVE DEGREE OF COLD.
Surround the bulb of an air thermometer with cotton; dip it into sulphurous acid, and then allow the acid to evaporate spontaneously in the air. By making the experiment at the temperature of 10° centigrade (45<> of Fahr.), a diminution corresponding to —57" of centigrade (or —72° of Fahr.,) takes place; and if the thermometer is placed in the vacuum of an air-pump, the temperature is reduced to —68° of centigrade, (or —91 Fahr.) It must be observed, however, that only an air thermometer can be employed to indicate this low temperature with accuracy.
TO FREEZE MERCURY.
Cover the bulb of a thermometer with cotton, pour over it sulphurous acid, and swing it in the air;
in a few minutes the mercury becomes solid. This is effected more rapidly by putting some mercury in a small cup, pouring over it a small quantity of the acid, and placing the whole in an air-pump, from which the air is to be exhausted. . i ,r
SIMPLE MEANS OF LIQUEFYING
It seems to us that the above experiments, which we have translated from a paper by M. Bussy, in the Annates de Chimie et Phyiigue for May 1824, are of some importance. The late experiments of Sir Humphrey Davy, on the condensation of the gases, give us reason to suppose that it is only necessary to disepver a cheap and ready method of producing that condensation, to arm the hand of man with another power as great, if not greater than steam, and attended with less danger. M. Bussy has applied this method of producing a great degree of cold to liquefy other gases which it is more difficult to condense. He begins by drying the gas to be condensed by passing it through a tube containing chloride of calcium, to which is arched another tube, bent at right angles. The horizontal branch, of this latter has.a small ball, which he covers with, cotton, and sprinkles with sulphurous acid; the veMcal branch is plunged into' rribrrinry. As the gas passes the ball, fjf u condensed into'a liquid. By this means M. Bussy has liquefied chlorine, ammonia, and cyanogen; the latter was obtained solid and crystallized. He proppse's ro;iry, by the cold produced tiy evaporating these latter, to liquefy those gases whjch ^ayp fythertb resisted theartofthec^js^;^ TM
'■ ' '" 'i''| Mih . M—fr^TR—'
TO PREPARE FULMINATING 'WERCURY[ "'Wo (In answer to. a Ctirrespondent.)
A Correspond Knt has particularly requested us to inform him how this substance is prepared; and as he states this knowledge will be of considerable importance to him,