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we shall not delay answering him. AN INFALLIBLE BAROMETER, At the same time, we must confess that other Correspondents have a

Put two drachms of pure nitre prior claim on us; but having pub

and half a drachm of chloride lished their queries, we still are in

of ammonia, reduced to powder, hopes some of our readers will an

into two ounces of spirit of wine, swer them. If we do not soon receive

or pure alcohol, and place this some satisfactory answers, we shall

vers washi mixture in a glass tube, ten answer the queries ourselves. The inches long and eight lines in discovery of fulminating mercury

diameter, the upper extremity of was made by Mr. Howard, and his

& which must be covered with a process is still recommended by piece of skin or bladder, pierced the most celebrated chemists, and

with small holes. If the weather is was followed by Messrs. Gay Lus

. to be fine, the solid matters remain sac and Leibig, in their late expe

at the bottom of the tube, and the riments. It is as follows:-Dis

alcohol is as transparent as usual. solve 100 grains of mercury in an

If rain is to fall in a short time, ounce and a half by measure of

some of the solid particles rise and nitric acid, of the specific gravity

fall in the alcohol, which becomes of 1.3; add to the mixture two

somewhat thick and troubled. ounces by measure of alcohol, or

When a storm, a tempest, or even a pure spirit, and apply heat to the squall is about to come on, all the flask containing the mixture till it solid matters rise from the bottom begins to boil; then remove the

of the tube, and form a crust on flask from the lamp. The action

the surface of the alcohol, which becomes violent, and continues for appears in a state of fermentation. some time; a dense white smoke

These appearances take place 24 issues from the vessel, which is

is hours before the tempest ensues ; heavier than air. At first a little and the point of the horizon from

nitrate of mercury is deposited, but which it is to blow is indicated by e, this is soon redissolved, the liquid

the particles gathering most on the becomes grey, from the reduction

side of the tubes opposite to that of a part of the oxide of mercury : part whence the wind is to come. - after some time it becomes yellow, ei and crystals appear, which aug- TO BLEACH ROSES AND

ment on cooling. They are of a 29 greyish white, hard to the touch, ..

OTHER FLOWERS. Is and heavy. They are to be sepa- . As this is the season when flowe

rated from the liquid by filtering; ers are plentiful, our readers may i to be washed in pure water, and easily put the following to the test aid dried in a heat not exceeding 212o. of experiment. Sulphurous acid hBy being dissolved and crystal- destroys most vegetable colours, en lized two or three times, they be. but the blues are reddened by it bo come brilliant, white, and silky, previously to being discharged.

and have a faint metallie lustre. Flowers of a blue colour may,

We must caution our readers how therefore, by the action of this acid as they meddle with this substance, be converted to red, and all the be as it detonates if heated to upwards reds may be made white. The ac

of 3000, by the blow of a hammer, tion of sulphurous acid may be by friction, and by electricity. In- obtained by burning a common deed, as the French chemist, from brimstone match. Thus, hold a a whom we took the former article, rose over its blue flame, and the

observed, it detonates if struck or colour will be discharged wherever agitated with glass rods; and there the flower comes into contact with fore the greatest precaution is ne- the acid, so as to render it beau

cessary, both in preparing and tifully variegated, or altogether W using it. When it detonates, its white. If it be dipped into water, as effects are very violent, but they after a season the redness will be lo do not extend far, se restored.

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9161 SYOMT moogd doidw 1916 MANUFACTURE OF PYRO.o a particular acid, and then call

LIGNOUS ACID. Dored pyrolignous acid; but it is now The extensive uses to which known to be the acetic acid united this acid is now put will, no doubt, with empyreumatic oil and bitumake a short account of the mode men. As the proportion of carbon of preparing it on a large scale ac- becomes greater, the empyreumatic ceptable to our readers. We have, oil rises somewhat brown, and therefore, taken the following de- grows thicker and darker, augmentscription from a French work, at ing in density as the quantity of present in the course of publica- carbon increases. At the same time tion, entitled Dictionnaire Technolo a small quantity of carbonic acid gique, 8c. The art of making pyro- gas, much carburetted hydrogen, id lignous acid is founded on the and, towards the close, a great power of heat to decompose vege- quantity of gaseous oxide of cartable substances, and arrange their bon are disengaged. All the carelementary parts in a different bon not carried off in these vamanner from that in which they rious forms remains in the still, existed in the body subjected to and generally preserves the form the operation. The proportion of of the vegetable substance emthe products varies not only from ployed. Since we have learned the employing different substances, but nature of all these products, the they are different when orly one process has been much improved, substance is employed, according and particularly by charring the as the heat is greater or less, or the wood, and by turning the other to operation is differently managed. products to advantage. In the Whenti vegetable substance is forests the wood is first charred, so distilled in close vessels, at first as to dissipate all the water of ve the water comes over which exist-getation. It is then introduced ed ready formed, and then water into a large circular or square pot, formed by a union of the oxygen A, made of iron plates rivetted and hydrogen of the substance. Af- together, and having at its upper terwards a quantity of carbon is part a small lateral iron cylinder: separated, and by the continued to an iron cover, B, is closely fitted. application of heat, this unites witli s to this pot, and then it is lifted by the oxygen and hydrogen, and forms means of a crane, or other mechaan acid, formerly supposed to be!nical power, and placed in the fur

to ai 11 JANUA R I 262 900 to 1996I 16 SUTSTAS ENTIT

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inclined to the horizon. To this first apparatus a second, and sometimes a third is adapted, and placed in a zig-zag form, in order to occupy as little space as possible. The water is made to circulate in the following manner:-At the lower extremity, G, of the condensing apparatus, there is a tube which ought to be somewhat higher than the upper part of the whole of this apparatus, where, at H, there is another short tube curved towards the ground. Water from a reservoir is made to run through the perpendicular tube to the lower part of the condensing apparatus, and fills all the space between the cylinders. When the operation is going on, as the vapours are condensed they raise the temperature of the

water, which becoming more rareball biss man

fied and lighter, flows out of them O diind on 2010 giore 69

curved tube, MUOVON 93 biosoi t ed of awon

The condensing apparatus tertil bas li LSMUSEAS strony

diminates in a brick canal, I, covered WO O TTO COED sds A ma

and buried in the earth. At the

end of this canal is a bent tube, K, nace, D, of the same shape as the which carries the liquid products pot, and the furnace is then cover- into the first cistern; when it is ed with a lid, E, constructed in full it discharges itself by means masonry. A moderate heat is then of a syphon into a large reapplied to the furnace; at first the servoir; the tube which termico vapour of the wood is dissipated, nates the canal plunges into the but this vapour soon ceases to be liquid, and thus cuts off the com transparent and becomes sooty. munication with the interior of At this time a tube or cylinder, the apparatus. The gas which is si enclosed in another of brick-work disengaged is conveyed by means in or tiles, is affixed to the lateral of the tube, I L, from one of the cylinder, and forms the condensing sides of the canal, I, above the apparatus. This is different in dif- ash-hole of the surface. This tabe ferent places; in some the condens- has a stop-cock, M, before reachation is effected by the air, the va- ing the furnace, in order to regupour being made to pass through a late the quantity of gas and cut offt long extentof cylinders, and some, the communication at pleasure. Issa times of casks adapted to each That part of the tube which ends as other; but most generally the con- at the furnace rises perpendicu-go densation or cooling is effected by larly some inches, and terminates, w water, when it can be procured in as seen, at N; by this means the i5 sufficient quantities. The most gas may be distributed equally ads simple apparatus for this purpose under the vase without any risk of hs consists of two cylinders, F E, en- the tube being obstructed by either closed one within the other, and the combustible or the cinders. vibns having between them a space suf-ins Towards the end of the opera. ficient to allow a large quantity of tion the heat is increased so as to sa water to flow backwards and for- make the iron pot red hot; and they wards and thus cool the vapour. time when the operation is com- adt

ese cylinders are adapted to the pleted is ascertained by the colour ne distilling apparatus, and placed of the gas flame. At first it is of


a reddish yellow, then it becomes way had the taste of Hamburgh blue, and finally it is quite white, beef and kept as well. Meat to which is a mark that the combus- which this acid was applied, with a tion is carried far enough; or a sponge or wet cloth, kept several few drops of water are let fall on days longer in summer than it that part of the tube close to the otherwise would. When the acid furnace wbich is not surrounded has become impure. by frequent by water, and wben it evaporates use, it may be clarified by beating without noise the calcination is up a dozen eggs with 20 gallons, thought to be sufficient. The adapt- and heating the mixture in an iron ing tube is then separated, and boiler. Before boiling, the eggs the end of the condensing cylinder coagulate and bring the impurities is closely stopped by iron plates to the surface, when they are careand brick earth. The lid of the fully skimmed off. The acid acts furnace is then lifted off, and after- on iron, and must therefore be imwards the pot is taken out and mediately removed from the boiler. immediately replaced by another Besides these antiseptic qualities which has in the meantime been of the pyrolignous acid, it has long prepared. When the pot which been used by the calico-printers, has been taken outis cold, the wood though underits more correct name is removed. The acid is then pų. of vinegar. rified; but we shall not at present describe this part of the process, preferring to take from an English

GAIN OF POWER BY MAwork a short account of the various

CHINERY. uses of pyrolignous acid. It is It was estimated about six years sufficient to plunge meat for a few ago, by three of the most eminent moments into this acid, slightly cotton-spinners in Great Britain, empyreumatic, to preserve it as that the quantity of cotton thread long as you please. It not only produced on an average by each stops putrefaction, but restores the spinner, compared with that which substance in which this decompo- one person could have spun on a sition has began to a sound state, single wheel, as was the practice This effect has in part been as before the inventions of Arkwright cribed to the empyreumatic oil, and others, was as 120 to 1. By and hence the beneficial effects of improvements since made, this has smoke in preserving meats and probably increased to 150 to 1; fish. By pouring this acid over ana- buttaking only the smaller estimate, tomical preparations, Dr. Jorge, of one person can now produce aş Leipsic, lately restored some of much as 120 could have produced them from a state of beginning pu- prior to these inventions. At pretrefaction. Pieces of meat smear sent, 280,000 persons are engaged red with empyreumatic oil or tar, in this country spinping cotton

although far advanced in a state thread, and multiplied by 120, this ooftputrefaction, and although the gives 33,600,000 as the number of

Weather was warm, were restored spinners who would have been relito ta dry and sound state. If fish quired under the , old system to - 1ber simply dipped in rerdistilled produce as much cotton thread as pyrolignous' acid, and afterwards is now spun in Great Britain, deil dried in the shade, they preserve There is one steam engino at perfectly well, and on boiling them present in Cornwall of 260 borse 11 they have not such a taste of power, which works day and night;

empyreumatic oil as to be dis- cach horse power is estimated as

agreeable. Haddocks have been equal to the unassisted labour of ; salted for six hours, then dipped in six men; and as it would require s pyrolignous acid, and hung up in three sets of men, each set working

the shade for six days, and on being eight hours, to labour as constantly - dressed were found of a very fine as this engine, it follows that it

flavour. Beef treated in the same does as much work as 4690 persons,

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godms' GELATINE. ; ing gelatine, it may, perhaps, be of is

of the chemica! of service to mention the relative 5 d. To the Editor of the Chemist,

quantity of gelatine obtainable 151992 is Woolwich, June 23. from the bones of different ani

I SIR, --In addition to what has mals, &c. as well as their other
Halready been published by you in constituents. These will be best
No. XV, of The Chemist, respeet detailed by the following tables

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" Human bones taken from a burying-ground..

15 15.51 zolip4

dried, but never interred .... Bones of the ox .... 2001 Cadi calf....

horse ...

sheep.......... 900333;

elk ...

chicken ..... A ye pike

Y carp ...........
viper ..

6051 0 • 5 1601 XE TDDi lobster ioc.cino

14.140 Hoon Teeth of the horse

0-25 eqisim 1991 elephant 46.

64. 0:1 Das Stags' horns....... dos Egg-shell ............. roid Mother of pearl ..

Crabs' eyes .....::: 6 0 Shell of the cuttle-fish ......*** 991White coral ...sorrione gi/Red do.... mai.. ........!!!

0:5 0 53. 5. 46 v4 1 0

. The foregoing results I have sertion in The Chemist, you will i taken from the Annales de Chimie, much oblige,.. Sir, stom, xxxiv. p. 68, as obtained by Your obedient humble servant, Merat Guillot, By giving them in

... James Marsh. beesbo

t -PREPARATION AND QUALITIES accuracy the weight of the atoms b9 or SILICON AND ZIRCONIUM. of several substances, concerning aoui (By M. Beraelius. Jei to which I entertained some doubts, aid: M. BeRZELIUS, the Swedish chee To extract the alkali of minerals, tomist, and one of the most scientific it was sufficient to expose them to

and celebrated men of the day, has the action of fluoric acid, or to the otdescribed, in a tetter to M. Dulong, action of a mixture of the fluate of 2 fan extract of which has been pub- lime and of sulphuric acidui InatJished in the Anndles de Chimie et de tempting to reduce fluoric acid by

Physique for May,'a mode of pre potassium, 'I succeeded in reducing sparing silicon, with its qualities. silica, zirconia, and some other 1 of this extract the following is an earths, but I was able to obtain Babridgment Fluoric acid is only silicon and zirconium in a seto one of the inost convenient agents parate state; the others decom9 for the analysis of organic pro- pose water with great energy. Pure Prducts'; and it dissolves things silicon is inconibustible even in which the other acids will not oxygen gas. Neither water, nitric touch. It has supplied me with the acid, caustic potash, nor - uguameans of determinipg with more vegia have the least effect upon it;

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