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Now for some Cheap Brandy, at 22s.6d. religious, as well as the most moral per gallon, the Duty being 19s. per gal- and most sublime poets who have ever lon:

written in the English languageTake 1-5th Alcohol ............

Akenside. We did not put his name, 1-5th young and cheap Brandy 4 6 because we ventured to transpose his 1-5th British Spirits ........ 2 6 words and thoughts.

2-5ths Water .............. 0 0 Burnt Sugar and Molasses.........0.2 - We thank Biblious, we believe it

should have been written Bilious, for Total cost .......

his hint ; and take the liberty of informing him, however'crabbed he may

'be, that our digestion is light, and that Cost ................ ...... 0 13 2 our blood runs both smoothly and

calmly. We will not make attacks on Profit ...... £0 9.4 any individuals ; but we shall never be

backward to hold up to ridicule the

S. d. pretensions of ignorant quacks. We Or - Young Brandy..........

5 6 remember long ago, being at the lecture Alcohol..............

50 of such a one, to whom we put some Grains of Paradise...

questions relative to Sir H. Davy's Burnt Sugar ......

supposed discovery of the metallic base Total cost .....

of azot, which was then making some noise in the world, and were told, with

great pomp of words and manner, Cheap price..................

1 ? 6 that this wees by far too high a mat

ter for the curiosity of a student.

The fact was, that he could exhaust an Profit. ..... £0 10 8

air-pump, having been a labourer, hut

was then as ignorant of the science as - How is it possible to sell Brandy at

when he was first taken to wash the 11. 25. 6d. in England; the duty in Eng. bottles of an eminent Chemist. . land, and the prime cost in France, exceeding that sum even for the inferior . The suggestion of D.J., Manchesdescription ?

ter, will, in due time, be attende? to. Does this explain how the amaz

CHEMICAL ESSAYS," by Mr. Parke, ing number of advertisements are

as far as they go, is a book of the

nature he alludes to, but it embraces paid for, both in town and country?

only a very few parts of practical and

experimental Chemistry. TO CORRESPONDENTS.

The description mentioned by A Che

mist will be acceptable. His letter We differ in toto from T. G. as to

meets, in all respects, our concurrence. our motto. It does not in the least upply, as he insinuutes, to the doctrine · Messrs. P. D., J. T., J. S., and of chance; and it is taken, with a very R. T. are referred to our next Numslight alteration, from one of the most ber.

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*** Communication (post-paid) to be addressed to the Editor, at the

Publishers'. London: Published by JOHN KNIGHT and HENRY LACEY,

. 24, Paternoster Row.

B. Bensley, Bolt-court, Fleet-street, London,

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" Search, undismayed, the dark profound · 123 *** Where Nature works in secret; trace the forms des Of atoms, moving with incessant change Xin Their elemental round; behold the seeds

Of being, and the energy of life,

Kindling the mass with ever-active flame; thens Then say if naught in these external scenes ser can move thy wonder?--'

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KAKSEL
Sis a lars 4 8 12 13 14T CONTENTS.
Chemical Apparatus. Description of Bleaching. Art. II. Modes formerly
the Plate..........

in use ............. ........ 57 Mr. Gurney v. The Quarterly Journal Manufacture of Russia Leather .... 60 of Science.......

To make Liquid Phosphorus ......: 62 Chemistry as a Science. Art. IV. An ancient Method of promoting Chlorine ... . ............

Combustion.................... 10. To render Bodies Luminous in the Dalhine, a new Vegetable Substance ib. Dark .......

A Mode of procuring Carbonic Acid
To make a fine Green Pigment .... Gas, without the Aid of the Pneu.
Cure for Dry Rot ................
Vegetable Alkali in Horse-chesnuts. ib. Transactions of the Cambridge Phi-
Bleaching Sugar....

losophical Society ..............
Oil for Clocks, Watches, and other ... Damp Walls ...
fine Instruments ................

. * ib.. Chemical Effect of the Air respired

by the Lungs................... ib.

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matic Trough.cambridge Phi

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CHEMICAL APPARATUS. ceiver. It is very convenient for

Description of the Plate. distilling, when the substance to A, Fig. 1, is a common retort, or be distilled over separates easily, conical bottle, the neck of which is is easily condensed, and the heat bent at an angle of 60 degrees, and required is not too grcat. The the mouth of it adapted to a re- product may be condensed in the receiver. Sometimes it is con- In general, heat is applied to the venient to have it constructed as retort by means of a sand-bath, in Fig. 2. In this there is an ad-, which consists of sand heated to ditional tube, B, in order to in- any requisite degree, or by means crease the distance between the of a water-bath. A greater heat retort and the receiver. The upper may, however, be applied, if a propart of the retort has also an open- per retort is used. This is a very ing, and is supplied with an air useful apparatus, as, in many chetight glass stopper, at which the mical experiments, more than one, first portions of air or gas may be two, or three products are obtained, permitted to escape when neces- which are thus, according to their sary. In some cases of distilla- properties, condensed in the first tion, the product is not only a gas globe, combined with water, or or vapour, which condenses, but condensed, by its means, in the also an elastic fluid, which is in- others, or passed off into the pneucondensible. To provide for this matic trough, and there collected case, the receiveris supplied with a or suffered to escape altogether. " bent tube, C; the condensible product is then collected in the re- MR. GURNEY v. THE QUARceiver, and the incondensible pro TERLY JOURNAL OF SCIduct passes through the tube, and ENCE. is either allowed to escape, or is Last year Mr. Gurney published collected by the end of the tube “A Course of Lectures on Chemical being carried into a pneumatic Science, as delivered at the Surrey Intrough, in the manner before de- stitution, which was reviewed in scribed. Fig. 3 is a representation the 32d Number of the Quarterly of one of the most approved adapt- Journal of Science in such a manner ations of what is called Woolfe's as to excite his displeasure. In apparatus. The use of this is to answer to the Review, he has pubobtain a product not condensible lished a small pamphlet, under the by itself, but which may be con- title of a Letter to W. T. Brande, densed by coming in contact with Esq., the Editor of the Quarterly water, or by being transmitted Journal, and Professor of Chemisthrougb it. It consists of a series try at the Royal Institution, where of glass globes, from each of which the Quarterly Review is edited. a tube issues straight at the neck, In this letter Mr. Gurney attributes so that it can be fitted by grinding the severe strictures of the res into another globe, but having viewer to a wish, on the part of such a curvature, that the extre- certain persons connected with the mity of it dips into the liquid con- Royal Institution, to crush him. tained in the globe into which it On this point Mr. Gurney bas pro- enters. A retort is adapted to the bably overrated his own importfirst globe, which is designed to ance; and, imagining himself in collect the condensible part of the opposition to certain distinguished. product. Water is put into each of Chemists, has attributed an hosthe other globes, as high as the tility in thein to rising genius, ut- , dotted lines; and the neck of the terly unworthy of their talents, and globe passing into this water, trans.. by no means called for, either by mits the gas through it, which is the novelty or value of his discothus absorbed. Any gas which is veries. Without entering into the not absorbed, passes off at the bent motives of either party, we feel tube at the end, and may be col- ourselves bound, for the honour of lected in the ordinary way. In the the science we cultivate, to mingle second globe, is what is called a in the dispute between him and tube of safety. This apparatus the “ Quarterly Journal." We are requires no lute; and has this unacqainted with both parties, and advantage, the retort may be re- only wish, on the one hand, to promoved at any stage of the pro.. tect the science from an inundation cess, to weigh what has been lost. of falso theories; and, on the other,

to prevent an individual from be- and that form the most simple posing put down, merely because his sible, namely—the sphere." It is a views are opposed to those of some fact, admitted both by Mr. Gurney scientific sect. We have read and his opponents, that to form enough to know that few theories compound bodies, the primary are incontrovertibly established; atoms of matter unite in certain and whenever we find persons more definite proportions, Mr. Gurney tenacious of supporting a particu- lays it down as a law, that all the lar set of doctrines than of eliciting atoms of the same elementary body truth, and more clamorous than are mutually repellent, and the rational in argument, we are led to atoms of different elementary bobelieve that they begin to suspect dies are mutually attractive; he the correctness of the system they then states, that in compounds defend.

where the atoms of the different The complaint of Mr.Gurney, put- elementary substances are comting aside what he says of impro- bined in the proportion of one and per motives, is, that his " Lectures one, the form must be a cube; and on Chemical Science contained he says, in fact, bodies chemically some views which were both novel so combined, have this figure; tbat and important; that the Reviewer, bodies in which the spherical eleafter announcing his intention to mentary atoms are combined in take notice of these views, pretends the proportion of two to one, must not to understand them; and thus necessarily have a figure with anvilifies what he should have shown gles of 600 and 120°; and he affirms to be erroneous before condemning; that bodies chemically so com. that he makes garbled extracts, bined crystallize in this form. It misrepresents passages, and has is not in our power, particularly altogether given an unfair review without his elucidating diagram, of the book.” If these charges are to follow Mr. Gurney through all substantiated, such a proceeding, his illustrations, which are, howfrom whatever motive it may have ever, very few ; it is sufficient for arisen, is quite unworthy of the us to state, that he has endeavoured Journal which pretends to be the to simplify the theory of crystalfirst scientific Journal of this em- lization, by showing how all the pire. Of course, the first part of various crystals may, and, admitthe charge implies that Mr. Gurney ting the doctrine of chemical prohas made some important additions portion, must assume the forms in to our knowledge, and he points which we meet with them, on the to his third Lecture, as containing supposition of all the atoms or a novel and juster theory of crys- molecules of all the elementary tallization than has before been bodies having the form of a perfect published. If it cannot be shown sphere. To us, who conceive the that Mr. Gurney has made such an whole doctrine of atoms to be a addition to our knowledge, all his mere vision of some philosophic remarks against the Reviewer fall brain, which, disdaining the comto the ground.

mon indulgencies of imagination, If we understand his discovery, it dreaming of houris and nectared is this:-Dr. Wollaston, Haüy, and fountains, and marble palaces, and others have assumed that the pri- golden statues, and ever-blooming mitive molecules of matter have gardens, indulges in the more lordly three original distinct forms. “No," and creative work of framing out says Mr. Gurney," they have only a universe anew, all this discusone ; and I will undertake to show sion about the primary form of how all the phenomena of crystal- atoms is little better than trifling lization may be accomplished, and amusement; and we might pass by all the various forms of crystals Mr. Gurney's pretended discovery, produced, by all the elementary as something like an idle dream; · substances, or atoms, or molecules but the Reviewer, it must be reof matter having only one form, membered, is a stickler for the doctrine of atoms, and, labouring Reviewer quotes as follows:-" Ni. even in this very Number of his trogen, I suspect, is a peculiar Journal to recommend an opposite compound, formed by the organs of theory of crystallization to the no- the animal body, and not a simple tice of his readers, it was his busi- element, as is generally supposed.” ness to show the incompleteness or here he stops : Mr. Gurney adds, the fallacy of Mr. Gurney's theory. “ when it is submitted to galvanic He has not done this, and he has influence it neither goes to one vacáted the chair of rational criti- pole or (nor) to the other, but holds cism to indulge in low sneers and almost a neutral situation between unmeaning notes of admiration and the two." The Reviewer makes italics. This is utterly unworthy this quotation, to sneer at Mr. of a Journal edited at the Royal Gurney; and certainly a mere supInstitution. The Reviewer should position, without assigning any have pointed out Mr. Gurney's reason for it, that nitrogen is a crrors, and warned the younger compound substance, looks very part of the scientific world from ridiculous. But it is somewhat wasting their time and money in remarkable, that the same Number similar pursuits. That there are in of the Quarterly Journal, and perMr. Gurney's book several strange haps the same Reviewer, in an forms of expression, some vision article on Dr. Henry's Chemistry, ary doctrines, and some very far- lays down the “ the electrical refetched assumptions, is quite plain; lations of the elementary and unbut being combined with many decompounded bodies," as the acute observations, and with an principles on which to found cheinventive disposition on the part of mical classification; and the subMr. Gurney, we must say that the sequent part of the paragraph attempt to sneer him down looks should therefore, according to his something like an effort on the part own doctrine, justify the first part, of the Royal Institution to stifle which he endeavours, quoting it by talents which have not grown into itself, to render extremely ridinotice under their protection

culous. In the same page, the Mr. Gurney's other charge is, Reviever, by omitting the word That the Reviewer has taken gar- “ seems," converts a passage, in bled extracts from his work. Let which Mr. Gurney is speaking of us see, then, if this accasation be phosphorus from a conjecture, to an true. The Reviewer says, p. 302, absolute assertion. These instances We are told, in p. 46, that the are, we think, sufficient to justify crystals of alum EXACTLY Resemble Mr. Gurney's second accusation. those of natural quartz." He quotes The Reviewer has misquoted his this paragraph to show Mr. Gurney book, and made garbled extracts. was ignorant of the difference be- In fact, with the exception of a tween the crystals of alum and well-known bantering Magazine, those of quartz. In his Letter, Mr. we never remember to have witGurney explains, that the passage nessed, in any Journal possessing was meant to convey an idea that the least character, above all in a crystals artificially produced were scientific Journal, so flagrant a viodeposited in a manner similar to lation of the just rules of criticism. that employed by nature. Here is We are not insensible to the gross the passage, and we ask the can- defects of Mr. Gurney's book; and did reader which sense it conveys. it must be stated, that he has laid "In a short time the crystals of alum himself open to much severe critiwill be found to have DEPOSITED them- cism, by a hasty publication. No selves about it, (a matrix,) in perfect man has a right to expect that his IMITATION of natural quartz." unpruned conjectures should be The Reviewer, therefore, not only received as established facts; and misquotes the words, but imputes till Mr.Gurney had found an oppora meaning to the passage which it tunity of illustrating and confirmdoes not convey. At page 306, the ing his theories, he should have

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