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in love with scientific correctness and precision, possessing a mathematical cast of mind, who have been laboriously in. structed in all the minutiæ of science, prefer, perhaps, the Vice-President of the Royal Society to the President, and look on Dr. Wollaston as a safer leader than Sir Humphrey Davy. Those who would jump to a knowledge of every branch of chemistry, unsparingly sweeping down whatever stands in their way, follow Dr. Ure. The inhabitants of the manufacturing districts, and those who study chiefly the chemical arts, go after Dr. Henry and Mr. Parkes; while those who are in love with abstract theory, delight in Dr. Higgins and Mr. Dalton. Drs. Thomson and Hope and Mr. Murray seem the leaders of the instructing sect of chemists, and all who wish to teach others put themselves to sehool under one of these eminent Professors. As there is what is called a Cockney school of literature, so there is a sort of superficial, confident chemist try, which may, perhaps, be styled the petit maitre school of this, science; and of it Professor Brande, with the aspiring Mr. Gurney,bare the chiefs. The rivalry existing between these gentlemen does not allow us to designate either of them as the undisputed sovereign of this part ticular sect. The first has been longest in possession of the field, but the last is a young and ambitious competitor, and seems to excite both the fear and the anger of his longer-established opponent. Now the Editor of a publication which occasionally devotes its pages to each and all of these sects records the discoveries of Sir Humphrey, the scientific explanations of Wollaston, the dogmatic comments of Ure, the feeble descriptions of Parkes, the short and simple theories of Dalton--who bears in mind the instructions of one Professor, and repeatedly appeals to the compilation of another, and who does not disdain to levy contributions on the showy though shallow petit maitre school of chemistry, is dreadfully at a loss when it is necessary to place the bust of one of these gentlemen, or of some other well known chemist at the head of his pages, to show under what standard he serves. On duly weighingi all these matters, a number of difficulties arose, as to which of all these great men ought to be placed in the front of The Chemist; and we found it, in fact, so difficult to choose, that at length we resolved to send this Supplement into the world unadorned by the portrait of any one of our instructors, and unprotected by the name of any manof geniuseris omon to dlqargoid ovd baigaagp998 digitag 901

It is unquestionable, however, that the discoveries of Sir Humphrey Davy, and his well-deserved reputation, so far surpass those of every other living chemist, that no Englishman of the present day can have any hesitation in assigning

the first place to him, but his portrait is already the ornament of iso many scientific periodicals, that had we taken it we should have had the appearance of imitating and borrowing frem tliemuwe should have given our readers nothing new. It cannot'!also be concealed, that the President of the Royal Society professes à sort of royal science iif in its pursuit he makes any discoveries which are useful to the multitude, they may, and welcome, have the benefit of them, but he has no appearance of labouring for the people. He brings not the science which he pursues down to their level; he stands aloof antidst ldignitaries, nobles, and philosophers, and apparently takes no concern in the improveinent of those classes for whom our labours are intended, and to whom we look for support. Amidst all the great efforts which have been lately made to promote scientific instruction among the working classes, and amidst all the patronage wliich those efforts have found among opulent and clever men, it has been with regret that we have sought in vain to trade one exertion or one smile of encouragement bestowed on such efforts by the President of the Royal Society? In fact, there is some reason to believe that Royal Societies of every description partake of the opinions and apprehensions of their patrons, and, like them, are not forward to encourage that species of instruction which tends to make the great mass of mankind the accurate judges of their merits rather tharf submissive scholars. It has certainly long been the fashion for those at the head of science to keep it in a manner inaccess sible to the profaning touch of the vulgar, letting them see as much of it as might excite their admiration, without enabling them to estimate its value, or to acquire if by them selves. As we have not observed any very great zeal, among those wlio are at the tip-top of science, to assist the working classes in the numerous and glorious efforts they have lately made to procure instruction for themselves, we confess a sugat pleron is excited that they look with no kindly eye on these efforts, dand would rather have mankind for pupils than fellow-students of the great volume of nature. If this be cor redt, it might perhaps be an insult to our readers to place in the front of our pages the portrait of a man who, however learned, is not learned for their utility, and who seems to take little or no interest in their improvement. l It would be hbo noring Him who takes no interest in them.si bllow out of tat Wäs off intention to have given with the Supplementi the portrait, accompanied by a biography, of some eminente chemist.aslon finding, however, that the only living English clienist who stands High above all others had been previously seized on by more than one cotemporary 9 that other eminente cheinists were in the same situation, or, like Sir Humphrey,


had shown no great sympathy with the people's pursuits, reflecting, too, that we belong to no sect, gathering kom each whatever seems good, we deemed it more respectful to our readers, and more appropriate to the character of our work, not to affix any portrait as a frontispiece. At the same time, to keep our promise, we shall endeavour, in the course of our ensuing volume, to give them the biography of some eminent

chemists, accompanied by their portraits.. i We must now say, a few words of our intentions and our labours. The CHEMIST was begun, under an idea that the increasing importance of the science of chemistry, as well as the increasing desireamong all classes foraccurate knowledge,would make a weekly publication like ours acceptable to them. The support we have met with has shown that our calculations were not erroneous, Though we cannot boast of having attracted so large a share of public favour as some of our cotemporaries, we have received enough to make us acknowledge it with gratitude, and to find in it a motive for continued and greater exertions. Since the beginning of our publication, it has gone on steadily increasing in circulation, and we trust that greater efforts will ensure us a still more extensive patronage.asa

The object we at first proposed to ourselves was to give an outline of the principles of chemistry, with their numerous applications, as well as a history and description of all the arts which are connected with this science. In conjunction with this, it was further our intention to make THE CHEMIST a repository of every valuable discovery, either in chemistry or ihe sciences connected with it, which might be made, either at home or abroad. How far the execution has corresponded with our intentions, it is not for us to say; but our readers cannot, we believe, be more sensible of our deficiencies than we are ourselves. After a mature investigation, however, we see no reason to alter the outline, of our plan, though our enlarged experience will make us in future fill it up with more precision and more in detail. The elements of our furthcoming Numbers will be the same as those of the past; but we can promise that the combinations will be more numerous and the results more striking. mesingy , hey


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sout in a19bson do 110 e o CONTENTS. I qui 03:11 sint ma ola Thethical appairaths. Desctiption of Chemistry as a Science! Aftt! THUIS vrhe Plates .00..dospadask. Y atroduction .... 110.278.10

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CHEMICAL APPARATUS. -** by those who are opálent, or who

DESCRIPTION OF THE derive a profit from Chemistry as I PLATES.

a business. Many chemical ex· In the present state of Chemistry, periments may be carried on, howembracing, as it does, a prodigious ever, with a simple and cheap apvariety of phenomena, numerous paratus. As the science has adand expensive vessels and instru- vanced, indeed, it has been found ments are necessary to prosecute more useful as well as more con- the study of the science with suc- venient, to operate on small than cess; and in most chemical books on large masses of matter; and directions are given for filling up a experiments, conducted on a small laboratory, which can only be done scale, have led to most of the bril

liant chemical discoveries of our fact, selected one for the present times. In fact, the most powerful Number; but we mean, at the same instruments or agents for decom- time, to familiarize our readers, by posing all bodies, the blow-pipe our plates, with all sorts of chemiand the galvanic battery, can only cal apparatus'; and in the present be brought to act efficaciously on Number we present them with a small quantities of any substance. representation of the furnaces geBy operating on grains of matter, nerally employed by Chernists. the true nature of the diamond and Fig. 1 is a reverberatory furnace. the metallic bases of the alkalies AA is the ash-pit. BB is the body were discovered; the gases have of the furnaoe. CC dome, or reverbeen compressed into liquids, and beratory roof of the furnace. DD four metals before unknown were chimney. EE door of the ash-pit. detected in the ores of platina. FF door of the fire-place. GG hanBut though the chemist, who wants dles of the body. H aperture to to make discoveries, may employ admit the head of the retort. these powerful agents, and operate II handles of the dome. K rein this way, he must before have ceiver. L stand of the receiver. performed numerous experiments. The retort is placed in the furnace and acquired not only great skill at the aperture, and the neck as an operator, but also an exten- comes out at the opening H. sive knowledge of the science, be- Fig. 2 is a wind or air furnace, fore he could think of surpassing for melting bodies. A is the ashhis predecessors and cotempora- hole. F an opening for the air. ries. There is obviously, there. C the fire-place, containing a cofore, two branches of experiment- vered orucible, standing on a suping: the one, having for its object port of baked earth, which rests on to make discoveries; the other, to the grate. D is a passage into E, make the experimenter acquainted the chimnerAt K is an earthen with the science, and enable him or stone cover, which may be rehereafter to pursue successfully moved to supply fuel. the other branch. To prosecute Plates 3 and 4 represent Mr. the latter assiduously, an immense Aikin's portable blast furnace, apparatus is necessary, which is which is made out of the thin black usually only possessed in a com- lead melting-pots, in use among plete state by those persons who goldsmiths. The lower piece, C, have to teach Chemistry. Persons fig. 3, is the bottom of one of these who wish to study this science, pots, cut off so low as only to leave without being able to acquire alla cavity of about an inch deep, the necessary apparatus, must ground smooth above and below. pot, therefore, give it up in de The middle piece, or fire-place, is spair. One of the chief agents in a larger portion of a similar pot, chemical decomposition is heat; about six inches deep, and perand this may, in many cases, be forated with blast-holes at the botapplied by means of a common tom. An upper pot is added, with fire-place and a pair of bellows. a hole cut in the side, to allow of Again, a vast number of chemical the exit of smoke and flame. It experiments, and some of the most has an iron stem with a wooden curious ones, are made by means handle, which may be made of an of the gases, which may, when they old chisel. The double bellows, D, are not greedily absorbed by wa- are firmly fixed to a heavy stool, ter, be in general obtained by the the nozzle passes into C, and the help of a few glass retorts, and air passes into the fire-place, A. phials, a small lamp, and a com- No luting is necessary in using this mon bason. In the course of our furnace, so that it may be taken labours, we shall make a point of down and put up in a very short describing a number of experi- space of time. Coke or common ments, which may be cheaply and cinders answer well for fuel; and easily performed. Wo have, in the heat which this little furnace

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