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rass, surrounded by a mixture of in a few minutes the mercury betwo parts of ice and one part sea- comes solid. This is effected more salt. Sulphurous acid is thus ligue- rapidly by putting some mercury fied completely under the pressure in a small cup, pouring over.ita of the atmosphere, and at a tempe- small' quantity of the acid, and rature not lower than 180 to 200 of placing the whole in an air pump, the centigrade thermometer, or from which the air is to be exfrom 0 to 40 of Fabr. It is then bausted. *'on.. . presso transparent, inodorous, and hea- - SIMPLE MEANS OF LIQUEFYING',' vier than water. At 14° Fahr, it boils, but may be preserved liquid

GASES." for a long time, without having re

do : It seems to us that the above excourse to pressure, because the PS

the periments, which we have transpart which is converted into vapour

lated from a paper by M. Bussy,'in absorbs so much caloric as to pre

the Annales de Chimie et Physique serve the remainder below its boil- for May 1824, are of some imporing temperature. Poured into the

tance. The late experiments of Sir hand, it produces the most intense

Humphrey Davy, on the condenscold, and is completely evaporated.

ation of the gases, give us reason TO CONVERT WATER INTO ice.

to suppose that it is only necessary Pour some of this sulphurous acid

cid to discover a cheap and ready into water: one part is converted method of producing that condensinto vapour, another dissolved hv ation, to arm the hand of man with the water, but as the water begins another power as great, if not greatto be saturated, the acid collects

er than steam, and attended with in drops at the bottom of the vessel less danger. Al. Bussy has applied like an oil heavier than water. If

If this method of producing a great it be touched with a tube, or rod, it is

degree of cold to liquefy other converted into a vapour, and occa gases wbich it is more difficult to sions a species of ebullition; the condense: ,

condense. He begins by drying temperature of the water sinks, and the gas to be conce

and the gas to be condensed by passing its surface is covered with a coat it through a tụbe containing chloof ice; and the whole of the water!

ride of calcium, to which is attachmay be frozen by adding the acid ed another tube, bent at right anin proper quantity.

gles. The horizontal branch of this TO PRODUCE An excessive DeGREE

Pee latter has a small ball, which he Of cold. "

covers with cotton, and sprinkles Surround the bulb of an air with sulphurous acid; the vertical thermometer with cotton. dinit branch is plunged into mercury, into sulphurous 'acid. and then As the gas passes the ball, it is allow the acid to evaporate spon

condensed into a liquid. By this taneously in the air. “By making means M. Bussy has liquefied the experiment at the temperature colonne

ro chlorine, ammonia, and cyanogen; of 100 centigrade (450 of Fahr.), à the latter was obtained solid and diminution corresponding to -670 crystallized. He proposes to try, of centigrade (or 720 of Fahr...) by the cold produced by evapotakes place; and if the thermome: rating these latter, to liquefy those ter is placed in the vacuum of an gases which have hitherto resisted air-pump, the temperature is res' the art of the chemist time duced to -680 of centigrade, (or imbatore s -91 Fabr.) It must be observed, ' TO PREPARE FULMINATING however, that only an air thermo

MERCURY! - hedo meter can be employed to indicate this low temperature with accu- (In answer to a Correspondent) racy.

A CORRESPONDENT has particularly TO FREEZE MERCURY. . requested us to inform him how Cover the bulb of a thermometer this substance is prepared and as with cotton, pour over it sulphur- he states this knowledge will be of ous acid, and swing it in the air; considerable importance to him,



we shall not delay answering him. AN INFALLIBLE BAROMETER. At the same time, we must confess that other Correspondents have a

Put two drachms of pure nitre prior claim on us; but having pub

* and half a drachm of chloride lished their queries, we still are in

of ammonia, reduced to powder, hopes some of our readers will an

into two ounces of spirit of wine, swer them. If we do not soon receive

or pure alcohol, and place this some satisfactory answers, we shall

mixture in a glass tube, ten answer the queries ourselves. The

inches long and eight lines in discovery of fulminating mercury

diameter, the upper extremity of was made by Mr. Howard, and his which must be covered with a process is still recommended by

piece of skin or bladder, pierced the most celebrated chemists, and

with small holes. If the weather is was followed by Messrs. Gay Lus

to be fine, the solid matters remain sac and Leibig, in their late expe

at the bottom of the tube, and the

alcohol is as transparent as usual. riments. It is as follows:-Dissolve 100 grains of mercury in an

If rain is to fall in a short time, ounce and a half by measure of some of the solid particles rise and nitric acid, of the specific gravity

fall in the alcohol, which becomes of 1.3; add to the mixture two

somewhat thick and troubled. ounces by measure of alcohol, or

When a storm, a tempest, or even a pure spirit, and apply heat to the

squall is about to come on, all the flask containing the mixture till it

solid matters rise from the bottom begins to boil; then remove the

of the tube, and form a crust on flask from the lamp. The action

the surface of the alcohol, which b becomes violent, and continues for

appears in a state of fermentation. some time, a dense white smoke

These appearances take place 24 issues from the vessel, which is

inhis hours before the tempest ensues ; heavier than air. At first a little and the point of the horizon from nitrate of mercury is deposited, but which it is to blow is indicated by this is soon redissolved, the liquid the particles gathering most on the becomes grey, from the reduction

side of the tubes opposite to that sid

part whence the wind is to come. of a part of the oxide of mercury :

after some time it becomes yellow, bi and crystals appear, which aug- TO BLEACH ROSES AND sment on cooling. They are of a

greyish white, hard to the touch. OTHER FLOWERS. Is and heavy. They are to be sepa- . As this is the season when flow.

rated from the liquid by filtering ; ers are plentiful, our readers may

to be washed in pure water, and easily put the following to the test ei dried in a heat not exceeding 212o. of experiment. Sulphurous acid b. By being dissolved and crystal- destroys most vegetable colours,

lized two or three times, they be- but the blues are reddened by it become brilliant, white, and silky, previously to being discharged.

and have a faint metallic lustre, Flowers of a blue colour may,

We must caution our readers how therefore, by the action of this acid a they meddle with this substance, be converted to red, and all the be as it detonates if heated to upwards reds may be made white. The ac

of 3000, by the blow of a hammer, tion of sulphurous acid may be by friction, and by electricity. In- obtained by burning a common deed, as the French chemist, from brimstone match. Thus, hold a whom we took the former article, rose over its blue flame, and the observed, it detonates if struck or colour will be discharged wherever agitated with glass rods; and there the flower comes into contact with

fore the greatest precaution is ne- the acid, so as to render it beauThi cessary, both in preparing and tifully variegated, or altogether Wo using it. When it detonates, its white. If it be dipped into water, es effects are very violent, but they after a season the redness will be to do not extend far, it 2938e ad restored. y o SONET:090)


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MANUFACTURE OF PYRO. la particular acid, and then call-

LIGNOUS ACID. Dved pyrolignous acid; but it is now The extensive uses to which known to be the acetic acid united this acid is now put will, no doubt, with empyreumatic oil and bitumake a short account of the mode men. As the proportion of carbon of preparing it on a large scale ac- becomes greater, the empyreumatice ceptable to our readers. We have, oil rises somewhat brown, and" therefore, taken the following de- grows thicker and darker, augmentscription froni a French work, at ing in density as the quantity of present in the course of publica- carbon increases. At the same time tion, entitled Dictionnaire Technolo- a small quantity of carbonic acid gique, 8c. The art of making pyro-gas, much carburetted hydrogen, lignous acid is founded on the and, towards the close, a great power of heat to decompose vege- quantity of gaseous oxide of cartable substances, and arrange their bon are disengaged. All the carelementary parts in a different bon not carried off in these vamanner from that in which they rious forms remains in the still, existed in the body subjected to and generally preserves the form the operation. The proportion of of the vegetable substance em the products varies not only from ployed. Since we have learned the employing different substances, but nature of all these products, the they are different when orly one process has been much improved substance is employed, according and particularly by charring the as the heat is greater or less, or the wood, and by turning the others operationis differently managed. products to "advantage. In the Whenti vegetable substance is forests the wood is first charred, so distilled in close vessels, at first as to dissipate all the water of vea. the water comes over which exist- getation. It is then introduced ed ready formed, and then water into a large circular or square pot, formed by a union of the oxygen A, made of iron plates rivettede and hydrogen of the substance. Af-o together, and having at its upper terwards a quantity of carbon is part a small lateral iron cylinder na separated, and by the continued to an iron cover, B, is closely fitted... application of heat, this unites with to this pot, and then it is lifted by the oxygen and hydrogen, and forms means of a crane, or other mechaan acid, formerly supposed to be nical power, and placed in the fur

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inclined to the horizon. To this
first apparatus a second, and some-
times a third is adapted, and placed
in a zig-zag form, in order to occu-
py as little space as possible. The
water is made to circulate in the
following manner:-At the lower
extremity, G, of the condensing
apparatus, there is a tube which
ought to be somewhat higher than
the upper part of the whole of this
apparatus, where, at H, there is
another short tube curved towards
the ground. Water from a reservoir
is made to run through the perpen-
dicular tube to the lower part of
the condensing apparatus, and fills
all the space between the cylin-
ders. When the operation is going
on, as the vapours are condensed
they raise the temperature of the
water, which becoming more rare-
fied and lighter, hows out of the a
curved tube, .

Š The condensing apparatus terdan DATUST

minates in a brick canal, I, covered so di TudoIQ od 10

and buried in the earth. At the

end of this canal is a bent tube, K, nace, D, of the same shape as the which carries the liquid products pot, and the furnace is then cover- into the first cistern; when it is ed with a lid. E, constructed in full it discharges itself by means masonry. A moderate heat is then of a syphon into a large, reapplied to the furnace; at first the servoir; the tube which termivapour of the wood is dissipated, nates the canal plunges into the but this yapour soon ceases to be liquid, and thus cuts off the comtransparent and becomes sooty, munication with the interior of At this time a tube or cylinder, the apparatus. The gas which is enclosed in another of brick-work disengaged is conveyed by means. or tiles, is aflixed to the lateral of the tube, I L, from one of the cylinder, and forms the condensing sides of the canal, i, above the apparatus. This is different in dif- ash-hole of the surface. This tube ferent places; in some the condens- has a stop-cock, M, before reach-ita ation is effected by the air, the va- ing the furnace, in order to regu- it's pour being made to pass through a late the quantity of gas and cut off ** long extent of cylinders, and some, the communication at pleasure. times of casks adapted to each That part of the tube which ends other, but most generally the con- at the furnace rises perpendicu-, ** densation or cooling is effected by larly some inches, and terminates, water, when it can he procured in as seen, at N; by this means the sufficient quantities. The most gas may be distributed equally is simple apparatus for this purpose under the vase without any risk of bye consists of two cylinders, F E, en- the tube being obstructed by either of closed one within the other, and the combustible or the cinders. having between them a space suf- Towards the end of the operaficient to allow a large quantity of tion the heat is increased so as to water to flow backwards and for- make the iron pot red hot; and the

and thus cool the vapour, time when the operation is comThese cyliders are adapted to the pleted is ascertained by the colour re distilling apparatus, and placed of the gas flame. At first it is of

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a reddish yellow, then it becomes way had the taste of Hamburgh blue, and finally it is quite wbite, beef and kept as well. Meat to which is a mark that the combus which this acid was applied, with a tion is carried far enough; or a sponge or wet cloth, kept several few drops of water are let fall on days longer in summer than it that part of the tube close to the otherwise would. When the acid furnace wbich is not surrounded has become impure by frequent by water, and wben it evaporates use, it may be clarified by beating without noise the calcination is up a dozen eggs with 20 gallons, thought to be sufficient. The adapt- and heating the mixture in an iron ing tube is then separated, and boiler. Before boiling, the eggs the end of the condensing cylinder coagulate and bring the impurities is closely stopped by iron plates to the surface, when they are careand brick earth. The lid of the fully skimmed off. The acid acts furnace is then lifted off, and after- on iron, and must therefore be imwards the pot is taken out, and mediately removed from the boiler. immediately replaced by another Besides these antiseptic qualities which has in the meantime been of the pyrolignous acid, it has long prepared. When the pot which been used by the calico-printers, has been taken outis cold, the wood though underits more correct name is removed. The acid is then pu- of vinegar. rified ; but we shall not at present describe this part of the process, preferring to take from an English

GAIN OF POWER BY MAwork a short account of the various

CHINERY. uses of pyrolignous acid. It is It was estimated about six years sufficient to plunge meat for a few ago, by three of the most eminent moments into this acid, slightly cotton-spinners in Great Britain, empyreumatic, to preserve it as that the quantity of cotton thread long as you please. It not only produced on an average by each stops putrefaction, but restores the spinner, compared with that which substance in which this decompo- one person could have spun on a sition has began to a sound state, single wheel, as was the practice This effect has in part been as. before the inventions of Arkwright cribed to the empyreumatic oil, and others, was as 120 to 1. By and hence the beneficial effects of improvements since made, this has smoke in preserving meats and probably increased to 150 to 1; fish. By pouring this acid over ana. buttaking only the smaller estimate, tomical preparations, Dr. Jorge, of one person ean now producel aş Leipsic, lately restored some of much as 120 could have produced them from a state of beginning pu- prior to these inventions, / At pre

trefaction. Pieces of ineat smear sent, 280,000 persons are engaged sed with empyreumatic oil or tar, in this country spinning cotton

although fari advanced in a state thread, and multiplied by 120, this

of putrefaction, and although the gives 33,600,000 as the number of uWeather was warm, were restored spinners who would have been retato a dry and sound state. If fish quired under the old system to ber simply dipped in rerdistilled produce as much cotton thread as pyrolignous' acid, and afterwards is now spun in Great Britain, fail

dried in the shade, they preserve There is one isteam enging at Iperfectly well, and on boiling them present in Cornwall of 260 horse

they have not such a taste of power, which works day and night; empyroumatic oil as to be dis- each horse power is estimated as agreeable, Haddocks have been equal to the unassisted labour of

salted for six hours, then dipped in six men; and as it would require 11 pyrolignous acid, and hung up in three sets of men, each set working

the shade for six days, and on being eight hours, to labour as constantly - dressed were found of a very fine as this engine, it follows that it : 'flavour. Beef treated in the same does as much work as 4690 persons,

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