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sowodosGELATINE. bral yew ing gelatine, it may, perhaps, be 9 159M

Cated of service to mention the relative sd To the Editor of the Chemist.is

e quantity of gelatine obtainable IS19792 to Woolwich, June 23. from the bones of different ani

Sir L_In addition to what has mals, &c. as well as their other already been published by you in constituents. These will be best No. XV. of The Chemist, respeet- detailed by the following table : 0590 bote od s

LEW BLIV early 99 casos graosats paian hot 10 luxuit, uiden har betropo 29 adseriod 310 seu Names of the several Substances employed. I


oployed. Gela- Phoes or nate Loss. 91 915 votre 93 sta o s tine. Lime. of Limela los de

Human bones taken from a burying-ground.. 16- 67 5 1595 Top R OT dried, but never interred .... 23. 63. 02. 2018 29 Bones of the ox ....

93.291b2 2002 ha calf....


21: 2 hors

67-5 1.25 22.25 961997109

10590- 61347.511

17. 52.0 1. 030 hare

85. loud 5 l

6. RAM ya

72 115 20: 5 pike .......


64. l: 23 carp....

45 10:5| 48.5 viper ..........

60.5 0.5 17.5 1 xie foods lobster .......

1440-9283 369 Teeth of the horse .......


5 0.25 2.25 Din 16913 elephant

64: 10:11 11:15 br9 Stags' horns.......... Has Egg-shell ........


22. 23. 1 dara Mother of pearl ..

0. 166 31.512 Crabs' eyes ........:

1260-1260 no Shell of the cuttle-fish.

Od 68. 240 9911 | White coral ........ ..........

an 1:

5 0 50. 48-58 og Red do .......... ..... .............. 0:

5 0 | 53. 51.46 v I OS 86 %

ortot 5sdi 20 The foregoing results I have sertion in The Chemist, you will

taken from the Annales de Chimie, much oblige, v Sir, tom. xxxiv. p. 68, as obtained by Your obedient humble servant, Merat Guillot. By giving them in- 10 th ceno JAMES MARSH.

- PREPARATION AND QUALITIES accuracy the weight of the atoms bor SILICON AND ZIRCONIUM. of several substances, concerning 900 (By M. Berzelius.).

which I entertained some doubts, Bid M. BERZELTUS, the Swedish che. To extract the alkali of minerals, tomist, and one of the most scientific it was sufficient to expose them to

and celebrated men of the day, has the action of fluoric acid, or to the o described, in a letter to M. Dulong, action of a mixture of the fluate of zsah extract of which has been pub- lime and of sulphuric acid. i Inat

Jished in the Anndles de Chimie et de tempting to reduce fluoric acid by 16 Physique for May,'a mode of pre potassium, 'I succeeded in reducing Sparing silicon, with its qualities. silica, zirconia, and some other

of this extract the following is an earths, but I was able to obtain Babridgment: Fluoric acid is only silicon and zirconium in a setoone of the inost oonvenient agents parate state; the others decom

for the analysis of organic pro- pose water with great energy. Pure ducts'; and it dissolves things silicon is incombustible even in which the other acids will not oxygen gas. Neither water, nitric i touch. It has supplied me with the acid, caustic potash, nor uguay means of determining with more vegia have the least effect upon it;

su na

u t poimi but fluoric acid, particularly if à It is then slowly beated in a co. little nitric acid is added, speedily vered platinum crucible, till it is dissolves it. Silicum does not de- made red hot; the bydrogen com, compose nitre, unless exposed to bines with the oxygen, and the an intense heat; but it detonates silicum will no longer burn in oxwith carbonate of potash at a red ygen, while chlorine attacks it raheat. When silicum is heated with pidly. The small quantity of silica saltpetre, and a piece of dry carbo- produced may be dissolved by nate of soda is plunged in the mix- fluoric, acid. If the silicum has ture, a detonatiónimmediately takes not been strongly heated, as, the place." By passing the vapour' of acid dissolves it, a slow disengageri sulphur over red hot silicum, the ment of hydrogen gas takes place. metal' becomes quickly incandes. According to my experiments, si cent. When the combination is lica must contain 0.52 of its weight complete, which rarely happens, of oxygen, Zirconium is obtained the resulting substance is of 'a in the same manner. It is black white earthy appearance, and de- as charcoal, is not oxidated either composes water with extreme ra-' by water or muriatic acid, but aqua pidity Water dissolves the silica,' regia and fluoric acid dissolve it, and stlphüretted hydrogen gas is and with the last, hydrogen gas is cooled. By this means, a solution disengaged. It burns at a low temof silica may be obtained so highly perature with great intensity, It concentrated, that during the eva-' combines with sulphur, forming a poration it coagulates, and deposits' brown chesnut coloured substance, portions of this earth in the form of insoluble in muriatic acid and in transparent masses, like gum. alkalies, but which burns with When silicuret of potassiuni is splendour, forming sulphurous acid heated with sulphur, it burns rai and zirconia."

2.49 pidly, and leaves, wben dissolved,"

land! the silicon in a state of purity." In...;""" . QUERIES. imbest chlorine, silicum takes fire at a red MR. EDITOR, If the following heat;'a liquid; colourless, or slight- be suitable for your pages, I shall! lytinged with yellow, results, ex... be obliged by their speedy inser tremely volatile, having the odour tion.. 1st. What is the best method of eyanogen, and which, with water, of obtaining sulphur from nativea deposits silica in the form of jelly. sulphuret of iron, upon a large b It is very easy to produce silicum. scale, so that sulphuric acid mayo The fluates of silica ând of potash be obtained from tbe disengaged or soda, heated to redness, to dis- sulphur, and sulphate of iron from sipate the water is introduced into the residue ? E m toga a glass tube, closed at one end. 2d. What is the best method tole Small pieces of potassium are then“ obtain carbonate of ammonia from " put in, which are mixed with the the ammonia disengaged during the powder, by heating them till the manufacture of coal gas ? sadece A1182 metal melts, and by lightly striking. In reading your Analysis of the tube. Apply thc leat of a lamp, Scientific Journals for May, I per and before a red heat is obtained, ceive you have made some obser: 2 a detonation takes place, and sili. vations on an article.in the Annals: con is reduced. It is allowed to “Remarks on Solar Light and Heat, cool, and then washed with water by Baden Powell, M. A.With as long lasany thing is dissolved. the import of those remarks I cor. At first hydrogen gas is set at li- dially agrce; but as the subject is berty, because silicuret of potas- of great importance, being consult sium is obtained, which cannot nected with mostof the phenomena i exist in water. The substance of nature, and is capable of rec washed is a hydroguret, of silicum,ceiving further elucidation from which, burns with rapidity in ox- the luminous rays which are everyjb ygen gas at a red heat, though the where emanating from the orb ofip silicum is not completely oxidated. reason, I request you will not dis

miss the subject from the pages of What method is best adapted to the Chemist without sonie further obtain acetate of tin, upon an exremarks: and as none of the pre- tensive scale and at a cheap rate? vailing theories that I am ac

JUVENIS. quainted with on this subject are · satisfactory, or reconcilable with

Mr. Editor, I understand that the laws of nature, I propose for at present there is among fashionyour solution, or that of any of

able people a great rage for bright your correspondents, the following

bay horses, and that horses of this questions:--Is the sun the primary

colour fetch a much higher price or secondary source of light; or,

than of any other., , Jockies, Sir, in other words, is light emitted or

are knowing kiddies; and, it is reflected from the sun?-Does heat

said, that some of them have found proceed from the same source, and

out a means of colouring horses of in the same manner?""

a most beautiful bright bay. I Is solar light different in its na

have frequently read of washes to ture from the light emitted during

make ladies' hair of different cors combustion, animal decomposition, lours : and have heard even of a electricity, percussion, and friction?

learned professor in a celebrated, An answer to all or any of university of the north, having carn: the above questions, with any fur- ried this art so far, that he appears ther temarks úpon the same sub- before his admiringi pupils with ject, will greatly oblige,

his hair stained of a different go) Your humble servant 'n!

Si lour almost every day. To such

? Os and well wisher,

perfection has he attained, that # Dat ; , * JUVENIS. there is no colour, it is said, from Etfand, Yorkshire, June 20.

the bright sandy locks of bis own/ P.S. Since writing the above, a

country-women to the blackest friend of mine, a reader of the shade of the African wool, incladChemist, has requested me to in

ing all the varieties of purples and sert the following, hoping you will

inc pou will pinks which he cannot imitate. I favour them with a place in your

beg, Sir, through the , medium of pages. , * . *. your entertaining miscellany, to ina! What are the changes that take

quire of your numerous readers, place in a woad vat, by which the

the best means of colouring hair, deoxidation of theindigo is effected,

whether of horses, of women, or of and what are the new compounds

professors; and at the same time, wbich are formed ? * ,

I should wish to learn the best Whence is it that fine wool. means of ascertaining whether they Spanish and Saxony, for instance,

colour of their hair is the work of should take more indigo than the

art or of nature., One would not wool grown either in the north or wish, Sir, to be taken in, either by south of England. to dye it the the cupidity of jockies, the petita same shade? llius;

l ines in a

maitreism of professors, or the cony to loying

A DYER. quetry of ladies. : ! Dus; luua Ishall be very glad to see in the

non rito' I am, Sir, i doro

? Your obedient servant, bus Chemist, as soon as convenient, an article on distillation, giving a de--

Por Den noi PRISMA

TattooTT-TT19 scription of the most approyed: TO PRESERVE GRAIN.I).

1031AM 104?o 3 na 1. The reason why a people who.. *iPernabs ou Correspondent A: D., of live chietly on potatoes are subject the distillery at Wandsworth, would fa- t like the Irish, to severe vicissitudes vow us with some information on this 's of famine, and of momentary plenty, subjects. We are slow to engage in ourselves, because we know that a neigh, bouring nation has recently made some

e from harvest to harvest, aid there w disconyies With Which' we are not ac. is no meaög of preserving it, so as w quain dedit Edi wort e ller i A to niake the exuberance of her

-eib fon lliw 10 1e9wp911 109 ) DUBBIRO O o o joll ei divoilta

season compensato the deficiency method than that recommended by · of another. In this point of view Count Dejean. **? $413341but wheatand grains of all kinds, whieh desain content at can be kept for two or three years, EXTRAORDINARY FALL OF are much the most valuable arti- . ! THE BAROMETER.' 73} cles of food. Whatever serves, The journals of Germany retherefore, to preserve grain in a mark an extraordinary fall of the state of perfection, tends to equalize barometer on January 23d, 1824. the quantity of food which can be On that day it stood at 26° 11' at obtained every year, and thus to Lcipsio, it having been (says the relieve society from the alternate Journalist) only three times as low, vicissitudes, which the seasons namely, in 1799, 1782, and 1783, bring, of dearth and plenty. There during the whole of the eighteenth are also, probably, few of our century. On referring to the mereaders wbo have not seen those teorological journals kept in Engimmense granaries on the borders . land and France, we observe, that of the Thames, in which, when in both these countries also the

grain is stored up, it has to be fre- barometer stood very low on the · quently moved and turned, at a same day. By the meteorological considerable expense, to preserve diary given in the Quarterly Jour

it. Under these points of view, nal of Science, it appears to have liit appears of some importance to been at 289 70'; and by the meteoknow how to preserve grain in the rological observations in the Angreatest perfection, and at the least nales de Physique et Chimie, it stood expense. In many parts of the at 7300 71', being in both cases con

Continent, this is done by depo. siderably the lowest of the month, ·siting it in holes constructed in the and much below the average of the earth for this purpose; and this year. At Paris and Leipsic the has always been done on the idea wind was S.W.; at Althorpe, in that if air and moisture could be Northamptonshire, W.S.W. and completely excluded, the grain N.W., and it rained somewhat might be preserved for any length both at Paris and Leipsic, . of time. It has, in fact, long been mens known that grain or flour so stowed POISON OF THE UPAS TREE. in casks as to be perfectly air-tight, The poison of the upas tree has has been preserved for years un lately been subjected to analysis altered. Under the influence of by Messrs. Pelletier and Caventou. this same idea, in 1819, the Count It appears there are two species of Dejean, according to the Annales the upas poison; one is the prode Chimie, caused some casks to be duce of a plant; called by M. Lemade, which were covered with schonaut, strychnos tieute; the other, lead, and into which grain of dif- the terrible upas tree, is called the ferent kinds, properly dried, was · anthiaris toxicuria. These chemists put, and then the casks were here have made experiments on both metically sealed. They were open poisons, and state the following ed at the end of three years, and facts as the result: The poisonous the grain found to be in a perfect principle of the strychnos tieute" is state of preservation. As grain in that alkali which has before been this state sustains no loss, and re- detected in the strychnos nur vomica, quires no attention, it is supposed and to which these chemists give that the expense of the casks and the name of strychnia. From the of the lead will not be equal to the upas they obtained it very pure; cost of preserving 'grain not so and half a grain of it, diluted with guarded. There can be no doubt 'water, injected into the pleurd of

of the accuracy of the principle on a rabbit, destroyed the animal at " which this process proceeds; and the end of fifteen seconds, by 'one 'as little doubt, we believe, that in terrible attaek of tetanos! A quarcthis country it might be brought. ter of a grain dissolved in diluted into practice by some still cheaper acetic acid, given to another rab

:: !!iu l ui al Ton I a

bit, produced & still more terrible 72 degree of longitude west from and speedy dissolution. The poi- Paris, or the mountains of Micuchissonous principle of the other upas ta of the Sierra Nevada of Merida. tree, or anthiuris to.ricaria, is a bit. The cinchonu ferruginea, C.Vellozii, ter substance, soluble in water and and C. Remijiano of Mr. St. Hialcohol. This bitter substance is laire grow on the table lards of the composed of a colouring matter, of province of Minas-Geraes, at the an acid, and a particular sub- height of 100 metres, in a temperate stance, which seems to be the ac- climate between 220 and 189 of tive part of the poison, and which southern latitude. They are rethese chemists suppose to be a ve- garded as certainly indicating the getable alkali. This vegetable al- presence of minerals containing kali has the same effect on the iron wherever they grow. The bitanimal economy as the poison of ter and, astringent bark of those the upas tree, but is much more quinina (Quina da Serra) of the energetic. It differs somewhat mountains of Brazil resembles very in its action from strychnia, the much in its flavour the quinina of former producing convulsions, with Peru and of New Grenada. Their relaxation, and not being so speedy febrifuge qualities are not, how. in its destroying effects as the lat- ever, so strongly marked as those ter, which seems suddenly to arrest of a still more celebrated tree, the with a single convalsion the whole strychnos pseudoquind, which is found functions of life.

in the diamond districts, in the de

serts of Goyaz, and in the western d THE BARK TREE. part of Minas-Geraes. Of all the The following is an extract from a medicinal plants of these vast Reportlately made by the celebrat countries, the Quina do Campo, or ed traveller, Baron Humboldt,'to the strychnos pseudoquina, is most in use, Academy of Sciences at Paris, on and best known. The physicians b & work of Mr. Auguste St. Hilaire, of Brazil give the bark in powder who returned to France not long and in decoction ;, and it is a beneago, from the Brazils, bringing ficent gift of nature to a region with him 7000 plants, 2000 birds, where intermittent fevers are un16,000 insects, and 130 mammifer- fortunately too frequent. The vir

ous animals. “ The discovery," tues of the strychnos pseudoquina, as * says the Baron, “ of the true cin- a febrifuge, are found not to be inchona in the eastern part of South ferior to the best species of the America, far from the Cordilleras, cinchona of the Cordilleras; and must strike those who attend to the though the former has not at Bradistribution of vegetables over the zil entirely superseded the use of surface of the globe, and the geo- imported bark, it may one day be Jogical causes which bave influ. exported to Europe in great quan

enced it. At present not a single tities. d species of cinchona is known to exist, M. Vauquelin has analyzed the not even the existema, either in the strychnos, and found in it a pecumountains of Silla de Caraccus, liar acid, but neither brucia quinina, where the befaria, the aralia, and nor any of the poisonous principle the thibaudia, and other mountain found in the strychnos nux vomica. plants of New Grenada grow, or in It was before known that strychnos the wooded mountains of Caripe or potatorum was destitute of this deof French Guiana. This total want leterious principle, and that the

of the cinchona and exoslema genders pulp of the fruit of the nux vomica Jon the table land of Mexico, and might be eaten without any danger, tu on the eastern parts of South Ame- The various parts of a plant do not t, riça, north of the equator, is more all contain the same principles, and

surprising, because the Antiles are if in the same family of plants, in not destitute of species of bark the same gender, and in plants of t trees. The quinina of the Cordil- an analogous structure, we do not - Jeras does not extend further east find very striking chemical differ

in the northern hemisphere than the ences, it must be recollected that

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