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such anomalies are more apparent content in their hearts. It is well than real; for, according to the known that the same law applies experiments of M. M. Gay Lussac to animals as well as men; and dog and Thenard, on vegetable che- will only eat dog when he is on the mistry, the same elements, with point of starving. A French author, very small variations of proportion, M. Noble, has lately shown that are differently grouped, and pro- the same fact is true of leeches. As duced different combinations, the long as these little water serpents effects of which on the nervous can find the blood of man or beast system may be diametrically op-' to suck, they live in great harmony posite. .

with one another, go on depositing BATTLES AND LOVES OF their eggs, and propagating their LEECHES.

kind, nine, ten, eleven, and even as MANKIND are more indebted to many as fourteen in a family.the labours of the husbandman Wben, however, they have exthan they in general confess: for hausted their stock, like the Irish, not only their comforts but their they turn on one another, and, like morality depends on his exertions. cannibals, feed on their own dead. It is found by experience, that ho. “ Among the causes (says this manity and hanger cannot exist physician) which augment very together; and in spite of the tirades much the mortality of leeches, must of ascetic philosophers against en be placed those battles (of course joyment, it is clear that full bellies they are naval battles, though the are the great source of peace and physician has not described their love and good-will amongst men. Nelson or their Van Tromp,) which it is quite a mistake to suppose they fight when they are too nuthat CANNIBALS eat their brother merous in the same vessel, or when men out of pure love to human

ove to human their food is not sufficient; the weakflesh, and a natural delight in est fall, and the others feed on them. cruelty. They only do it as the To obviate this inconvenience, it half-starved sow is known to feed was found only necessary to place on her young-out of hunger; and them in a large reservoir, supplied wherever they can find somewhat with a stream of fresh water. to satisfy this craving, though it be - When the winter came, like by toils and dangers, amidstquaking Laplanders, they buried themice-bergs, like those of the Esqui selves in the mud; and · when maux, and though their food be the returning warmth of spring only whale blubber, they prefer this brought them forth, they were atto steeping their hands in human tended with a great number of blood." The effect of full bellies in young ones. Holes were found in promoting harmony and tranquil- the sides of the reservoir, and in lity is wonderfully apparent at each of these there was deposited present in this country. We now a cocoon of an oval form, and as and then feel a little puff of reli- large as the cocoons of the silkgious discord, but the fierce spirit worms. They were of the texture of sectarianism is gone to sleep in outside, and had the appearance of the lap of animal indulgence. very fine sponge. Several of them Radicalism and terrorism have were opened; some were found both been choked by cheap bread; empty, and their interior was comand it is plain, if there were plenty pact and polished, as if covered with of potatoes and rags in Ireland, a coat of varnish; others were filled we should hear nothing of either with a transparent and homogeOrange or Catholie Associations, neous jelly. In the most advanced, White-boyism, Blue-boyism, and nine, ten, and even fourteen young the otler isms and schisms of that leeches were found."- Bulletin des unhappy land. All have their origin Sciences Teciinologiques. in the people having incautiously To Correspondents in our next. multiplicd faster than the mur-. London: Published by Knight and LAphies; and the emptiness of their, CEY, 55, Paternoster-row.-Printed by stomachs is the cause of the disc . B. Bensley, Bolt-court, Fleet-street,


* W W or Search, undismayed, the dark profound

* Where Nature works in secret; trace the forms

Of atoms, moving with incessant cl alla Their elemental round; behold the seeds alis e Of being, and the energy of life,

Kindling the mass with ever-active flame;
Then say if naught in these external scenes

Can move thy wonder? "
No. XVIII.] SATURDAY, JULY 10, 1824.

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i t poim but fluoric acid, particularly if a It is then slowly beated in a com little nitric acid is added, speedily vered platinum crucible, till it is dissolves it. Silicum does not de- made red hot; the bydrogen com, compose nitre, unless exposed to bines with the oxygen, and the an intense heat; but it detonates silicum will no longer burn in oxwith carbonate of potash at a red ygen, while chlorine attacks it raheat. When silicum is heated with pidly. The small quantity of silica saltpetre, and a piece of dry carbo. produced may be dissolved by nate of soda is plunged in the mix. fluoric acid. If the silicum has ture, a detonationimmediately takes not been strongly heated, as the place. By passing the vapour of acid dissolves it, a slow disengage sulphur over red hot silicum, the ment of hydrogen gas takes place. metal' becomes quickly incandes. According to my experiments, si,, cent. When the combination is lica must contain 0.52 of its weight complete, which rarely happens, of oxygen, Zirconium is obtained the resulting substance is of a in the same manner. It is black white earthy appearance, and de- as charcoal, is not oxidated either composes water with extreme ra-' by water or muriatic acid, but aquai pidity, Water dissolves the silica, regia and fluoric acid dissolve it,1 and stlphúretted hydrogen gas is and with the last, hydrogen gas is cooled. By this means, a solution disengaged. It burns at a low temo of sifica may be obtained so highly perature with great intensity, It concentrated, that during the eva. combines with sulphur, forming a poration it coagulates, and deposits'' brown chesnut coloured substance, portions of this earth in the forni of insoluble in muriatic acid and in transparent masses, like gum. alkalies, but which burns with When silicuret of potassium is splendour, forming sulphurous acid heated with sulphur, it burns rai. and zirconia.” į pidly, and leaves, when dissolved, the silicon in a state of purity. In .:" " QUERIES. chlorine, silicum takes fire at a red MR. EDITOR, - If the following heat;'a liquid, colourless, or slight- be suitable for your pages, I shall ly tinged with yellow, results, ex-. . be obliged by their speedy insertremely volatile, havinig the odour tion." Ist. What is the best method of cyanogen, and which, with water, of obtaining sulphur from native deposits silica in the form of jelly, sulphuret of iron, i upon a largeb It is very easy to produce silicum. scale, so that sulphuric acid mays The fluates of silica and of potash be obtained from the disengaged or soda, heated to redness, to dis- sulphur, and sulphate of iron from sipate the water, is introduced into the residue?

rupe a glass tube, closed at one end. 2d. What is the best method tolSmall pieces of potassium are then" obtain carbonate of ammonia from put in, which are mixed with the the ammonia disengaged during thea powder, by heating them till the manufacture of coal gas? Sim 1082 metal melts, and by lightly striking In reading your Analysis of the tube. Apply thc lieat of a lamp, Scientific Journals for May, I per and before a ted heat is obtained, ceive you have made some obser: a detonation takes place, and sili. vations on an article.in the Annals con is reduced. It is allowed to “Remarks on Solar Light and Heat, a cool, and then washed with water by Baden Powell, M.A.” With as long as any thing is dissolved. the import of those remarks I corAt figst hydrogen gas is set at li, dially agrce; but as the subject is berty, because silicuret of potas, of great importance, being lioonet sium is obtained, which cannot nected with most of the phenomena i exist in water. The substance of nature, and is capable of res! washed is a hydroguret of silicum, ceiving further elucidation from whịch, burns with rapidity în ox- the luminous rays which are every in ygen.gas at a red heat, though the, where emanating from the orbs of up silicum is not completely oxidated. reason, I request you will not dis

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miss the subject from the pages of What melbod is best adapted to the Chemist without sonie further obtain acetate of tin, upon an exremarks: and as none of the pre- tensive scale and at a cheap rate? vailing theories that I am ac

JUVENIS. quainted with on this subject are - satisfactory, or reconcilable with

Mr. Editor,-I understand that the laws of nature, I propose for

at present there is among fashionyour solution, or that of any of

able people a great rage for bright your correspondents, the following

bay horses, and that horses of this questions:-- Is the sun the primary

colour fetch a much higher price: or secondary source of light; or, than of any other., Jockies, Sir, in other words, is light emitted or

are knowing kiddies; and it is reflected from the sun ?-Does heat

said, that some of them have found proceed from the same source, and

out a means of colouring horses of in the same manner??

a most beautiful bright bay. Is solar light different in its na

its na- have frequently read of washes to

have frea ture from the light emitted during make ladies' hair of different. cors combustion, animal decomposition, lours; and have heard, even of a electricity, percussion, and fric- learned professor in a celebrated tion ? An'answer to all or any of

university of the north, having carr: the above questions, with any fur- ried this art so far, that he appears ther remarks upon the same sub- before, his admiriog pupils with jeét, will greatly oblige,

his hair stained of a different cor; to Your humble servant !

lour almost every day. To such agus and well wisher, : is itt

perfection has he attained, that is . I JUVENIS.

there is no colour, it is said, from Etand, Yorkshire, June 20.

the bright sandy locks of his own P.S. Since writing the above, a

country-women to the blackesti friend of mine, a reader of the

shade of the African wool, includ-, Chemist, has requested me to in ing all the varieties of purples and sert the following, hoping you will pinks which he cannot imitate. I favour them with a place in your beg, Sir, through the medium of pagesii


your entertaining miscellany, to ins: What are the changes that take quire of your numerous readers, 1 place in a woad vat, by which the the best means of colouring hair, u deoxidation of the indigo is effected,

whether of horses, of women, or of: and what are the new compounds

professors; and at the same time, wbich are formed ? ;*

I should wish to learn the best Whence is it that fine wool, means of ascertaining whether the Spanish and Saxony, for instance, colour of their hair is the work of should take more indigo than the

art or of nature. One would not wool grown either in the north or

wish, Sir, to be taken in, either by. south of England, to dye it the

the cupidity of jockies, the petita same shade? 106,

610 viti; maitreism of professors, or the cony to trikat. Thus A DYER. quetry of ladies. : ! ha pillaga

in ' I am, Sir, i dati Ishall be very glad to see in the

Your obedient servant, bus Chemist, as soon as convenient, an article on distillation, giving a de--,

Fri i ! non PRISMA

mtrait! scription of the most approyed TO PRESERVE GRALN. ! ) stills and lutes. av 11 2 2011 lo t . The reason why a people (whơ.

Perhaps our Correspondent A: D., of live chietly on potatoes are subject, A. the distillery at Wandsworth, would'fa- i like the Irish, to severe vicissitudes d vour: Warwith some information on this * of famine, and of monientary plenty: 2 subjecta, We are slow to engage in it is, that the crop will scarcely keeps ourselves, because we know that a neigh, fo'n boorthy nation has recently made some

from harvest to barvest, aud there w discoaires with which we care pot ac. is no means of preserving it, so ago quainted ED. 11071 . I 1961 * to nako tlle exuberances of one -zib jon lliw por tegupsil TOCA 91 Dubbio

r u ojon ai nusilia season compensato the deficiency method than that recommended by of another. In this point of view, Count Dejean. 3, this.34 bits wheatand grains of all kinds, whieho can be kept for two or three years, EXTRAORDINARY FALL OF are much the most valuable arti- ;THE BAROMETER. 135 cles of food. Whatever serves, The journals of Germany retherefore, to preserve grain in a mark an extraordinary fall of the state of perfection, tends to equalize barometer on January 23d, 1824. the quantity of food which can be On that day it stood at 26° 11' at obtained every year, and thus to Lcipsic, it having been (says the relieve society from the alternate Journalist) only three times as low, vicissitudes, which the seasons namely, in 1799, 1782, and 1783, bring, of dearth and plenty. There during the whole of the eighteenth are also, probably, few of our century. On referring to the mereaders wbo have not seen those teorological journals kept in Engimmense granaries on the borders land and France, we observe, that of the Thames, in which, when in both these countries also the grain is stored up, it has to be fre- barometer stood very low on the . quently moved and turned, at a same day. By the meteorological considerable expense, to preserve diary given in the Quarterly Jourit. Under these points of view, nal of Science, it appears to have it appears of some importance to been at 289 70'; and by the meteoknow how to preserve grain in the rological observations in the Angreatest perfection, and at the least nales de Physique et Chimie, it stood expense. In many parts of the at 730° 71', being in both cases conContinent, this is done by depo. siderably the lowest of the month, siting it in holes constructed in the and much below the average of the earth for this purpose; and this year. At Paris and Leipsid the has always been done on the idea wind was S.W.; at Althorpe, in that if air and moisture could be Northamptonshire, W.S.W. and completely excluded, the grain N.W., and it rained somewhat might be preserved for any length both at Paris and Leipsic, of time. It has, in fact, long been misi known that grain or flour so stowed POISON OF THE UPAS TREE. in casks as to be perfectly air-tight, The poison of the upas tree has has been preserved for years un lately been subjected to analysis altered. Under the influence of by Messrs. Pelletier and Caventou. this same idea, in 1819, the Count It appears there are two species of Dejean, according to the Annales the upas poison; one is the prode Chimie, caused some casks to be duce of a plant, called by M. Lemade, which were covered with schonaut, strychnos ticute; the other, lead, and into which grain of dif- the terrible upas tree, is called the ferent kinds, properly dried, was anthiaris tóxicuria. These chemists put, and then the casks were here have made experiments on both metically sealed. They were open- poisons, and state the following ed at the end of three years, and facts as the result: The poisonous the grain found to be in a perfect principle of the strychnos tieute" is state of preservation. As grain in that alkali which has before been this state sustains no loss, and re- detected in the strychnos nur vomiča, quires no attention, it is supposed and to which these chemists give that the expense of the casks and the name of strychnia. From the Fof the lead will not be equal to the upas they obtained it very pure;

cost of preserving 'grain not so and half a grain of it, diluted with guarded. There can be no doubt water, injected into the pleurd of

of the accuracy of the principle on 'à rabbit, destroyed the animal at ** which this process proceeds; and the end of fifteen seconds, by one has little doubt, we believe, that in terrible attack of tetanos! A quar

this country it might be brought. ter of a grain dissolved in difated

into practice by some still cheaper acetic acid, given to another rabPRVO


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