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DICTIONARY OF CHEMISTRY. Bitter PRINCIPLE. The name

BENZOIN, benjamin, styrax, benzoe. given by chemists to a substance Names given to the tree from which extracted from several vegetables, the benzoic acid is obtained. It such as coffee, coculus indicus, &c. exudes in the form of a thick white &c., distinguished by the intensity balsam.

of its bitter taste, but variously Beryl, aqua marina. A precious modified, according to the plant stone, composed of 68 silica, 15 from which it is procured. alumina, 14 glucina, 1 oxide of BitTeẢN. The water which reiron, 2 lime. It is harder than the mains after salt has been obtained emerald, and differs from it some-, from it. what in colour.

Bitumen. A general name for BezOARDIC. The name at first a class of inflammable mineral sub given to uric acid.

stances, some of which are fluid, BEZOARS. Concretions found as naphtha, petroleum, Barbadoes in the stomachs of animals, and tar, &c.; and some solid, as as formerly supposed to have great phaltum or mineral pitch, mineral medical virtues. They are of seve-tallow, and elastic bitumen or miral kinds, and some which the neral caoutchouc, &c. 'n king of Prussia sent to Bonaparte; BLACK JACK, mock lead. An ore · were found by Berthollet to be of zinc. woody fibres agglomerated.

BLACK LEAD, pluinbago, graphite. BIHYDROGURET OF CARBON, car- A well-known mineral substance, buretted hydrogen, heavy inflammable consisting of 91 carbon and 9 iron. air. A compound of carbon and BLACK WADD. An ore of manhydrogen.. **

ganese. BIHYDROGURET or Phospho BLEACHING. The chemical art RUS, phosphuretted hydrogen. by which various substances used

Bildstein, figure stone, agalma- for clothing, food, and other purlolite, which see.....

poses, such as wax for candles, Bile. A bitter yellowish liquid, are rendered white..... !? secreted by animals; and, it is sup- .posed, from the venous blood. It CURIOUS EXPERIMENTS. is chiefly composed of, in 1100 IN 1778, Herrissant, a French phis parts, 1000 water, from 2 to 10 yel- losopher, enclosed three toads in low insoluble matter, 42 albumen, boxes, and covered the boxes with 41 resin, 5,6 soda, 45 phosphates plaster of París, to the complete of soda and lime, sulphate and mu- 'exclusion of air. He then deposits riate of soda, and oxide of iron. ed the boxes at the Academy of

"BILIARY CALCULT, gullstones. Sciences, at Paris, and in 18 Secretions formed in the gall blad- months afterwards they were open, der, or in the duct through wbich ed. Two of the toads were found the gall passes into the intestinal living, and one dead. Unfortul canal. There are several species, nátely, the dimensions of the boxes which are named according to their have not been recorded. Dr. Edconstituent parts. "

wards, from whose writings we have BIRDLIME. A peculiar vegetable taken this account, lately made principle which exudes naturally some experiments of a similar når from several plants, and is also ture; and he seems to have proved made from several, in this country that whatever care may be taken chiefly from bolly, has received the completely to bury a toad in plast name of birdlime.al 3 ton onth 0 ter. the air will penetrate : that it

BISMUTH. A peculiar metal, of is transmitted through the material a reddish white colour. ibaia, which is probably also the case N , BUTTER OF, chloride of when toads have been known to

12° live enclosed in stones and wood; MAGISTERY OF, nitrate and that when these babitlalgiaré of bismuth,

completely excluded from the arty Bistre. A brown paint, pres by the interpositions of waters of pared from soot

mercury, they speedily die,

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MANUFACTURE OF SULPHU- leaden boilers, and then concenCigor RIC ACID.

trated in glass retorts, ranged, as alba (FRENCH METHOD.)

many as 20 or 30, in rows, and all . (From the Dictionnaire Technologique heated by the same fire. The re

des Arts et des Metiers.) :sult of all these proceedings was to The principles of this method obtain from 150 to 200 parts of are the same as those of the me, sulphuric acid, of the specific grathod followed in England; but vity of 1.845 for every 100 of sulsome of the details seem different, phur employed, and very often the though we will not decide that they operation entirely failed. Afterare superior. Forty years ago, we wards the chariots were done away, are told, sulphuric acid was manuand an immoveable furnace confactured in France in a very im- structed under the chamber. (This perfect manner. The process then is the first decided difference we find consisted in shoving into a chamber between the English and French lined with lead, containing from methods.) The plate on which the five to ten thousand cubic feet, an sulphur was burnt was heated by iron chariot, carrying a capsule an exterior fire, and the mixture of of cast metal full of burning sul- 100 parts sulphur to 10 or 12 saltphur, the combustion of which was petre could be regulated and fed at promoted by a portion of nitre, pleasure by means of a small door amounting to 10, 15, or even 20, in for this purpose. A hole, two the hundred. When it was supposed inches above the level of the sulthat the combustion was complet phur, permitted a constant ingress ed, and that the acid formed had of air, and a chimney at the other been condensed by the water, the extremity created a draught which door was opened atwhich the chariot carried off the uncondensed gases, had been introduced, it was taken In damp weather particularly, they out to clear away the residuum, fell all around, and destroyed all again loaded, and the operation yegetation in a pretty extensive repeated. The acid obtained was circle. Some acid was always left evaporated and concentrated in in the chamber, and as more was vib ylibsega podt 109191

JOok (LOXT 69189

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knowo cause of vision, and which step beyond this fact. That what has for us no other properties what causes vision also causes this ever than the single one of making greater heat in the black than the us see. Light is something in per- white, is by no means proved, fect harmony with the structure We remarked, in speaking of the of our eyes, is adapted to them, former part of Mr. Powell's paper, and, as we know by the blind, that the sun's rise above the hohas no action whatever for us but rizon and the spread of light were through the instrumentality of our coincident, while the heating eforgan of vision. To call it a sub- fect of the sun was not brought stance is only an example of an into action for hours. Even in Mr. eagerness to account for pbeno- Powell's experiments, the white mena before they are accurately and black surfaces, the reflection observed. There is, however, no from which caused different deoccasion for this, as the wisest of grees of heat, were instantaneously philosophers and most enlightened seen, while the expansion of the observers, they who have pushed mercury in the thermometer, taken their inquiries furthest, and pryed, as the evidence of heat, was not most deeply into the wonders of complete for a minute. We rethe goodly imagery around us all, peat, then, when effects are not agree, that wherever our researches coincident in time, and are so permay stop, the last fact we can fectly distinct as sensations of heat ascertain will be as much replete and sensations of sight, which every with wonder, and as much, or indecd child distinguishes, that it is at infinitely more demand an expla- least a hasty explanation to ascribe nation, than those facts we now them both to the same cause. For endeavour to explain. If this is our parts we are willing to admit necessarily to be the end of our re- that both are caused by the san; searches, as every man of sense . but that there is an intervening knows that it must, why should substance, called light, transmitted we jump to it, by inventing expla- from the sun, possessing we know nations, past all the phenomena not what sort of properties, but which lie between our first concep. producing both sensations of heat" tions and this ultimate conclusion? and of sight, seems to us one of We wish particularly to caution those useless inventions with which our readers against the very ge- learned men have in all ages en-: neral mistake of supposing that cumbered the beautiful simplicity, a phenomenon is explained when- and have not explained the pheno ever it receives a name. In almost mena of the universe. d eliline every branch of science we find . A paper by Sir H. Davy is taken curiosity satisfied, and researches from the Philosophical Trapsaestopped by the invention of some tions, and its substance has already pretty sounding noun substantive, appeared in some weekly publica on which the mind reposes as if tions. Then comes an analysis of nothing further were to be learned. the metal of a statue found at Calling light a substance gives un- · Lillebonne, which seems published necessary complication to the phe solely for the purpose of paying a'! nomena, at the same time that it compliment to Sir Humphrey, by checks research by begetting a contrasting his views with those of notion that the matter is already M. Vauquelin, and showing that explained. Mr. Baden Powell has the oxidation of the metal of this only in this respect adopted the statue was occasioned by its having general opinion, and has advanced been gilded. The gold and the nothing new. It has been stated copper having formed, with the over and over again, that black moisture of the earth, a voltaie cira surfaces, exposed to the sun, grow cuit, and thus promoted the oxidat hotter than white ones, and we do -tion of the copper. This is a cond? not see that Mr. Powell, in his jecture of M. Labilardiere, and is elaborate paper has gone a single .very ingenious, particularly as cor! roborating and corroborated by in Germany. There is a paper by the late experiments of SirH. Davy. Dr. Prout, on the acid sometimes In another part of the Annals this found in the stomach, which has subject is again alluded to. We already appeared in the periodipublished in The Chemist, No. V., cals; an account of a rain gauge, a letter, disputing in some mea- an analysis of baryto.calcite, and sure the merit of Sir H. Davy, as an astronomical paper, by Colonel to the discovery of his nethod of Beaufoy. There is no plate; the preserving copper sheathing; but scientific notices are all old; and we accompanied that letter by the greater part of the articles are some remarks, to show, even if the mere reprints from other works. patentee there mentioned had an. Every paper, however, is the proticipated Sir H. Davy, which we duction of some person who writes did not believe, the value of the a great many letters after his name, application by the latter gentle- and the editors take special care man was not diminished, and the to inform the world that both are principles which led him to it were F.R.S. L, and E. F.L.S., &c., as if certainly not known to the other. they supposed learned titles were Mr. Children, in the present Num- a security against dulness and igber of the Annals, reverts to this norance, and that the world would letter, not, however, as it appeared believe, because a man was adin The Chemist, but in a cotempo-, mitted among the oligarchs of rary publication, and hastens, with science, that he was both wise and considerable zeal and warmth, to witty. uphold the extraordinary morit of the President of the Royal Society, TO PREPARE CITRIC ACID. of wbich Mr. Children is a member. We have a very high respect

R; ACIDUM CITRICUM. for the illustrious President; but To a pint of lemon juice add as among his partisans, and followers, much prepared chalk (about an those who belong to his scientific ounce) as will be sufficient to satusect, and look up to him and his rate the juice; mix them, and then Society for approbation and sup- pour off the fluid; wash the citrate port, there is a narrow and jealous of lime which remains repeatedly apprehension of all other scientific with water; then dry it." After. men Sir H. Davy's merits are so wards pour nine fluid ounces of great, that they can only be exalted diluted sulphuric acid upon the by just comparisons; and it is both dried powder; boil for ten minutes; unwise and harsh in those who are press the liquor strongly through immediately connected with him, a linen cloth, and filter it through to show such a feverish anxiety to paper. Evaporate the clear fluid maintain his superiority. The Pre- with a gentle heat, so that as it sident must at least be considered cools, crystals may form. Toʻrenas having been born at a very for- der them pure, dissolve them a tunate period, as it gave him an second and a third time in water; opportunity, which he has well em- filter the solution through paper, ployed, of applying an important and set by to crystallize.-Pharmadiscovery, made by others. The copæia."

PROFI electricity, and the instruments by which he has risen to fame, do not

GUM MAKES OIL UNITE bear the name of Davy, but of

WITH WATER. VOLTA and GALVANI.

It is said that dried gum, soaked There are two papers by Mr. in oil, makes the latter unite readily Gray, on the Classification of In- with water. This takes place even seçts ; two by Berzelius, the Swe. by pouring oil into a mortar, adddish chemist, one on Silica, the ing water; then 'throwing in gum substance of which has already arabic, in powder, and shaking or

appeared in The Chemist; and on stirring the mixture well. Bulletin : the Mineral Waters of Carlsbad, des Sciences Technologiques.

DICTIONARY OF CHEMISTRY. BITTER PRINCIPLE. The name

Benzoin, benjamin, styrax, benzoe. given by chemists to a substance Names given to the tree from which extracted from several vegetables, the benzoic acid is obtained. It such as coffee, coculos indicus, &c. exudes in the form of a thick white &c., distinguished by the intensity balsam.

of its bitter taste, but variously Beryl, aqua marinn. A precious modified, according to the plant stone, composed of 68 silica, 15 from which it is procured. alumina, 14 glucina, 1 oxide of Bitten. The water which reiron, 2 lime. It is harder than the mains after salt has been obtained emerald, and differs from it some- from it. what in colour.

Bitumen. A general name for BEZOARDIC. The name at first a class of inflammable mineral subgiven to uric acid.

stances, some of which are fuid, BEZOARS. Concretions found as naphtha, petroleum, Barbadoes in the stomachs of animals, and tar, &c.; and some solid, as as. formerly supposed to have great phaltum or mineral pitch, mineral medical virtues. They are of seve- tallow, and elastic bitumen or mi. ral kinds, and some wbich the neral caoutchouc, &c. . king of Prussia sent to Bonaparte; BLACK JACK, mock lead. An ore were found by Berthollet to be of zinc. woody fibres agglomerated. . BLACK LEAD, pluinbago, graphite.

BIHYDROGURET OF CARBON, car. A well-known mineral substance, buretted hydrogen, heavy inflammable consisting of 91 carbon and 9 iron. air. A compound of carbon and BLACK WADD. An ore of manhydrogen. .

ganese. *

mei is en BiHYDROGURES or PhosPHO- BLEACHING. The chemical art RUS, phosphuretted 'hydrogen.

by which various substances used Bildstein, figure stone, agalma- for clothing, food, and other purlolite, which see..

poses, such as wax for candles, Bile. A bitter yellowish liquid, are rendered white. ..! Best 17 secreted by animals; and, it is sup- posed, from the venous blood. It CURIOUS EXPERIMENTS. is chiefly composed of, in 1100 IN 1778, Herrissant, a French phis parts, 1000 water, from 2 to 10 yel- losopher, enclosed three toads in low insoluble matter, 42 albúmen, boxes, and covered the boxes with 41 resin, 5,6 soda, 45 phosphates plaster of Paris,' to the complete of soda and lime, sulphate and mu- exclusion of air. He then deposits riate of soda, and oxide of iron. S ed the boxes at the Academy of

BILIARY CALCULT, gullstones. Sciences, at Paris,' and in 18 Secretions formed in the gall blad- months afterwards they were open der, or in the duct through wbich ed. Two of the toad's were found the gall passes into the intestinal living, and one dead. Unfortuu canal. There are several species, nately, the dimensions of the boxes which are named according to their have not been recorded. Dr. Bdconstituent parts.

wards, from whose writings we have BIRDLIME. A peculiar vegetable taken this account, lately made principle which exudes naturally some' experiments of a similar nat from several plants, and is also ture'; and he seems to have proved made from several, in this country that whatever care may be taken chiefly from bolly, has received the completely to bury a toad in plasa name of birdlime

tado A0 ter. the air will penetrate that lit Bismuth. A peculiar metal, of is transthitted through the material a reddish white colour:

which is probably also the case Butter of, chloride of when toads have been known to bismuth, 12 t , cuoride of

$41 live enclosed in stones and wood, MAGISTERY OF, nitrate and that when these banimalsime

completely excluded from the safety Bistre Abrown paint, pres by the interposition of water of pared from soot.

mercury, they speedily die,

of bismuth, MA ISTERYO

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