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cooling, or requires to heat it. It CARBON, pure charcoal. An elehas been ascertained that almosť mentary substance.' every body with which the experiment has been made differs from every other in this respect, and POTATOES A SUBSTITUTE therefore all bodies have a specific

. .. FOR SOAP., caloric which may be expressed . It is stated in the Bulletin Techwith relation to water. The other nologique, that potatoes, threeterms have all been applied to this fourths boited, employed instead difference of capacity in bodies for of soap, are more efficacious heat, but specific caloric is now the than it in cleansing clothes of phrase most generally adopted. all descriptions. They are used - CALORIMETER. An instrument as soap, and the clothes are for measuring the heat given out otherwise washed in the same by a body in cooling ; both ice and manner, though without employing water are employed, and the latter any alkali. This will, however, be is now preferred, but originally the of little use in England, where first alone was used.'

washing by steum is growing fa:: Cameleon Mineral. A curious shionable. By the bye, we wonder

substance, so named from the the washerwomen of the kingdom changes which take place in its have not united to petition Parliacolour, and formed by fusing an ment against the new Steam-washalkali with black oxide of manga: ing Company. Were this laudable nese.

body properly represented in par-CAMPEACHY WOOD, logwood. A liament, the trade of the wash-tub well-known dye.

could not be thus injured with imCAMPHOR. A white concrete punity. We are afraid our publisubstance, resembling spermaceti cation is not much studied by in appearance, but having a strong, them; but if the ECONOMIST were lively, acrid taste. It is obtained under our direction,' we should from the roots, wood, and leaves certainly rouse these much-injured of two species of laurel which grow women to take care of their own in the eastern part of the world. interest. It is used chiefly in medicine. 1 ;

CAMPHORATEs. Salts composed 'of camphoric acid and a base, of. TO CORRESPONDENTS. which nothing is known.

We are glad to see the hand-writing CAMPHORIC ACID. "A peculiar

D. A pecuniar, again of our friend The Chemist, and acid obtained from camphor.'I

congratulate him on his return.... CANNON METAL.' An alloy of 100 parts copper and 10 or 12 of Mr. Thompson is informed, that we tin. , . . .

.

. know of no, book like the one he men: CANTHARIDIN. A name given to tions ; and that, in no treatise on disa the peculiar substance extracted tillation, with which we are acquainted, from cantharides, or Spanish flies, iş any thing suid of the subject on which which excites blisters when ap.; he requires information. He will find plied to the skin.. ,

isomne observations in all chemical: treu:CAOUTCHOUC, India rubber. Elas-: tises, but there is no separate work on tic gum. Is the dried juice of some this particular branch. He should, plants, such as the jätropa elasticu, however, rather apply to his own bookwhich grow in hot climates. It is seller than to us. ' a very useful substance, and from ;** Communications (post paid) to the late improvements in the ma-' be addressed to the Editor, at the Pubnagement of it, promises to be of lishers'. still greater service in the arts.

MINERAL. A substance resembling India rubber, London

resembling India rubber. London: Published by KNIGHT and LAfound in Derbyshire...

CEY, 55, Paternoster-row.-Printed by "B. Bensley, Bolt-court, Fleet-street,

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1 91** Search, undismayed, the dark profound

Where Nature works in secret ; trace the forms

Of atoms, moving with incessant change
BW Their elemental round; behold the seeds

Of being, and the energy of life, .

Kindling the mass with ever-active flame; going

Then say if nought in these external scenes '10 a nd can move thy wonder ?

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s t CONTENTS.
Nurse of the

520 Cheap Soup-making Pot .......... 417 Fragrant Lamps..... : Inflammation of Sulphuretted Hy- Distinction of Positive and Negative

drogen Gas ..... ........ 419 Electricity .... Analysis of Scientific Journals. An.it Preservation of Seeds ...........

nals of Philosophy for September ib. Natural Carbonate of Soda ........ ib. Unequal Distribution of Heat in the Coloured Flames........

Prismatic Spectrum ............ 421 To make and destroy Colours...... *Conversion of Honey into Sugar .. 422 Descriptive History of the SteamAttraction of Particles of Gases...

Engine..... To freeze one Liquid and boilanother Hydrocyanic, or Prussic Acid...... 428 by the same means ............4 423 Dictionary of Chemistry ..

430 Queries ....... ib. Spawning of Salmon...

431 Electricity by Water freezing ...... ib. Musical Fish ........

432 To determine Specific Gravities ib. Effect of Oxygen on Glow-worms.. ib.

CHLAP SOUP-MAKING POT. ing that to drinking soup, it can be

If the English were only half to us only of trifling advantage; such a soup-loving people as the still, as there may be economy in French, we should think the follow- its use, we shall give a short deing invention of M. Lemaire's of scription of what he calls a catéfacadmirable utility. As we, however, teur. Our plate represents a verfrom having good beef, prefer eat- tical section of this apparatus ;

ABCD is an external cylindrical a fire with a small quantity of char. vessel soldered to an internal one coal on the hearth, eg, and then of the same shape, which it com- put in the interior vessel, I, which pletely surrounds; and this spe- must not be allowed in the first incies of double vessel is open at the stance to go quite down to its top, while the double plate, which resting place, in order that the forms the bottom, has a hole at H, carbonic acid gas may escape. establishing a communication be- When the water in the inner vessel tween the inner cylinder and the begins to boil, it is to be skimmed, open air. By means of HC, a re- and vegetables and salt added, gister, this hole can be opened and with the other necessary ingreshut at pleasure. The space be- dients to make soup. The vessel tween the two cylinders has only I is then again covered, and allowthree openings, one at K for poured to fall quite down, so as to close ing in water; another at L for al- up the outer vessel, in which it exlowing the escape of the steam, by actly fits. The upper vessel, P, means of the tube L M, which may, will, by this time, be found to have however, be dispensed with, as K lost a portion of water by ebulliwill also serve for the purpose; tion, and this must be replaced. and a third with a cock at B to The register, HC, is pushed home, draw off the water. Another cylin- all access of air is cut off, the fire drical vessel, I, concentric to A, goes out, and the whole is to be but somewhat smaller in diameter, covered with the cloth. At the enters it. Its upper part has a end of six hours the soup or beef rim, and three little, projections tea will be found ready, and the corresponding to three openings in surrounding water will still remain the upper part of A, so that when hot. The advantages of this methese do not correspond, I does thod are, that it extracts all the not sink quite down, and when goodness of the meat without wastthey correspond it does, and com- ing any by too fierce an ebullition; pletely closes A: it reaches only it costs but little, and requires part of the way to the bottom of A. scarcely any care in the cooking. Below it there is placed, about six We can readily conceive, that our lines from the bottom, and nearly soup and mirth-loving neighbours as large as the large vessel, a must prize such an instrument bearth or dish of cast iron, pierced highly: They may sing or dance, with holes, and having its edge or play billiards or cards, while turned up all round. A third cy- thiş pot au feu makes ready their lindrical vessel, P, having a lid, dinner without any concern on enters into the second, and shuts their part. We need not, theretight upon it. AFD is a handle fore, be surprised, that some memby which the whole may be moved, bers of the French Institute should and RSTU is a wadded cloth, have been commissioned by that which serves to wrap up the whole learned body to make a report on and keep in the heat when re- this valuable instrument. For our quired. On filling the space be- parts, having long observed the tween the two concentric parts proceedings of that illustrious body, of the vessel ABCD, the res- we..congratulate them and the sels. I and P with water, and world on this useful employment putting a fire on the hearth, (the of their time. M. Thenard, who capacity of water for heat being has bad his soup made by this invery great) we obtain a large ma- strument for upwards of three gazine of heat, which may be pre- weeks, declares he will taste no served for a considerable time, by soup not made by M. Lemaire's making use of the wadded cloth. calefacteur; and Mr. Thomas Gill, To prepare soup, put the meat and the very illustrious editor of the water in the interior vessel, the Technical Repository, smitten with partition between the exterior one the approbation of this celebrated being also filled with water; make chomist, and the approval of the very learned society just mention their own jadges. Hence it is that ed, has hastened to transplant the we never meet with a doubt excaléfacteur into the pages of that pressed in writing of the superior work. Although he has a great and almost sublime nature of every objection to the exportation of sort and species of book learning. British machinery, he has, appa- Whatever is taken up as an amuserently, a love for the importation ment, as a relief from weariness, of Frenoh soup-kettles. In fact, by those who are both opulent and he has, on this point, outstripped well educated, is raised to the us. We had long ago selected, dignity of a noble task. During from the Dictionnaire Technologique, the period when monasteries exthe present description and plate, isted throughout Europe, in all the as a little article of useful informa- pride of enormous wealth and in tion; though we should never have all the wretchedness of idleness, thought, in imitation of our pomp- their inmates, having neither wives loving neighbours, of calling a nor children to provide for, neither soup-kettle by such a fine name as relations nor friends to interest a calefacteur.

their hearts,-being shut out from

almost all participation in the busiINFLAMMATION OF SULPHU

ness of the world, sought relief from RETTED HYDROGEN GAS

this state of melancholy woe in a BY NITRIC ACID.

variety of literary pursuits; and

much of what they had thus reWhen a few drops of fuming nitric course to as a means of getting acid are put into a flask filled with rid of their heavy hours, they being sulphuretted hydrogen gas, the hy. at the same time almost the only drogen is oxidized by the nitric authors, and some of them the inacid and the sulphur is disengaged structors of youth, came to be conin a solid form. If the flask be sidered, and is still considered, as closed with the finger, so that the science and knowledge. To place gas which becomes heated cannot accurately the emphasis in a line escape, its temperature is raised so of ancient poetry, to ascertain premuch as to produce combustion, cisely the number of its syllables, with a beautiful flame, and a slight to supply the vacancies in dilapidetonation which forces the finger

nch forces the finger dated manuscripts, being probably from the mouth of the flask.

the theory of Greek stops or the This experiment may be made history of some obscare Latin auwithout the least danger, with a thor, were some of the occupations flask containing four or five cubical of the monks, and still continue inches of gas.-Berzelius.

to be taoght as the highest of

ali hunfan attainments in those · ANALYSIS OF SCIENTIFIC worthy representatives and de. JOURNALS.

scendants of the ancient BeneANNALS OF PHILOSOPHY FOR Sep. dictine monasteries, the universiTember.'

ties of Oxford and Cambridge: In Those who have paid any at- our own time we see the pursuits tention to the matter, have long of the opulent and idle raised by ago seen and acknowledged that the praise of literary men to the the great mass of literary and sci- dignity of art, and placed on an entific men form a separate class equality with the most useful in society—that their pursuits are branches of industry. A nobleman never judged of but by themselves- who collects and admires fine picand that they possess the singular tures, or builds a magnificent manadvantage of determining public sion, is a man of taste and learning; opinion as to the value of their and if he collects old books or researches and discoveries. Being black letter prints, and arranges the pen-holders, or secretaries, of them in a showy library, publishsociety, they make it affirm what ing a fine catalogue of them, he is they please. They are themselves probably described as a man of eminent attainments, and as a be- clergyman, to have that honour nefactor to the species. In the conferred on him, which is all we same manner, if a wealthy rector, can bestow on the memory of a disdaining the occupation for which Watt or a Davy. We must prohe is paid, turns over the cure of test, for our parts, against an insouls to his serving man, for a discriminate heaping of eulogies fourth part of his own revenue, on insignificant persons; it tends (pocketing, like an army contractor to confound all correct notions. for bread, all the difference be-, Approbation is the only and the tween what he receives for per- highest reward men can bestow, on -forming a service and what he the most useful virtues; and we must pay another for doing it, and ought, therefore, to be cautious

amuses himself with prying into how we place on the same level · Saxon antiquities, or in endea- those who write trifling papers for

vouring to find out how the world their own amusement, and those was created, he is described not who add to the knowledge and merely as employing his leisure in power of their species. We will an inoffensive mode, but as bene- believe the biographer of Di. fiting mankind by his exertions. Cony beare, that his talents were We have no kind of antipathy to of the first-rate description; and such persons, but we wish them to when this praise is balanced against preserve their proper place in ge- his leisure and what he peformed, neral estimation. They have quite nothing remains worthy of being enough of worldly admiration, and admired and recorded. We canquite enough of worldly enjoyment not, therefore, give any further acfrom their rank and their wealth, count of the first article in the Anwithout the humbler classes of so- nals for September, than to say it ciety, to whose industry and whose is the biography of the Reverend exertions they are indebted for J.J. Cony beare, M, A., M. G.S., their daily bread, being also called &c. &c. i. on to reverence their amusements In truth, the only article which as wisdom, or as intended to im- seems worthy of any notice, as far prove the condition of man. We as utility is concerned, is the 3d, do not wonder that such persons which is by Dr. Bostock, and reand such pursuits should be lauded lates to the “ Applicability of Sir, by those who look up only to this H. Davy's discovery to copper favoured class of society for wealth, vessels employed for culinary pura but we are surprised that a scien- poses.” It is Dr. Bostock's opi. tific journal should devote its pages nion, that though copper is preto the biography of one such cha- served by tin from the action of racter. The Reverend J.J. Cony, acetic acid in the same manner as beare was, it is truc, an occasional it is from that of sea water, yet we . contributor to the Annals of Philo- cannot make use of this principle,

sophy, and his valuable accounts in vessels intended for culinary of "The Greek Fire," and on purposes, in consequence of the “ Newer Red Sand-stone,” being, volatile nature of the acid." as his biographer says, not the re-. The remaining articles, "Herssult of labour, but a mind demand. chel on certain Motions produced ing occupation, have secured for in Fluid Conductors, when trans, him a niche in the immortal temple mitting the Electric Current;" of science, to be formed by the “ Powell on Terrestrial Light and volumes of this work. The Rev. Heat;' “ Berzelius on the. Com, J.J. Cony beare was, according to binations of Acetic Acid with Pera his biographer, a very good sort of oxide of Copper;" “Gay Lussac man; but as far as his labours are on the Chloride of Lime"--are all known to us, we cannot see in too long and too forbiddingly, abai what way he has benefited man- struse and technical for our pages. kind, or deserves, more than any The Reverend Mr. Emmet, "On, other whist-playing or book writing the Combination of Potassium and

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