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water is the natural drink of both, why not give spirits to brutes, as well as to man? No, the effects of spirits on life, are like straw on the fire; they give a flash of heat, and increase one effort of strength, and then leave a person colder and weaker. In the same way it affects digestion: because the stomach has been stimulated once, it craves for stimulants again, and thus is introduced a slavish and unnatural habit. He who drinks grog to-day, will not want it less to-morrow, but on the contrary, indulgence increases desire; the longer he gratifies his propensity, the more difficult will it be for him to subdue it, till finally, the miserable pretext for intemperance will be offered, that to abandon a long continued habit is dangerous to health.
There never was a criminal without an apology; and we are not to expect an exception in the drunkard, though his excuses are too fallacious for any one to make, that has a disposition to reform. In the summer he drinks to keep himself cool, and in the winter to keep himself warm, He pretends to drink for the safety of his health, when he knows that by drinking he is rapidly destroying it. He is the only man who ever thought of taking a second dose of poison for the good of his health, because he had been well nigh killed by the first. These are apologies without reason. Thousands have been destroyed by continuing in intemperance, but seldom or never one by forsaking it. Sailors who have long been in the habit of drinking grog, are often, by misfortunes at sea, deprived of it for months, but who ever knew one to die for want of it?
If you would correct the bad taste of water in the sum
mer, put into it a crust of burnt bread. If you would guard against cold or hunger by drinking, put into water such articles as are known to be nourishing. Drink toast-water, barley-water, or milk and water. Small beer is palatable, and if well made, more nourishing than porter, or strong beer. These are stimulating from the spirit which comes out of the malt, but their most strengthening property is the bitter which is extracted from the hops. Therefore, if you would avoid the expense and frequent evils of the one, and secure the good effects of the other, drink hop-tea; this will strengthen the stomach: and if any one who has been in the habit of drinking a dram every morning, is disposed to leave it off, let him drink instead of it, half a pint of hop-tea, and he will soon have less head-ache, less sweating, less trembling, more strength, a better appetite for food, and more money to buy it with.
But do not flatter yourself that you can reform by drinking less spirit, unless you are determined to drink none. Resolutions on this subject are always drowned in rum; and one glass is enough to effect it: therefore, if you have really a wish to live temperately touch not, taste not, handle not."
To conclude, I have a word to say to one, who when he sees this, will understand whom I mean. He will be too sensible of my anxiety for his welfare to charge these remarks to unkindness. And now, my friend, as you appear to be desirous to live in this world, and to be respected and happy, why will you shorten and disgrace your existence, by intemperate drinking? You are rational on other subjects, but on this you are mad. You would shudder at the ap
proach of a murderer; though thousands are vol untarily destroyed by drinking, where one is killed by the assassin. You would be filled with horror at the sight of a mad dog, though there is more hope for him that is bitten, than for you. You bewail the condition of the sick and hungry, and yet more lives are shortened by intemperate drinking, than by pestilence and famine. You deplore the prevalence of human misery, though this, more than any other cause in existence, increases it. You have had frequent occasions to mourn over the unhappiness of your own family; but what but this besetting sin is the cause of it? But for this, would not your wife be more affectionate and kind? would not your chil dren be more obedient, and yourself more respected? And still are you determined to be a drunkard? No there is one consideration which you cannot disregard, however complacently you may contemplate your own ruin. You are a parent, and you possess natural affections; you love your children, and cannot be indifferent to their happiness and respectability. Although, your drunken propensity may rob them of all your property, do not entail upon them habits that will lead them also to infamy and wretchedness. If they are to have nothing else to commend them to the world, do not deny them the inheritence of moral example. Otherwise their crimes shall become your accusers; and their blood shall be found on your garments; pause therefore, Now, and solemnly determine that you will never again degrade your being, by bewildering your brain with strong liquor.
SAYINGS OF POOR RICHARD.
"I. It would be thought a hard government that should tax its people one-tenth part of their time to be employed in its service: but idleness taxes many of us much more; sloth by bringing on diseases, absolutely shortens life.
Sloth like rust, consumes faster than labour wears, while the used key is always bright,' as Poor Richard says. But dost thou love life? then do not squander time, for that is the stuff life is made of," as Poor Richard says.
"If time be of all things the most precious, wasting time must be," as Poor Richard says, the greatest prodigality!' since, as he elsewhere tells us, Lost time is never found again; and what we call time enough always proves little enough.' Let us then, up and be doing, and doing to the purpose: so by diligence shall we do more with less perplexity. "Sloth makes all things difficult, but industry all easy; and he that riseth late, must trot all day, and shall scarce overtake his business at night; while laziness travels so slowly, that poverty soon overtakes him. Drive thy business, let not that drive thee; and early to bed and early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise," as Poor Richard says.
"So what signify wishing and hoping for better times? We may make these times better, if we bestir ourselves. Industry need not wish, and he that lives upon hope will die fasting. There are no gains without pains; then help hands, for I have no lands; or, if I have, they are smartly taxed. 'He that hath a trade, hath an estate; and he that hath a calling, hath an office of profit and honour.' as Poor Richard says; But then the trade must be worked at, and the calling well followed, or neither the estates nor the office will enable us to pay our taxes. If we are industrious, we shall never starve; for at the working man's house hunger looks in, but dares not enter,' Nor will the bailiff or constable enter; for, industry pays debts, while despair increaseth them.' What, though you have found no treasure, nor has any rich relation left you a legacy, Diligence is the mother of good luck, and God gives all things to industry. Then plough deep while sluggards sleep, and you shall have corn to sell and to keep." Work while it is called to-day, for you know not how mnch you may be hindered to-morrow. 'One to-day is worth two to-morrows,' as Poor Richard says; and farther, Never leave that till to-morrow, which you can do to-day." If you were a servant, would you not be ashamed that a good master should catch you idle ? Are you then your own master? Be ashamed to catch yourself idle, when there is so much to be done for yourself, your family, and your country.
Employ thy time well, if thou meanest to gain leisure; and since thou art not sure of a minute, throw not away an hour." Leisure is time for doing something useful: this leisure the diligent man will obtain, but the lazy man never; for, "A life of leisure and a life of laziness are two things. Many without labour would
live by their wits only, but they break for want of stock;" whereas, industry gives comfort, and plenty and respect. Fly pleasures, and they will follow you. The diligent spinner has a large shift; and now I have a sheep and a cow, every body bids me good-mor row."
"II. But with our industry we must likewise be steady, settled, and careful, and oversee our own affairs with our own eyes, and not to trust too much to others: for, as Poor Richard says,
"I never saw an oft-removed tree,
Nor yet an oft-removed family,
That throve so well as those that settled be."
And again, "Three removes are as bad as a fire:" and again, "Keep thy shop, and thy shop will keep thee :" and again, If you would have your business done, go; if not, send, And again,
"He that by the plough would thrive,
And again, 'The eye of the master, will do more work than both his hands; and again, 'Want of care does us more damage than want of knowledge:' and again, Not to oversee workmen, is to leave them your purse open."
"Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many; for, In the affairs of this world, men are saved, not by faith, but by the want of it" but a man's own care is profitable; if you would have a faithful servant, and one that you like— serve yourself. A little neglect may breed great mischief; for want of a nail the shoe was lost; for want of a shoe the horse was lost; and for want of a horse the rider was lost;' being overtaken and slain by the enemy; all for want of a little care about a horseshoe nail.
"III. So much for industry, my friends, and attention to one's own business; but to these we must add frugality, if we would make our industry more certainly successful. A man may, if he knows not how to save as he gets, keep his nose all his life to the grindstone, and die not worth a groat at last. A fat kitchen makes a lean will;' and
Many estates are spent in getting,
Since women for tea, forsook spinning and knitting,
"Women and wine, game and deceit,
Make the wealth small, and the want great."
And farther, What maintains one vice, would bring up twe children.' It is foolish to lay out money in a purchase of repen tance; many a one for the sake of finery on the back, has gone with a hungry belly, and half starved their families;' • Silks and satins, scarlet and velvets, put out the kitchen fire,' as Poor Richard says. A ploughman on his legs, is higher than a gentleman on his knees,' as Poor Richard says. Always taking out of the meal-tub, and never putting in, soon comes to the bottom,' as