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coast of Greenland, and is also found about Iceland and Spitzbergen in a latitude of 80 degrees. It does not like water above 45 degrees F., and is often found in water at the freezing point, namely, 32 degrees. The halibut is also found on the Pacific coast, especially off Oregon and Washington and in British Columbia and Alaska. It is one of the largest of food fish. The fish weighing about 80 pounds are considered the best for food, although the halibut sometimes reaches a weight of over 500 pounds. The male is always smaller than the female and less palatable. The annual value of the halibut fisheries on the North Atlantic coast is probably million dollars. It is probably slightly more than this on the Pacific coast,-in fact the Pacific coast fisheries have grown so extensively that halibut is shipped eastward across the continent. Vast freight trains known as the "Halibut Express" have been sent across the continent from Vancouver to Boston, making the trip in six or seven days. Composition.

Water,..
Protein,.

HERRING.

Fat,..

Ash,.

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The halibut is a fish containing considerable quantities of fat, and is not so peculiarly nitrogenous in its character as the cod or the haddock. It, therefore, makes a better balanced ration than either of the other fish. The halibut in the fresh state is esteemed fully as highly as the cod, and the halibut steak is a very common part of the fish sold upon the market.

Herring. The herrings form a very important group of fishes belonging to the family Clupeidæ. There are about 30 genera in the family and 150 species. The herrings are essentially salt-water fishes and are usually found. in large schools. Many species, and some of these the most valuable for food, ascend fresh-water streams for spawning. Certain species, for instance, are caught at the same season as the shad in the Chesapeake and Susquehanna. There are a few species which remain permanently in fresh water. The common herring (Clupea harengus) is one of the most important of the food fishes. of the whole Atlantic coast, and really over almost all the north Atlantic, throughout which it is generally distributed. The principal herring fisheries are in the North Sea, in Denmark and Norway. Important fisheries are also found off the coast of Great Britain, Belgium, France, and the United States. It is estimated that as many as three billion herring may be found in a shoal covering a dozen square miles. Herring shoals of much larger extent are on record. The herring do not frequent southern waters, but are found in the cool and more northern waters of the Atlantic. On the coast of the United States it has been found as far south as Cape Hatteras, though it does not

occur very abundantly further south than New England. The fish at the period of spawning are considered the most valuable for food purposes.

The herring is either sold in a fresh state or it may be smoked, salted, or pickled, and in this condition is very extensively used as food. A species of herring is found on the Pacific coast known as California herring (Clupea pallasii). It does not differ very greatly in its general aspect from its relation on the Atlantic coast. This species occurs very abundantly in the region of Puget Sound, especially in summer time, and in southeast Alaska. They are extremely abundant in San Francisco markets in the spring time, so much so that it is difficult to find a sale for them.

The California herring are more highly valued and bring the highest price in the early winter, when they are the fattest. Composition of Herring.

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The above data show that the flesh of herring is particularly rich in fat. In fact the herring is sometimes used as a source of oil. In southeast Alaska are extensive oil and guano works which utilize the herring for these purposes.

Horse Mackerel.-Another species belonging to the mackerel family is the horse mackerel or tuna (Thunnus thynnus), which is found in considerable abundance on our North Atlantic coast and on the coast of southern California. Its common name is "tuna," "tunny,' ," "horse mackerel," or "great albacore." The horse mackerel is a fish of very great size and is the very largest of the whole mackerel family. They occasionally attain a length of 10 feet or more and a weight of 1500 pounds. The average dimensions, of course, are very much less than this. The horse mackerel does not grow so large in Europe or upon the Pacific coast. In these regions a horse mackerel weighing 500 pounds is considered of an extraordinary size. The very large ones are never taken with hook and line, but there are records of fish of over 200 pounds that have been captured in this way.

The Hogfish.-The hogfish of the West Indies and our southern coasts is another of the wrasse-fishes whose scientific name is Lachnolaimus maximus. It is called in Porto Rico "el capitan." It often reaches a weight of 20 pounds and a length of from 2 to 3 feet. The name "hogfish" doubtless is derived from the shape of the head, which resembles somewhat that of the hog. It is valued as a food fish throughout the West Indies.

Lake Herring. The so-called lake herring is very closely related to the whitefish. The name of the species is Argyrosomus artedi. The lake herring has a large number of common names, of which the most widely applied is the term "Cisco." The terms blueback, greenback, and grayback

131

are also applied to these herring. The habitat of this fish is that of the whole region of the Great Lakes and north to Hudson Bay. It has much the same habitat as the whitefish. The average weight of the lake herring is about one pound. The subspecies (Argyrosomus artedi sisco) is found in Lake Tippecanoe and other small lakes in Wisconsin and northern Indiana.

Composition of Cisco.

Water,.
Protein,.

Fat,.

Ash,

MACKEREL.

Water,.

Protein,
Fat,....

Ash,..

FRESH.

76.15 percent
19.12

""

""

3.48

""

1.25

FRESH.

-73.37 percent

66

.18.26

66

66

DRY.

Mackerel. The mackerel is a food fish which is very commonly used in a cured state in the interior of the country and is eaten fresh on the sea coast. Its habitat is principally the North Atlantic ocean. On the coast of the United States it is found from Cape Hatteras north to the Strait of Belle Isle. In Europe it is found from Norway southward to the Mediterranean and Adriatic. The mackerel on the Atlantic coast usually appear first in the spring near Cape Hatteras and following the custom of the shad are found later farther north in the New England states and also in the British possessions. They leave the coast in the inverse order in the autumn, disappearing first in the northern regions and later in the southern portion.

The mackerel is one of the most abundant of fishes in the Atlantic Ocean, traveling in immense schools. There is record of a school which was seen in 1848 which was at least half a mile wide and 20 miles long. In some seasons the mackerel is extremely abundant and in others very scarce. The average catch is probably about 300,000 barrels. Boston and Gloucester are centers of the mackerel fishing industry. It is estimated that from 150 to 300 vessels of American bottoms are engaged in the mackerel industry. The U. S. Bureau of Fisheries has been particularly interested in the propagation of mackerel, but the result has not been as satisfactory as in the case of many other fishes. The young mackerel or small fishes are known as "spikes," "blinkers," and "tinkers." When they are about two years old they measure from 5 to 9 inches in length. The mackerel attains its full size at about the fourth year. The scientific name of the common mackerel is Scomber scombrus Linnæus.

Composition of Mackerel.-Edible portion:

7.09
1.28

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DRY

71.71 percent

24.88
4.78

"C
66

The above data show that the flesh of the mackerel is composed of about two-thirds protein and one-third fat and ash.

Pickled mackerel, salted mackerel, and smoked mackerel are perhaps as highly valued for food purposes as the fresh fish itself.

Menhaden. The menhaden is not used chiefly as a food fish but to some extent therefor. It is one of the most abundant fishes taken upon our Atlantic coast and is used almost exclusively as a source of oil, the residue being dried and ground for fertilizing purposes. In this sense it has great value because of the high nitrogen content of the residue and also of the considerable quantity of phosphoric acid which is contained therein.

The menhaden is known scientifically as Brevoortia tyrannus. Up to 1880 immense quantities of menhaden were taken off the Atlantic coast. Since that time the supply has not been considered so great. In the year 1877 it is stated by Jordan and Evermann that one oil company took 20 million fish and in one town alone, namely Booth Bay, 50 million fish were caught.

The fecundity of the menhaden is very great, exceeding that of the shad. More than 140,000 eggs have been taken from a single fish. The menhaden are not eaten very extensively in a fresh state as food but preserved in salt they have a considerable value for that purpose. An extract has also been made from the flesh of the menhaden on the same principle of manufacture as is utilized in preparation of meat extracts. The menhaden is known under a great number of common names, some thirty of which have been enumerated by Dr. Goode.

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Composition of Menhaden.

Water,.

Fat,

Protein by difference,

The water-free flesh contains (including bones) 21.7 percent of mineral

matter.

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77.15 percent
3.91

66
(c

.18.94

8.67 percent

66

7.78

1.33

1.54

1.02

0.67

0.69

21.70

"

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Mullet. The mullet belongs to the Mugilidæ, an important family of fishes in which there are several genera and species. The mullet is not particular about its food but is in the habit of swallowing large quantities of mud, or rather partially swallowing it and separating the refuse and most obnoxious particles by means of the gills. The common mullet or striped mullet (Mugil cephalus) is a widely distributed species. This fish is common along the Atlantic coast and in Hawaii, usually traveling in large schools, and is most

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133

abundant in the shallow waters of the coast. It sometimes reaches a length of two feet and is an important food fish. The mullet is very abundant on the Florida coasts. While the mullet may be regarded as a scavenger, living principally on mud, it does not eat any other species of fish, but is itself eaten by nearly all fishes that can gain access to it. Composition of the Mullet.

Water,.
Protein,.
Fat,.

Ash,.

Water,..

Protein,.
Fat,....

Ash,.

PICKEREL OR PIKE.

Water,.
Protein,.

FRESH.

74.87 percent
19.32

""

66

4.64

1.17

Fat,.
Ash,..

Muskallunge. A very noted member of this family is the muskallunge (Esox masquinongy). It is a native of the Great Lakes and is especially found in the upper St. Lawrence. It is not a very abundant fish, but is highly prized from the angler's point of view. It is of very great size, having been found as long as 8 feet and weighing over 100 pounds. Two other species of muskallunge are known, one (Esox ohiensis or the Chautauqua muskallunge) in the Ohio river basin, particularly in Lake Chautauqua, where it has been artificially propagated with great success, and the unspotted muskallunge (Esox immaculatus), which occurs sparingly in certain small lakes of northern Wisconsin and Minnesota.

Composition of the Muskallunge.—

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.50 1.18

FRESH.

DRY.

79.68 percent

(6

.18.64

66

""

77.50 percent

66

18.45
4.66

66

The flesh of the muskallunge, as is seen, contains about four times as much fat as that of the pickerel, and forms a ration which is not so unbalanced as that of the pickerel itself.

Pickerel or Pike.-One species (Esox reticulatus) is of common occurrence along the Atlantic coast and also in the fresh-water streams of the southern interior portions of the country. The pike of the Great Lakes belongs to the species Esox lucius Linnæus. It is found in the fresh waters of North America, Europe, and Asia, but is not found on the Pacific coast except in Alaska. It reaches in some cases a large size, having been found as much as 4 feet in length and weighing 40 to 50 pounds. The Kankakee in northern Indiana is a well-known fishing ground for this species of pike.

Composition of Pickerel.-Edible portion:

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