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wild animals. The principal wild animals used for food are the deer, bear, rabbit, and squirrel. Many other wild animals, however, are eaten and in some cases highly prized. In this manual only the principal meat foods both of domesticated and wild animals will be mentioned.

Classification of Meat Food as Respects Age. The edible flesh of domesticated animals as well as of wild animals is eaten both in the young and full-grown state. Common names, however, designate these different classes. For instance, veal in the growing and beef for the full-grown animal, lamb for the young and mutton for the full-grown sheep, pig in the younger and pork in the full-grown swine, etc. There is no legal limit of age for such a distinction, but as long as the animal is not fully grown it may be classified under the name representing the young animal. There is a common understanding, however, that in the case of veal and lamb the animal must be under one year of age and usually not under two nor more than eight months of age. A classification of this kind is so indefinite, however, that no strict definition can be given other than that founded on the general principles above outlined.

Preparation of Animals.-The proper sanitary conditions attending the fattening of animals intended for slaughter are of great importance to the consumer. It is a common understanding that animals intended for slaughter should be plump and healthy. Poor animals, either those which are meager from lack of food or from disease, are to be rigidly excluded from the slaughter pen. Animals intended for slaughter should be fattened under sanitary conditions with plenty of fresh water and fresh air as well as good food. The stalls in which they are fattened should be clean and well ventilated, and the sanitary conditions surrounding them should be such as to exclude contagious and epidemic diseases and provide the most favorable environment for growth and preparation for the market.

It is evident that all these conditions are to be secured by proper inspection of the animals while preparing for the market. The time will, doubtless, soon arrive in this country when the supervision of the preparation of animals for the market, the sanitary conditions under which they live, and the general environment which surrounds them shall be subjects of local, municipal, and state inspection. Since the power of the general government cannot extend to states and municipalities, these corporate bodies should take uniform and scientific action concerning all these matters. National and state conventions of municipal and state sanitary authorities should decide upon uniform systems of inspection and sanitation to which all state and municipal authorities must agree, so that a uniform and effective method of inspection and sanitation will be secured throughout the country.

When animals are transported before slaughter from one state to another the national government is then entitled to inspect and certify respecting the

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condition of the animal thus to be transported from state to state. By thus combining municipal, state, and national inspection the rights of the consumer may be conserved, and this is the only means by which they can be kept inviolate.

TUBERCULOSIS.

It is assumed, therefore, that the animal which has been brought for slaughter has been fattened under proper sanitary conditions, has not been exposed to epidemic or contagious diseases, and outwardly is not afflicted with any disease of its own. Such a healthy animal may then be certified as fattened for slaughter.

Inspection after Slaughter.-The inspection after slaughter is of the utmost importance, not even second to that of the proper inspection during fattening and before slaughter. The veterinarian, skilled in his science, can tell by the inspection of the vital organs of the slaughtered animal whether it is affected with any organic disease. Among cattle the most frequent organic diseases are lumpy jaw and tuberculosis. In the case of swine one of the most common of diseases is trichinosis. In the latter case an inspection of the vital organs of the animal is not sufficient. The muscles of the swine, first and most commonly affected by trichinosis, must be examined microscopically in order to eliminate the possibility of the flesh of such animals going into commerce untagged or unnoticed.

If the flesh of the swine impregnated with trichinosis be thoroughly cooked practically all of the danger to man is eliminated. The consumer, however, should not be subjected to the chance of imperfect cooking. A swine affected with trichinosis should either be refused admission into consumption or should be so tagged that the consumer should know the danger to which he is exposed in order to take the necessary precaution to safeguard his health.

Tuberculosis. There is a difference of opinion among veterinary and hygienic experts respecting the disposition which is to be made of carcasses affected with tuberculosis. It is claimed by some that if the tuberculosis is local, that is, does not extend beyond the lungs, there is no reason why the flesh of the animal should be refused to the consumer. The basis of this contention is founded upon the opinion of some of the most eminent veterinarians that bovine tuberculosis and human tuberculosis are entirely distinct diseases and cannot be transmitted either from the cow to man or vice versa. It is not the province of this manual to decide this controversy, although it is only right that the consumer should be given the benefit of the doubt. Therefore, if the carcass of an animal affected with local tuberculosis is to be passed into consumption it should be plainly marked as the flesh of a tuberculosed animal,-not only the carcass as a whole, but every piece thereof that is introduced into consumption directly or after canning or mincing. The consumer is thus left free to choose for himself whether to eat such meat or not. There is a universal agreement among hygienists and veterinarians

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that where tuberculosis is generalized, that is, has affected practically all the organs of the body, the carcasses should be condemned. No one will take exceptions to this ruling, though it does not appear very plain to the ordinary consumer why a little tuberculosis is not a bad thing if a great deal of it is a very bad thing. There is an unfortunate tendency in many quarters to neglect minute effects and only pay attention to mass action. This does not seem to be a reasonable or desirable method of procedure.

The Right of the Consumer.-In all these cases of post mortem inspection it is the right of the consumer to be informed respecting the condition of the animal admitted to slaughter. Only the undoubtedly sound and healthy carcass should be given a free certificate. The badly diseased carcass should be condemned and refused admission to consumption. If the partially diseased carcass is to be consumed, it should be done under such a system of tagging as will absolutely protect any consumer against the use of the partially diseased carcass without his knowledge.

Summary. The general conclusion reached is that the consumer has the right to protection in the character of food which comes upon his table. This protection begins at the time the animals are being fed for slaughter. It continues during the time the animals are slaughtered and afterwards in the preparation of their carcasses for consumption. It does not end until the meat is delivered to the consumer properly certified as being sound and wholesome and warranted to be free from deleterious coloring matter and preservatives. The consumers of this country can have this protection if they demand it. They outnumber the makers of meat products to such an overwhelming extent as to be able to secure proper legislation, because the manufacturers themselves, as consumers, are equally interested with others in this most important point, and should themselves receive for their families the same protection that the consumer who has nothing to do with the preparation of meat products is entitled to.

Since the above paragraph was written the Congress has provided for a complete inspection of meats as outlined therein.

Slaughter and Preparation of Carcasses. It is not the purpose of this manual to enter into any discussion of the technique of slaughter and preparation of animals whose meat is intended to be eaten. It is believed that in this country the mechanism of this process is very near perfection, and espccially so in the larger establishments where the highest skill is employed. In small slaughtering establishments and in farm slaughter there are found many points of technique which should be greatly improved. The principal thing to be considered is, first, a sudden and in so far as possible a painless death of the animal; second, the immediate withdrawal of the blood of the slaughtered animal if slaughtered otherwise than by opening the principal artery; third, the removal of the intestines and hair or hide of the animal; fourth, immediate

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Natural Appearance of Cuts of Healthy Beef

Beef is the most important of any of the meat
of flesh foods. To be able to judge of its fresh-
ness and freedom from desease is of great
practical value. The following colored plates
show the appearance of some of the principal
cuts of beef in the proper condition for cooking.
By comparing the appearance of the beef
bought in all markets with these plates it is
possible to form a sound judgment of their
suitability for consumption.

These seven Plates are reproduced by courtesy of Armour & Co., Chicago

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