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The brook trout has been especially cultivated by the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries and introduced into waters in the United States where it is not found naturally. The season for spawning for the brook trout is in the autumn, when the water is growing colder, and continues from August to December, according to the latitude. In spawning time the fish come up into the smallest parts of the stream where shallow water can be found. The eggs remain until the next spring, when they are hatched. The brook trout varies greatly in size, according to the magnitude of the stream. In the small streams it weighs often less than pound, while in large streams it weighs 2 or 3 pounds. The large trout has almost disappeared from the small streams as a result of the activity of fishermen.

There are many other species of trout which are known in different parts of the country. For instance, the Dublin Pond trout of Dublin Pond, N. H., the Dolly Varden trout in the northern Pacific states and Alaska, the Sunapee trout in the northeastern states, and the Blueback trout in Maine. These fishes all have practically the same quality, varying only in minute details, and have the same value as a food.

Turbot. A species of halibut known as Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) is also known as turbot in this country. It occurs chiefly off the coast of Greenland, and is taken in the very coldest part of the year. The European turbot is Psetta maxima.

Weakfish. The weakfish belongs to the croaker family (Scianidæ) and has a high value as a food fish, the flesh being rich in flavor and very tender and easily disintegrated, from which quality it is believed the name "weakfish” is derived. The common weakfish is the species Cynoscion regalis. It is also known in some localities as the squeteague. The fish is rather long in proportion to its breadth and sometimes grows to a large size. Examples weighing over 25 pounds have been captured. Very rarely, however, does a weak fish weigh more than 10 pounds, and the average is perhaps not more than one-half that. The weakfish is, particularly when young, a victim of the bluefish, and great numbers succumb to the ravages of its more powerful enemy. The weakfish is found over the entire length of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts as far north as the Bay of Fundy. The weakfish sometimes ascends the tidal waters and congregates around the river mouths, where the food is more abundant. While found on the markets in the North, it is more highly prized in the southern markets.

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The flesh of the weakfish, as shown by the above data, is one in which the protein exists in very much greater proportion than the fat. It is not so rich in protein, however, as some of the other species which have been mentioned.

Whitefish. This fish occurs in large numbers in all our Great Lakes, and is an abundant article of food. Its scientific name is Coregonus clupeiformis. It inhabits the whole of the Great Lakes regions from Lake Champlain to Lake Superior. It does not occur in very great abundance, if at all, west of Lake Superior, although it has been reported to have been found in the fresh. water lakes both to the north and west of that region.

The common whitefish prefers the deep water of the lakes, coming only into shallow water near the shore at spawning time, which, in the Great Lakes, is from October to December. During the months of January, February, and March the fishing for whitefish is practically discontinued, since the fish at that time have returned to deep water and are not accessible.

The size of the whitefish in the Great Lakes is not so great as the extent of water would indicate. Probably three pounds would be an average size, although the individual fish range from 1 to 6 pounds. The weight rarely, however, exceeds 4 or 5 pounds. Occasionally whitefish have been found weighing as high as 20 pounds, but this is very rare. The whitefish reaches

its full average size about the end of the fourth year. The number of eggs which are found in the female fish is not so large as in the shad, but usually the number does not fall below 10,000 and sometimes reaches as high as 75,000. The eggs are very small comparatively, and about 36,000 of them make a quart. The U. S. Bureau of Fisheries has done a great deal to increase the supply of whitefish by planting millions of whitefish fry in suitable water.

Different Species of Whitefish.-There are many species of whitefish besides the common whitefish which appear in the Great Lakes. Coulter's whitefish is found in the waters of British Columbia, but it is not distributed very widely throughout the country. The Rocky Mountain whitefish is very widely distributed, occurring in all suitable waters from the west slope of the Rockies to the Pacific. There is also a subspecies of this fish occurring in the headwaters of the Missouri river. Menominee whitefish occur in the lakes of New England, New York, and the Great Lakes,-it is also known as round whitefish, frostfish, shadwaiter, pilotfish, chivey, and blackback.

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Fluorids in Fish.-Nearly all kinds of fish yield a distinct test for fluorin which is not to be mistaken for an adulteration. The fluorin is found normally in the bones of the fish and sometimes in traces in the flesh. The addition of fluorid as a preservative is highly reprehensible, and its presence is indicated by the increase in quantity.

Marketing of Fish.-In the food act it is provided that no animals shall be used for food which have died otherwise than by slaughter. Whether or not this would apply to fish is a matter of some doubt. Unfortunately fish, as a rule, are allowed to die by being deprived of oxygen, which they get from the water as it passes over their gills. The common practice is to take the fish for commercial purposes in seines or other gear and allow them to die, as it were, by suffocation. The greater number of fish exposed upon our markets have died in this way and are then packed in ice and kept until sold. The ideal way to treat fish would be to transfer them from the seine to a pool of water, fresh or salt, in which they are kept alive until they are wanted for cooking. This method is practiced in some very high-grade restaurants and hotels. where the diner may pick for himself from the pool the fish he desires to eat. It is evident that for commercial purposes where a cheap food is desirable a method of this kind could not be practiced. It is a question which the hygienist as well as the practical man should consider, that is, whether or not it is possible to slaughter the fish and, as soon as they are taken, dress them, pack their carcasses in ice, and in this way deliver them to the markets. Where fish are used for canning or salting purposes they are often slaughtered as soon as caught. This is particularly true of herring captured in the Potomac and Susquehanna rivers. It is an interesting problem to study whether or not the flavor and character of the flesh are impaired by the suffocation process subsequent to their capture. In all cases except in cold weather, the fish after capture, no matter whether they are allowed to die by suffocation or slaughtered, should be packed in ice and kept until the market is reached, which should be at as early a date as possible. Fish are never so good as when fresh and the fresher the better.

Cold Storage.-Fish is a product which is often found in cold storage in large numbers and kept there for a long time. The usual problem attending

*Average analysis of cod, halibut, bass, etc., used at the hygienic table of the Bureau of Chemistry.

the cold storage of food is even more important when applied to fish. In cold storage fish are frozen solid and kept in this state until ready for consumption. Just how long the palatability and wholesomeness of fish can be preserved when frozen solid has not been determined. It follows logically that the colder the temperature the less the degree of deterioration, but it does not follow logically that this temperature can be maintained indefinitely without injuring the character of the product. One thing appears to be certain, namely, that the consumer is entitled to know whether in any given case the fish he purchases is a fresh or a cold storage article. At the present time, in so far as I know, there are no national, state, or municipal laws whereby this fact can be ascertained. Without raising the question of comparative value or palatability there is no doubt but what the consumer is entitled to know the character of the fish he purchases.

Canning Fish.-Allusion has already been made to the practice of canning fish, especially salmon. Great precautions must be used in cases of this kind, since fish is a food which tends to develop poisonous principles incident to decomposition. (Canned fish, therefore, must be thoroughly sterilized so that no fermentative action tending to produce ptomain poison can possibly take place. It should be the duty of inspectors of food to frequently examine packages of canned fish to determine, first, by the external appearance of the can, and, second, by opening a certain number of them, whether any decomposition has taken place. Too great care cannot be exercised in this matter, since dangerous and often fatal results follow the consumption of spoiled fish.

Drying and Salting Fish. The preservation of fish by pickling, salting, drying, and smoking is a great industry and produces some of the most palatable products. Mackerel, herring, and cod are types of fish which upon proper curing make a most delectable dish. Nothing but encouragement should be given to industries of this kind, but in order that they be of their true value they should be conducted properly with due regard to hygienic principles and for the sole purpose of making a wholesome and palatable product.

Adulteration of Fish Products.-Attention has already been called to the adulteration of salmon by canning an inferior grade or even a different kind of fish under the name of a better species. The same remark may be made respecting all fish, hake, haddock, and cusk being often offered as cod. In the case of sardines a similar practice is in vogue, and the small herring which are captured off the coast of Maine are often sold under the name of sardines. The substitution of one variety of fish for another, however, is injurious only in the way of fraud, the substitute fish presumably being of equal wholesomeness to the other under whose name it is sold. On the contrary, the form of sophistication which permits the introduction of deleterious

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substances into fish food is highly objectionable from the dietetic point of view. Following the general principles of nutrition, all chemical, non-condimental preservatives are to be rigidly excluded from fish products. This rule excludes boric acid, borax, benzoic acid and benzoates, sulfites, formaldehyde, and all other forms of chemical preservatives.

When fish are packed in oil the character of the oil used should be made known to the consumer. Especially is this true if from the locality where the fish is preserved and the general method of packing the consumer is led to believe that a high-grade oil such as olive oil has been used.

Value of Fish as Food.-From the statements which have been made in connection with fish in particular and the analyses which have been given it is seen that fish is a food of a peculiarly nitrogenous character. The edible portions, exclusive of water, are at least three-fourths, and probably more composed of protein. The other edible nutritive product is fat or fish oil. The mineral nutrients compose the remaining edible portion of fish after the protein and fat are considered. The mineral portions of fish cannot be regarded as not nutritious since they contain phosphoric acid and lime, which are essential ingredients of food. The flesh of fish, however, as it has been seen, is not a complete ration, but is lacking in carbohydrates, and for this reason fish should be eaten with potatoes, rice, or other highly starchy foods. The value of fish as a food is unquestionable and its more general consumption would doubtless prove beneficial.

Those who live in the interior of large and extensive regions where fresh water fish are not very abundant do not appreciate the value of fish as food as do those who live upon the coasts washed by salt water and near the interior fresh waters where an abundant supply of fish is secured.


Clams.-Clams are shellfish which, though not so extensively used as the oyster, are valued food products. The clams of commerce are of two kinds. The species known as long or soft clam is abundant on the New England coast, and is of considerable commercial importance both fresh and as a canned product. This is the clam used at clam bakes, for which the New England coast is famous. Its technical name is Mya arenaria.

The other species, the round or hard clam, northward known as quahog, is the most common clam of the markets south of New York. Its scientific name is Venus mercenaria.

A very small round clam is known as the little neck. This has a flavor which is extremely delicate and it takes the place, in the warm months, of the blue point oyster on the menus of the hotels and restaurants. The clam may be considered as a supplemental shellfish to the oyster, being most delicious and

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