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most abundant during the closed oyster season. The average weight of the round clam is about 60 grams, of which about one-fourth is flesh, one-fourth liquid, and one-half shell and refuse. There are many specimens very much larger than this but the weight is given for those usually eaten.

Composition of Clams.-Edible portion:

Water,....
Protein,..
Fat,.

Ash,...
Undetermined,.

Water,...

Protein,.

Fat,.....

Common salt,.
Undetermined,.

The liquid which escapes upon the opening of the shell is composed chiefly of water and salt and its composition is as follows:

Water,.
Protein,.

Fat,.

Ash,...
Undetermined,.

78.57 percent

66

.14.86

1.78

2.49

2.30

The flesh of clams, it is seen, is not very different from that of fish in general. It is composed chiefly of water and of the nutrients the protein is the predominating constituent. The ash content is somewhat higher than is the case with fish.

Composition of Water-free Substance of the Flesh.

Protein,..

Fat,.

Ash,....
Undetermined,..

If the flesh and fluid substance of the clam be considered together the composition of the whole mass is represented by the following data:

.96.02 percent
.65

66

. None

2.81

.52

Undetermined,..

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8.32 ..11.64 ...10.67

Composition of the Dry Substance of the Liquid Portion.

Protein,..

Fat,.

Ash,...
Undetermined,..

.69.37 percent

"L ((

(c

16.37 percent

66

.10 70.41

.13.12

7.30 ..18.92

.10.97

Composition of the Dry Substance of the Flesh and Liquid Together.

Protein,..

.62.81 percent

""

Fat,...

Ash,.

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155

The Lobster (Homarus americanus).—The lobster is a crustacean which occurs along the northern Atlantic coast. Formerly it was so very abundant that it was almost a drug on the market. In the last quarter of a century the increase in the consumption of the lobster has been more rapid than the increased growth, so that the price has become higher and higher; and this, to a certain extent, is limiting the consumption. The coast of Maine is especially the fishing grounds for the American lobster, though it is found much further south and also in great abundance further north. The lobster varies greatly in size. The law, at the present time, prevents very young lobsters from being sent into commerce. They are usually from 10.5 to 15 inches in length, though occasionally examples of enormous size are taken. The edible portion of the lobster is the liquid and the flesh of the body, claws, and tail. Only about one-half the weight of the lobster, including the liquid, therefore, is edible. The rest is refuse. In a lobster weighing a thousand grams (2.2 pounds), five hundred grams (1.1 pound) will be the average edible portion, and the other half the refuse and loss. The average lobster of the present day, perhaps, weighs scarcely two pounds, though in former times the weight was very much greater because the younger and smaller lobsters were not sent to the market. The color of the lobster as it com from the water is dark green, almost black at times. Heat changes the color of the shell, so that after boiling or baking the lobster becomes red. The flesh of the lobster is decidedly sweet, owing to the large quantity of glycogen which it contains. There is only one kind of meat that is eaten which approaches the lobster in its content of glycogen, and that is horse

meat.

Composition of the Lobster.-Edible portion:

Water,..
Protein,..

CRABS.

Protein,.

Fat,..

Ash,..

FRESH.

.84.30 percent

66

..11.63

Fat,

Ash,.

Glycogen,....

Crabs. The crab is a shellfish very highly prized along the whole of the Atlantic coast. Numerous species of crabs are used for food. These are used in two forms- -as hard-shelled or soft-shelled crabs. The species most valued is Callinectes hastatus. It is very abundant on the middle and south Atlantic coast. Crabs are quite abundant on the Pacific coast also. About 44 percent of the total weight of the crab is edible and 56 percent shell and refuse. In the edible portion about 77 percent is water and 23 percent solid matter. Composition of the Water-free Substance of the Crab.

1.82

1.63

.62

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DRY.

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74.06 percent

66

11.62 10.38 3.94

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The flesh of the crab is, therefore, essentially a nitrogenous food, containing only a small quantity of fat. A considerable portion of the ash is common salt.

Crawfish. The crawfish may be regarded as a fresh-water lobster. It is found practically over the whole of the United States in the fresh waters but is not used to any extent for food purposes, except on the Pacific coast. It contains even a less proportion of edible matter than the lobster. The refuse, shell, etc., form about five-sixths of its weight. In the edible portion the water constitutes 81.22 percent, while the solid matters are only 18.78 percent. Composition of the Water-free Substance of the Crayfish.

Protein,...

Fat,..

Ash,.

Protein,..

Fat,.

Ash,.

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Canned Lobster, Clams, and Crabs.-As in the case of oysters, there is a large industry in the United States engaged in the canning of the flesh of lobsters, clams, and crabs. The same precautions should be observed in the eating of these canned products as those mentioned in the case of salmon. Numerous instances of illness and sometimes of death have been recorded as the result of eating these canned products which have been imperfectly sterilized. When the flesh is canned immediately after the capture of the animal, before any incipient decomposition has taken place and when the sterilization is perfect, the canned product can be eaten without fear. Where the health of the people is so seriously involved, the factories where these products are prepared should be carefully inspected either by the municipal, state, or federal authorities. All material used in canning which is not perfectly fresh from the water is to be rejected and the processes employed in the preparation and sterilization must be those which will effectively secure a complete immunity from subsequent fermentation and the development of ptomain products.

Composition of Canned Lobster (Dry Substance).—

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As seen from the above the composition of the dry substance in canned lobster, except content of water, is not perceptibly different from that of the fresh sample.

Composition of the Dry Substance of Canned Crabs.

Protein,.

Fat,....
Ash,.

Shrimp (Crangon vulgaris).—The shrimp is a highly valued article of

79.10 percent

66

""

7.55

9.68

AQUATIC REPTILES.

157

food, especially when it can be had fresh or properly canned. It has been a practice to ship shrimps in bulk preserved with sulfites or boric acid. This is a most reprehensible form of adulteration.

Canned Shrimps. In the total dry edible portion, including solids in the liquid contents of the can, are found:

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Water,.
Protein,.

70.80 percent

"6

Fat,..
Ash,....

29.20

25.38

1.00

2.58

0.24

4.06

100.00

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The above data show that the shrimp in the canned state has less water in it than in the fresh state, and contains one-fourth of its weight of protein.

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Aquatic Reptiles.-All forms of turtle may be used for edible purposes, both of the fresh-water and salt-water species. Both the turtle and terrapin are amphibious animals; that is, they can live either in the water or on the land. Among the turtles the marine variety known as the green turtle is most highly prized for food purposes. Its Latin name is Chelonia mydas. It grows sometimes to an enormous size, weighing several hundred pounds, and specimens weighing 50 and 100 pounds are not unusual. It is utilized chiefly for making soup, and green turtle soup is considered of high quality by experts. The flesh is also edible, and in the making of some varieties of green turtle soup pieces of the flesh are included.

Composition of the Green Turtle.-The edible portion of the green turtle has the following composition:

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The edible portion of the green turtle is not very large in porportion to its weight, as it forms only from 20 to 24 percent of the whole weight of the turtle.

Among the reptiles there are several aquatic species which are used as food. The most noted of these is the diamond-back terrapin, which is found in the salt-water bays, lagoons, and marshes of our Atlantic coast from New Jersey to Texas. Its center of greatest abundance is in Chesapeake Bay. There is no fish or other water animal that has a higher value for edible purposes than

the terrapin. The extreme delicacy of its flavor, the richness of its aroma, and its easy digestibility give to it a rank which perhaps no other usual food product possesses. In addition to this the increased scarcity of the terrapin, especially the more famous variety of it, namely, the diamond-back, has gradually increased the cost until at the present time the terrapin is eaten only by the rich. In the United States it exists along the whole Atlantic coast from New York southward and also along the Gulf coast. Formerly it was most abundant on the Maryland coast, but the nearness of this field to the great markets of the country has resulted in such a depletion of the stock as to make the terrapin very scarce. Many attempts have been made at artificial growing of terrapin and these have been more or less successful, but have not met with pronounced success which has been expected. The enclosure in which the terrapin are kept, viz., the "crawl," is a feature in the artificial cultivation or breeding of these marine vertebrates. It is to be hoped that greater success in the future will attend the artificial breeding of terrapin, since the natural stock seems well on the way to extinction.

Composition of the Terrapin.-Edible portion:

Water,
Protein,

Fat,

Ash,

Water,....

Protein,..

Fat,...

Ash,....
Undetermined,.

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The Mussel. The mussel may be described as a fresh-water oyster. It occurs in almost all parts of the United States in the fresh waters and in external appearance resembles to some extent the oyster, but the shell is usually smoother. In the mussel is often developed concretions of the carbonate of lime in a particular form known as pearls. In fact the chief value of the mussel is in the supply of pearls which they furnish, since their flesh, although often eaten, is not considered very palatable nor desirable. Pearls may be found in mussels in every locality, but in some regions they are more abundant than in others, for instance, the mussels of Wisconsin are especially noted for the occurrence of the pearls. Pearls are also frequently found in oysters, but by no means so frequently as in the mussel.

Composition of the Mussel.-The edible portion of the mussel forms about one-half its weight.

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Oysters. Oysters belong to a class of animals known as mollusks. They grow in salt or brackish water and are found along almost the whole

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