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condition when the surface does not adhere so readily. The vat should be kept warm during the process of separation of the whey, the temperature being raised to about 90 degrees and finally, toward the last, to 98 degrees, about blood heat.


Separating the Curd. The precipitated curd is left in contact with the whey for some time, and during this period some of the lactic acid in the whey unites with the paracasein. The setting of the curd is finished when a small mass which has been squeezed in the hand to remove the whey is pressed against a bar of iron heated to little short of redness, and it is found that there is left, adhering to the iron, fine silky threads. These threads are formed by the compound of lactic acid and paracasein, and the more of this compound there is the longer will the strings be. When the curd shows by the hot iron test strings one-eighth inch long it is an index that the time has arrived for the separation of the curd from the whey.

Gathering the Curd.-After the whey is removed the cubes of curd are left. in the bottom of the vat until they mat or pack together, a process which is technically known as cheddaring. The curd is sometimes removed from the vat and placed on a special apparatus for this purpose called a curd-sink. When the curd has matted together, forming a solid mass, it is cut into blocks 8X8X12 inches. These blocks are turned in the vat in order to facilitate the removal of more whey. The blocks of curd are carefully placed one over the other until they form a large mass.

The process of solidifying or cheddaring accomplishes two purposes:

First, the whey is expelled to a considerable extent and, second, the lactic acid unites with more of the curd, changing not only its chemical composition but also its physical state from a spongy, tough, rubber-like consistence, with a high water content, to a mass having a smooth, velvety appearance and feeling, and a soft, somewhat plastic consistency.

Milling the Curd. This process consists in cutting the lumps of curd into small pieces in order to introduce the salt and to handle it more readily when it is to be placed into hoops for pressing. This process is done by special mills which avoid, in so far as possible, the loss of fat.

Salting and Pressing.—Salt is added for several purposes, chiefly for flavoring, but it also has other uses. It aids in removing the whey, it hardens the curd and it checks or retards the formation of lactic acid. Excessive salting, however, is injurious. From 2 to 3 pounds of salt should be added to the curd made from 1000 pounds of milk. Before putting in the press the curd is cooled to a temperature of about 80 degrees, and after putting into the mold it is subjected to pressure to give it a proper form, rather than to remove the whey which is practically all gone by this time. If the whey has not been properly removed before the cheese goes into the press it is almost impossible to get it out then. The pressure should be uniform and continued for at

least twenty-four hours. If a screw is used the pressure should be light at first and gradually increased. After the cheese has been in the press about an hour it is removed, turned, a cloth adjusted about it, and the entire surface wiped carefully with a cloth wrung out of hot water.

The sizes in which American cheeses are made depends largely upon the market, the more common size being 15 inches in diameter, and the cheese weighs from 60 to 65 pounds. There is also a very large manufacture of cheese seven inches in diameter, known as "Young Americas" and weighing only from 8 to 10 pounds.

Curing. The higher the temperature to which cheese is exposed in curing the more rapid the curing process will take place, but the poorer the quality of the cheese. Experience has shown that a low temperature, 55 degrees F. or even less, gives much better results, although it requires a greater length of time. If cured at a higher temperature the fat is apt to exude, and will not be evenly distributed in the cheese. It is, therefore, more profitable, as well as better for the consumer, to cure at low temperatures, producing a superior quality with less loss of moisture and a cheese which sells for a better price.

Moisture in the Curing Cellar.-The cellar in which the curing takes place should contain air with a proper degree of moisture. The relative percentage of moisture in the air as compared with the total amount which it can hold should be from 65 to 75. This is determined by placing in the curing room a hygrometer which registers the degree of saturation.

Qualities of American Cheese.-The quality of cheeses is judged by (1) flavor, (2) body, (3) texture, (4) color, and (5) general appearance. In regard to flavor it is impossible to describe what is meant. Only the connoisseur can determine properly whether a cheese has a flavor which is sound, healthy, and indicative of the highest quality. The cheese flavor should be free from any admixture of other flavors. Cheese resembles butter in this respect, that it absorbs and then gives off foreign flavors with great facility. Therefore in the whole process of cheese making care must be exercised to exclude every odor or flavor of an undesirable character from the cheese house.

Flavor.-Under flavor also may be described taste, which should be of that biting, incisive character due to proper development of ripening and its attendant bacterial and enzymic products. The various foreign flavors in cheese may be due to the odor of cows or the stable or may suggest “rotten eggs," or it may be the flavor of rancid butter due to the decomposition of butter fat in the cheese.

Body. This is also a term which it is difficult to define. An American cheese is said to have a perfect body when it is solid, firm, and smooth in substance. This quality is ascertained by pressing the cheese between the fingers. When it does not press down evenly between the finger and thumb

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it is said technically to be "corky." It is smooth when it feels velvety-like and is not harsh or gritty.

Texture. The term texture applied to American cheese refers mainly to its compactness. It is nearly related to body. The texture may be fine and close or porous. The texture is perfect when a cut surface of the inside of the cheese presents to the eye a solid, compact, continuous appearance, free from breaks, holes, or lumps. Cheese should not show any visible or separated moisture or fat. The texture of American cheese should be smooth, free from breaks, and fairly hard. The bandage should be smooth and neat, extending over the edge on each end of the cheese about two inches.

Color. A true and unadulterated cheese should have only the color of the milk from which it is made, and any other color incident to ripening which is usually green. Unfortunately cheeses of American origin are often artificially colored. An over-deep yellowish or reddish tint, therefore, should be regarded as a mark of inferiority. Artificially colored cheese should not rank as high on the market as that of a natural tint, which is much more pleasing to the eye and much less objectionable to the æsthetic taste. Color is often added to conceal inferiority in the milk used.

The sides of the cheese should be straight and of uniform height all around. The following scale of points is used in judging cheese, according to the above qualities: Flavor, 45 to 50; texture, 30 to 35; color, 10 to 15; general appearance, 5 to 15.

Cream Cheese. This is a soft cheese which is rapidly growing in popularity. It is made from rich milk or milk and cream mixed together. It resembles in general Neufchatel, but it is richer in butter fat and is put up in a different form. The temperature of the room in which the cheese is made is quite important. It should be kept as nearly as possible at 75 degrees. The milk is first warmed to 70 degrees and run through a separator by means of which the cream is taken out, together with one-half the volume of milk. This makes either dilute cream or very rich milk, as you may choose to call it. The cream is heated to 84 degrees and about four or five ounces of rennet extract added per thousand pounds. The rennet is carefully and gradually stirred into the mixture, using about fifteen minutes. for the addition. The mass is then allowed to remain at rest until whey is seen around the sides. The whey is then removed by draining, the resulting curd pressed and mixed with about 3 percent of salt. The cheese is not subjected to a curing process. It is molded into flat, thin cakes about 3 by 4 inches, wrapped in parchment paper, and in this condition packed for shipment.

Manufacture of Foreign Types of Cheese in the United States.-The improvement of cheeses made in the United States by securing different forms

of ferments and utilizing the best method of setting, pressing the curd, and ripening used in other countries is worthy of all encouragement. Unfortunately a disposition has arisen in our country of giving the names of foreign varieties to the domestic articles. Many fancy domestic cheeses are sold under strictly foreign names such as Cheddar, Stilton, Cheshire, Schweitzer, Limburger, Camembert, Brie, Roquefort, etc. In fact there seems to be no limitation upon the adoption of a name already identified with a distinct type and locality. Such a tendency is greatly to be regretted and perhaps it is only necessary to point out to our people the ethical offense which they are committing by such practices to secure their discontinuance. It is, however, a perfectly legitimate undertaking to import the ferments which produce the famous cheeses of the world and utilize them to the fullest extent in cheeses of American origin. This, however, should be done in such a way as to carefully avoid applying the name of the original article to the domestic product. Perhaps it would be no ethical offense or no very great offense to place upon the labels of the cheese products a statement that they are of the same type as the foreign product they imitate. This, however, should be an explanatory phrase and not a part of the label which attracts principal attention. It is far better that a manufacturer should adopt some local name which would become identified with his product, and thus become a valuable trade-mark. The attempt to pass domestic cheese under foreign names is an offense against good ethics and also against the law. It is nothing more nor less than misbranding, and cannot be justified even in the absence of a law forbidding it.

Success with Foreign Ferments.-Considerable success has attended the introduction of the foreign processes into the United States, together with the ferments which produce the cheeses abroad. The environment, however,. cannot be imported and therefore the ferments may rapidly assimilate different properties under changed conditions, and the continued importation of fresh ferments may be necessary to preserve the type of cheese. Some of the principal types of foreign cheeses made in the United States are those which are mentioned above. A particularly excellent study has been made of the process of making a Camembert type of cheese in this country. (Bureau of Animal Industry, Bulletin 71, 1905.) This particular cheese is a type of Camembert which is made at the Storrs Agricultural Experiment Station of Connecticut. For these experiments a cheese maker familiar with the Camembert manufacture in France was secured. The method of making the cheese and also of separating the curd and ripening was as nearly as possible like that used in France. The style of the packages was the same, so that from external appearances it would be quite difficult to distinguish them from the genuine Camembert cheese of France. The success attending these experiments shows that it is possible to improve domestic cheeses



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by scientific effort in the direction of using the proper ferments. These soft cheeses made in Connecticut were of good quality and had something of the flavor and type of the Camembert itself, though it was not difficult for even a novice to distinguish the two varieties from one another.


These studies above referred to have resulted in a marked degree of progress in the knowledge of the real changes which take place in the ripening of cheeses. The officials in charge of the work differ somewhat with the author in respect to the character of the product, claiming that the making of Camembert cheese is not dependent upon uniform conditions obtained only in certain localities but rather on securing the proper cultures and conditions which are possible almost anywhere. The fact of the case is that the cheeses made at the Connecticut station are probably made under much more scientific conditions and much more rigid control than the real Camembert cheese made in France. The success which attended these efforts is only a proof of the statement made above that the introduction of these processes for making fancy cheeses in this country will doubtless result in the development of types of American origin of peculiar flavor and quality. Such cheeses when properly named and not confused with those of foreign origin will become quite as familiar and well known, both at home and abroad. (Bureau of Animal Industry, Bulletin 82, 1906.)

Sage Cheese. The consumption of the variety of cheese known as sage cheese is not very large at the present time in the United States and is restricted to certain localities, yet it is rapidly growing in favor. Consumers who are accustomed to it are willing to pay a larger price for it than for ordinary cheese. Sage cheese is made exactly in the same manner as that described for the manufacture of Cheddar. The flavor of sage is imparted in three different ways, first, by adding the sage extract or tea to the milk; second, by adding the extract to the curd before salting; third, by adding the sage leaves to the curd before salting. The latter method is found to be the most satisfactory requiring the least amount of sage to give any definite flavor. Three ounces of sage leaves are found to be sufficient to flavor the curd from 1000 pounds of milk. The stems and impurities of the sage leaves are carefully removed and the leaves ground to a fine powder before mixing with the curd (Michigan Board of Agriculture, 1904).

Principal Cheeses of England. The principal English cheeses are Stilton, Cheshire, Cheddar, double and single, Gloucester, Derby, and Leicester. According to Dr. Voelcker, the finest flavored cheese is Cheshire, which differs from any other in being made from milk which is perfectly sweet, and some authors think its peculiar aroma is due to this fact. On the contrary, the more general opinion is that the best cheeses are made from milk slightly sour rather than that which is perfectly sweet.

Cheshire cheese is manufactured by mixing the evening milk, which is

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