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kept cool over night, with the morning milk, and then warming the mixture until the temperature is about 90 degrees. The proper quantity of rennet is added and when the cheese is to be extremely yellow also some annotto. After thoroughly mixing, the mass is left for nearly an hour, by which time the coagulation is completed. The next operation is the breaking down or cutting up of the fresh curd, and this is an important process. Upon the care which is exercised in doing this depends in a large measure the richness and quality of the finished product. When properly manipulated the whey which is separated will be of a greenish color and clear, while the proper combination of milk fat and casein which is secured in separating the whey will make a cheese of first class quality. The curd is so dense as to naturally separate from the whey by deposition, and the latter is thus drawn off by a stopcock properly placed in the vat. The curd is then placed upon a cloth. stretched over lattice work in order that the separation of the whey may be complete. Finally before passing to the cheese house the curd is treated with. eight ounces of salt to twenty pounds of curd. After the cheese is molded it is placed in a warm room for one or two days, and then taken to the press house where it is subjected to the usual pressure. The pressing process is continued by wrapping the cheese in dry cloths and subjecting to new pressure every day for five or six days. The cheese is then removed to the ripening cellar where it is turned two or three times a week. It is ripe and ready for consumption in less than one year. There are a great many variations from this method of making Cheshire cheese, but they all follow the same general plan.

Manufacture of Cheddar Cheese.-The Cheddar cheese is made in various parts of England though chiefly in Somerset, the period of manufacture extending from April to November. Cheddar cheeses are made in large sizes varying from 60 to 100 pounds each. The temperature of precipitation for Cheddar cheese is somewhat less than for the Cheshire cheese, being about 80 degrees. Rennet is used solely in the coagulation, lactic acid not being liked for that purpose. In the making of Cheddar often some of the fat escapes in the whey and this is afterwards collected and made into butter. Two pounds of salt to 100 pounds of curd are used.

Derby cheese is a name applied to cheese made in Derby. The Cheddar system of making it is usually employed.

Gloster cheeses are made on the same plan as that of the Derby and do not need any further description.

Leicester cheese is a variety of cheese which is very popular and made chiefly in the county of Leicester. The coagulation of Leicester cheese is made at a little lower temperature than that previously described, varying from 76 to 84 degrees. The curd is allowed to stand for about one-half hour before it is broken up and the whey separated. The best manufacturers of cheese

PRINCIPAL CHEESES OF ENGLAND.

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disapprove of the use of artificial coloring and it may be said that eventually it is pretty certain that all cheese makers will come to the same conclusion. The use of coloring matter in cheese, even of annotto, adds nothing to its richness, and tends to deceive the customer into thinking that the milk employed was richer in cream than it really was. The Leicester cheeses are small in size compared with Cheddar. About eleven pounds of milk are used to make an ordinary cheese.

Stilton cheese is probably the most familiar and highly prized of all English varieties. It is not always to be obtained, and many imitations of Stilton are made and bear its name. The name it bears is from the name of the town where it was first, and is now, made. It is a cheese which has been known for about a century and a quarter. It is principally made between March and September and solely from the milk of cows fed on natural pasture, that is, for the finest variety. The use of artificial food for the cows is at once detected in a change for the worse in the character of the cheese. At first the rennet employed was made from the stomachs of lambs instead of cows and in the olden times the cheeses were not considered to be sufficiently mellow and ripe until they were two years old and exhibited spots of green in the interior.

The most approved modern process of manufacture is mixing the morning and evening milk and bringing it to a temperature of 79 degrees. Rennet is then added and the mass allowed to stand for about an hour and a half. The curd is removed into cloths set in frames for the purpose of allowing the whey to separate. Usually about an hour is allowed for the natural separation. The cloths are then tightened and brought closer together to produce slight pressure and placed in a cheese tub, several of them together, where they are allowed to remain for twelve hours. Usually a longer time is allowed before the curd is cut up. The salt is added in proportion of one pound to 60 pounds of fresh curd. The curd is then placed in tin cylinders with perforated sides, the cylinder being 12 inches deep and 12 inches in diameter, and put in a room at about 65 degrees to favor the separation of the whey which requires from six to seven days. The cheeses are then removed from the cylinders, brought into proper shape by a knife and wrapped with strong cotton cloth and allowed to remain for twelve days longer when they are removed to the drying room and kept at 65 degrees. During this process the original curd placed in the cell loses about one-half its weight so that ten pounds of curd in the end make five pounds of cheese. A very common method also is to make cheese twice a day from morning milk and evening milk separately. Extra cream is often added in making Stilton cheese, only whole milk or milk and added cream being used. The principal point to be considered with curing is the regulation of the temperature.

Other varieties of cheese which are known in England are mostly named from the localities where they are produced and partake in general of the

character of cheeses already described. These are Lancastershire, Wensleydale, skimmed milk cheese, butter milk cheese, potato cheese, and various forms of soft cheese or those used without being allowed to ripen for any length of time.

Varieties of Cheese Made in France. There is a general idea that France is pre-eminently a cheese making country and this is true in so far as the making of certain brands of cheese which have international reputations is concerned. France, however, according to statistics, imports a larger quantity of cheese than she exports though probably the value of her exports is greater than the imports because of the high character and price of the exported articles.

Manufacture of Camembert.-The first cheese of this variety was made in 1791 by Marie Fontaine on a farm in the community of Camembert, near Vimontiers. The period of manufacture of Camembert cheese extends from March to September. It is made from whole cow's milk from which none of the cream has been extracted. The rennet is added at the temperature at which the milk comes from the cow as nearly as possible and the milk is artificially heated, the morning and evening milk being mixed, to this temperature. After the addition of rennet the milk is gently stirred for two or three minutes, a wooden cover placed over the pan, and left for five or six hours. The curd is sufficiently set when touched with the finger it does not adhere thereto. The curd is removed from the pan by a spoon and put into cylindrical metal molds open at the end and from these molds the whey is allowed to escape. It requires about two liters of milk to make one cheese. The whey is allowed to drain for about two days. After that time the mold is turned, a little fine white salt placed upon the top and allowed to drain for another day. After about 48 hours the cheeses are taken from the molds and salted. They are then placed in the drying room upon racks covered with straw. The drying room must be well ventilated and the air which is blown in for ventilation must be strained to be free of dust and insects. Care is taken also to exclude the sunlight, as this is very injurious to the proper development and ripening of cheese. The cheese remains in the dryer from 20 to 25 days. The ripening cellar is the next point to which the cheese is removed, and this cellar is kept as nearly as possible at 50 degrees F. The cheeses remain in the ripening cellar about 30 days, during which time they are frequently turned and carefully watched. The progress of the fermentation which takes place in the cheese is indicated by its appearance. In modern times the manufacture of Camembert cheese is continued practically throughout the whole year, but the artificially ripened cheese, that is, made during the winter by the aid of artificial heat, does not compare in quality with the product which is naturally ripened during the summer months. The manu

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facture of Camembert cheese has extended to a considerable distance from the original village, but it is all made in that part of France.

Emmenthaler Cheese.-Emmenthaler cheese is a variety of Swiss cheese of the same type as Gruyère. It is sometimes called the "cart-wheel" cheese on account of its immense size. These cheeses are sometimes three or four feet in diameter and of a disk-like shape, something like a wooden wheel sawed out of a round tree. It is a cheese which was originally made in Switzerland, although the manufacture of it has spread over into that part of France bordering Switzerland. It has the general character of Swiss cheese in texture, also in composition and nutritive value.

Brie Cheese.-This is one of the most famous of French cheeses. It is made in the form of a round flat mass about 16 inches in diameter for the grande Brie and 12 inches in diameter for the petite Brie. The thickness of the cheese is about one inch. The method of preparation is not very greatly different from that of cheeses in general. During the curing process, as in the case of Camembert, mould develops, especially on the outside of the cheese, and the change which goes on in the interior breaks down the casein, forming a creamy mass of a strong, piquant flavor. The mould which grows upon the outside of Brie cheese gives it a strong odor which reminds one of decomposition. Brie cheese might be said to resemble in general properties the Camembert variety of cheese.

Roquefort cheese is a very popular cheese made in France from sheep's milk. When properly ripened it shows a green mould. It is made in a particular way at Roquefort, and according to König has the following composition:

Water,

Fat,

Proteids,

Lactic acid,.

Ash,...

VARIETIES OF CHEESE MADE IN FRANCE.

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30.61

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Port Du Salut.-This variety of cheese has a most deserving popularity, not only upon the Continent but in the United States. It is, however, not so generally known in this country as the Roquefort and Camembert varieties. It was long manufactured by a secret process by the Trappist monks of Bricquebec in the Department of Manche.

The secret of the manufacture of this variety of cheese is guarded with the same jealousy by the monks as is the secret of making the chartreuse liqueur. Port Du Salut is always put up in very small packages of cylindrical form, flat, and about one inch in thickness. The cheese has a number of holes, in which it resembles the Swiss cheese. Its flesh, however, is mellow, and does not have the toughness nor solidity which characterizes the flesh of Swiss cheese. Although the monks' secret has been well guarded the general method of its manufacture has been described ("Cheese and Cheese Making," by Jas.

Long and John Benson). The milk is brought to a temperature of 86 degrees F., and is treated with rennet in such a way as to separate the curd in about one-half hour. The separation of whey is secured in the usual manner, first, by allowing broken curd to stand, and afterwards by pressure. A peculiar form of pressure is said to be used by the monks, a number of screws are placed side by side on a beam and a number of cheeses may be pressed at the same time. The pressure is applied solely by the hands and so is not very severe. After pressure the cheeses are placed in a ripening cellar, which is kept at about 54 degrees F. Care is taken in the ripening that the cheese does not become too dry.

Pont L'Evêque cheese is well known upon the Continent, especially in France where it is made. It takes its name from the village where the manufacture is carried on, which is not very far from Havre. The cheese is usually put up in a square or oblong package about one inch in thickness and of a size weighing about one pound. It has a tough crust and may be kept for some time after it is ripe with safety. The milk is set at a temperature of 88 degrees and a sufficient amount of rennet added to produce precipitation of the curd in about fifteen minutes.

When the curd is stiff enough to be cut and removed it is placed upon a mat made of rye straw through which the whey is allowed to filter. As the whey runs off the curd becomes tougher and the mat is brought together in such a way as to exert gentle pressure. This separation of the whey is continued until the curd can be placed in metal molds which vary in size according to the size of the intended cheeses. The cheese is ripened at a temperature of about 58 degrees in a humid cellar so as not to lose too much water.

Gervais cheese belongs strictly to the family of fancy cheese, being made of a mixture of milk and cream. It is produced in large quantities in France and finds almost an exclusive domestic market. It is named for its manufacturer, M. Gervais. The mixture is set at a very low temperature, about 65 degrees. The rennet which is used is diluted with water and added in small quantities so that the curd does not separate for eight or ten hours. The whey is separated in a cloth bag and under very gentle pressure. The cheeses are usually sold in only a partially ripe state and the cheese combines the flavor of both cheese and cream.

Bondon cheese is another cheese which is made largely in the region of Rouen. The size of the cheese is usually very small, from seven to nine being made from a gallon of milk. The method of manufacture is more like that of Gervais and differs from it chiefly in being made solely from milk instead of a mixture of milk and cream.

Limburger Cheese.-Limburger cheese is one of the most famous of the different varieties of foreign cheese, chiefly because of its bad odor. This odor is due to specific forms of ferments introduced during the ripening

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