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Remarks on Table of Analyses.
Class I, Indian Corn Products.-The analytical data show that in the breakfast foods made from Indian corn products the germ has been quite uniformly removed. The quantity of fiber also shows that the maize flour produced has been very carefully bolted. The ash is almost normal, showing only a small addition, probably of salt. The mean quantity of protein is that which would be predicted of an Indian corn product ground by the most approved milling process in order to make as white a flour as possible. These methods of preparing the flour, although so common, are not to be preferred either by reason of palatability or nutritive properties of the products. The old-fashioned milling process makes a more palatable and more nutritious diet and affords a higher degree of heat and energy.
The analysis of the Indian corn products show that they are very much lower in protein than would be expected from an analysis of the whole kernels. The low content of fat in the products is doubtless due to the complete degermination of the grain during the milling and to the further fact that the baking and other preparation of the material tend to occlude the fat particles, making their extraction quite difficult.
Class II, Wheat Products.-The study of wheat products used as breakfast foods shows that the wheat germ is not removed to any very great extent during the preparation of the raw material. In fact the quantity of ether extract appears somewhat greater than would be expected in pure wheat *U. S. Dept. Agr., Bureau of Chemistry, Bull. 13, Part IX, p. 1345.
products, and this leads to the supposition that oatmeal or Indian corn must be mixed with the food product in small quantities, since the ether extract in the case of wheat products is more than three times as great as in the case of Indian corn products of a similar character. This is an indication either of the use of mechanical methods as stated above or else to the admixture of other bodies without mention. There does not appear to have been any notable quantity of mineral substance, common salt or otherwise, added during the process of preparation. The quantity of protein in the product is that which would be predicted from the composition of wheat flour from which the samples are supposed to be made.
Class III, Oat Products.-The oat products have evidently been made without any extensive degermination, as is shown by the high content of fat
oil. The average composition of oat products shows that genuine oatmeal is used in their preparation and the probability is that little adulteration is practiced. The high content of oil and protein produces a corresponding depression in the quantity of carbohydrates. The high nutritive value of the product, both in respect of fat and of proteins, is fully illustrated by the analytical data obtained. The calories, as will be noticed, are very much higher than in the corresponding product from Indian corn, wheat, or in fact of any other of the breakfast foods.
Class IV, Products made of starch and tapioca show, in the analytical data, that very high-grade starch materials are employed in the preparation of these bodies. The protein, ether extract, fiber, and ash almost disappear. As shown in the data for the dry substance, more than 99 percent of the whole material consists of carbohydrates, chiefly starch. The calories are correspondingly diminished since starch and sugar have the least heat value of any class of food products, except those of a mineral character. Foods of this kind are highly unbalanced, that is, contain a large excess of starch and sugar, and are often very prejudicial to the health of persons whose ability to digest starch and sugar has been lessened by disease.
Class V, Noodles, spaghetti, and macaroni are often used as breakfast foods, though not by any means so universally as many others in this category. The analytical data show that these bodies correspond very well to the material, that is to the flour, rich in gluten, from which they are supposed to be made. The protein content is high,-the ether extract, fiber, and ash low, and the calories correspond to the chemical composition of the material.
Class VI, Barley Products.-Barley products are not very commonly used as breakfast foods, but the malt used in the preparation of other breakfast foods is usually made of barley, since the barley malt has the highest diastatic value of any of the cereals.
Class VII, Miscellaneous breakfast foods are so called because the character of the materials of which they are made is not known or no statement is made
by the manufacturer or dealer concerning them. The analytical data, of course, do not lead to any decision regarding the nature of the raw material employed. The percentage of protein, however, taken in conjunction with the rather low ether extract, indicates that they are probably made chiefly from wheat products.
Much may be said in favor of the use of prepared breakfast foods, for, in so far as I know, they are usually palatable, wholesome, and nutritious. There are many points which may be urged against their general use, chief of which is in regard to their cost. There is no cereal now in general use for edible purposes which is worth as much as two cents per pound in the markets of this country, yet breakfast foods, which are only prepared cereals, are often sold for 10 or 15 cents per pound. This is a high price in comparison with the cost of the raw material, but it must not be forgotten that the cost of manufacture is to be considered. In the second place the cereal foods are undoubtedly best at the moment they are prepared. Unless carefully packed, they may become infected with insects of various kinds, which certainly add nothing to their value and detract very much from their desirability. In moist climates they become infested with mould and even with bacterial growths. Inasmuch as necessarily a large proportion of the prepared cereals remain for an indefinite time unsold, the consumer is liable at any time to come into possession of one of these deteriorated packages. In the third place there is no reason to believe that a prepared breakfast food is any more digestible, nutritious, or favorable to the health of the healthy individual than the broken cereal itself properly cooked. Further than this it may be stated that there is no preparation of cereals better than those which are freshly made from the freshly broken or ground grain. If, therefore, one has the time to properly prepare the fresh grains of the cereals they will be more palatable and more nutritious and equally as digestible as any of the prepared articles. On the other hand, there are cases of diseased or disordered digestion in which the prepared cereals will be more digestible, but this is certainly not the case in a state of health. There is reason to believe, therefore, that the demand for prepared cereals will continue, but the old-fashioned method of preparation of the cereal from the grain will still have its advocates.
I think it may be said with certainty that the proper home preparation of a cereal as a breakfast food will not cost any more than the original cereal itself, and hence the price of this food ought not to be much more than 4 cents per pound without counting the added water in its preparation.
I believe, therefore, that our people of limited means can be safely advised on the score of economy, palatability, and nutrition to prepare their own cereals for ordinary breakfast purposes.
VEGETABLES, CONDIMENTS, FRUITS.
The term vegetable as applied to food in the broadest sense of the word means that class which distinguishes it from animal food. In a narrower sense, however, the term vegetable is used to denote a certain class of food which is of a succulent or juicy nature. While cereals and fruits are vegetables in the broadest sense of the word they are not in the narrow and common meaning. The term "vegetable" in this section therefore refers to those substances commonly known as vegetables upon the market and which are characterized by their high water content. On account of this abundance of liquid or juice the term succulent is applied to them. The common vegetables which are included in this class consist of lettuce, spinach, potatoes, cauliflower, beets, radishes, turnips, cabbage, green Indian corn, peas, beans, tomatoes, yams, etc. These vegetables contain in a fresh state from 70 to 95 percent of water. Many of them can be kept for a length. of time without deterioration, especially the potato and beet, and for a short time cabbage, radishes, etc., if kept cool and moist. Other kinds of vegetables are not easily preserved for any length of time except in cold storage, such as lettuce, peas, beans, tomatoes, etc. If the potato and other starchy tubers are kept out of account these vegetables do not have a very high nutritive value, as will be seen by the analysis which follows. They have, however, an important part in the ration because of their palatability and the effect which they have upon the general activity of the alimentary canal. For instance, there is very little nourishment obtained in eating a turnip which perhaps is 95 percent water, yet its palatability, its condimental character, and its general salutary effect upon digestion is such as to make it worth while to pay even a high price in proportion to its nutriment. For this reason, as well as for their nutritive value, the use of succulent vegetables is to be very highly commended.
In general, as has been said, these vegetables are eaten in a fresh state or after being kept for a considerable time in cold storage or otherwise. The potato, for instance, can be kept by properly covering it in the earth or in bins through the winter. Cabbages are also kept in the same way and many