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boiling is not continued for any length of time the amount of sugar inverted is less than in the manufacture of jams and preserves where the boiling is continued for a greater length of time.
The quantity of non-crystallizing material in the juices from which the jellies are made, namely, the pectose bodies in fruits, is sufficient in most cases to prevent the crystallization of the cane sugar in the jelly. The jelly is formed by these pectose bodies being present in the juice in sufficient quantities to become semi-solid on cooling after manufacture. The solidifying may take place in a short time or only after several hours. The juice at the time of completion of the boiling is thoroughly sterilized, and in this hot condition should be placed in sterilized vessels and covered before setting away with sterilized parchment paper or a thin film of sterilized paraffine. The covering of the surface will prevent the deposition of the seed of moulds and bacteria which often infect the top layer of jellies or other fruit products prepared in a similar manner whose surface is not properly protected.
Preservatives. Since the care which is necessary to prepare a jelly in a thoroughly sterilized condition and to protect the exposed surface so that infection thereof cannot take place is a matter of expense and requires great attention to details, it has been sought to avoid these by the use of chemical preservatives. Salicylic acid and benzoic acid or benzoate of soda have been the principal preservatives employed, and until state and municipal laws introduced a proper inspection or analysis of these products the use of these chemical preservatives was very common. In later years their use has been gradually diminished, owing to the objections on the part of the laws and the public to the presence of these bodies in the finished products. There are, however, still on the market many products which are preserved by salicylic acid, benzoic acid, or benzoate of soda or some similar active agent.
From the above résumé it is seen that the consumer who buys in the open market is not quite certain that he is getting the product for which he pays. This condition of affairs will doubtless pass away with the advent of the proper inspection of fruits which are used in manufacturing on a large scale and a proper supervision of the manufacturing establishments, together with a rigid execution of the national and state food laws. Under such conditions the adulterations will either disappear from the market or be so labeled as to practically inform the purchaser of their character.
Marmalade. The term "marmalade" is applied to a special character of fruit product prepared in the same manner as jam in which the fruit is not so thoroughly pulped. The orange is a fruit which is used very extensively for making marmalade, an orange marmalade, in other words, is only a fruit product of the character of jam and made after the same manner. This class of fruit products is so nearly the same as jam as not to need any special description.
COMPOUND JAMS AND JELLIES.
Adulteration. The adulterations to which the marmalades are subjected are practically the same as for jams. In the study of marmalade in the Bureau of Chemistry 96 samples were examined. Of this number 86 were commercial products and 10 were prepared in the laboratory of the Bureau. Of the commercial articles 18 samples, somewhat less than 20 percent, contained no glucose. Fifty-three contained glucose, but were not so labeled, and 15 were labeled as compound or artificial. The percentage of solids in these products varied within a wide limit. The maximum percentage of solids found was 82.46 and the minimum 53.43. The average percentage of ash in the marmalade not containing glucose was 0.32, and the average alkalinity of the ash as measured by a standard acid was 0.26. In the adulterated marmalade containing glucose the average percentage of ash was 0.59, almost as great as in the pure article, and the average alkalinity was 0.29, somewhat greater than in the pure article.
Compound Jams and Jellies.-A word should be said respecting the meaning of the word "compound" as attached to fruit products, especially jams and jellies, since it is a word which has been selected as somewhat more euphonious than the term "adulterated" or "misbranded." So true is this that the word "compound" when placed upon a food product indicates at once to the purchaser that the article is a mixture or substitute. The term, therefore, indicates the character of sophistication. To such an extent may this be practiced that the actual material named in connection with the word "compound" may be absent from the mixture altogether. The term arose first on account of the desire of the manufacturer to leave off of the labels a statement of the exact composition of the contents of the package and to substitute a word of less significance, and at the same time to comply with certain state laws which require that all fruit products containing glucose be labeled with the word "compound" or some similar term. A much simpler and more direct method would be to make the label a truthful one, indicating, as nearly as possible, the character of the product. A compound generally means a jelly or jam made without the fruit named, that is, largely of glucose. It also indicates, as a rule, that the product is artificially colored and artificially flavored. In these cases the word "imitation" is to be preferred, inasmuch as the mixtures bearing the word "compound" can only be regarded in reality as a mixture of unlike substances.
General Conclusions. In regard to fruit products made by boiling with sugar, the general statement that they should be true to name and free from artificial colors, preservatives, or other adulterations apparently covers the whole ground. If it is desired to make a cheaper article for the benefit of consumers of small means, the principles which should guide the manufacturers are plain. The materials which are added should be wholesome and free of deleterious or injurious matter. The poor man, while entitled
to get a cheaper article, is likewise entitled, as well as the rich man, to protection against deleterious substances. In the present state of our knowledge, glucose is not regarded by the majority of hygienists as a substance injurious to health. If it be injurious it is due more to a lack of care in manufacture than to any inherent properties. Pure glucose, being simply a hydrolyzed production of starch, cannot be regarded as a substance injurious to health. The objections to glucose which have been legitimately made are due to the fact that the acids which have been used in converting the starch and also the sulfurous acid which has been used in bleaching the product have not been entirely removed. It appears that the glucose used for food purposes can be freed from all objection by inverting the starch with which it is made with disastase and avoiding the use of all bleaching reagents. The glucose thus made would not be water-white, nor is it desirable for edible purposes that it be so, since it is always, except, perhaps, in the manufacture of certain candies, used in connection with naturally colored food products. There is no reason to believe that a glucose made as above and possessing, as it naturally would, an amber or reddish color would be made less desirable than a product which is absolutely colorless. This suggestion, therefore, is made to the manufacturer of glucose for edible purposes in the interest of public health and to avoid any possible condemnation of the glucose by reason of the method of manufacture, namely, that the use of acid in the manufacture of glucose be discontinued, that malt or some other form of disastase be substituted and that bleaching, except by passing through animal charcoal, be entirely omitted. The product made in this way would be free from the objections which have been, and may in the future still be, urged with reason against the use of the article at the present time.
Preserves. The term "preserves" is a general one which is applied in common language to a preparation of fruit preserved by boiling with sugar until complete sterilization is accomplished. The term in its general application includes the different varieties of preserves which have already been mentioned, namely, jams, marmalades, etc. It must also be extended to include the class of fruit products known as jellies, though, as a rule, it is not made so comprehensive in meaning, inasmuch as the jelly does not contain any of the solid particles of fruit.) Perhaps there is no other part of the foodmanufacturing industry which is so universally practiced in the household as the manufacture of preserves. Not only is this true of farm life in the country but also of those living in the city. The sterilization of fresh fruit without the use of sugar is not nearly so common as the making of the domestic supply of preserved fruits in the sense above mentioned. There is only one sufficient reason for the preparation of such foods, namely, the suspicion which attaches to the manufactured article appearing upon the market. So universal has been the custom of artificially coloring the product, and of
the use of glucose and preservatives, as to create a general impression among consumers that the articles thus purchased in the open market are adulterated and misbranded. When these preparations are made in the household we are at least assured of the genuineness of the product. It must be admitted that the art and technique of manufacture cannot possibly be so perfect in the home as in the large factories. It follows as a necessary consequence that such goods as those indicated ought to be better and cheaper and more readily preserved if made in large manufacturing centers than when made. at home. Even those who make the genuine product suffer in common with those who make adulterated articles, since the suspicion of adulteration attaches to the whole output. The practice of domestic manufacture will undoubtedly continue until the public is fully convinced that better and cheaper articles can be purchased in the open market.
Peach Preserves.-A common practice among the housewives throughout the United States is to boil peaches with sugar or sugar sirup, forming the well known product, peach preserves. Preserves of this kind are considered a delicacy, and, as they are easily made and kept, they are a very common article of diet throughout all parts of the country where peaches are grown.
Fruit Butter. There are several preparations of fruit which differ in some respect from those just mentioned, to which the term "butter" has been applied, such as apple butter, peach butter, etc., and these are common articles of domestic manufacture. This type of article is illustrated by a description of apple butter.
Apple butter is made by boiling comminuted, sound, carefully selected apples of a proper degree of maturity with cider until the whole mass forms. a bulk of the proper consistence. The preparation thus made is treated with certain spices according to the desire of the manufacturer and the taste of the consumer. There is quite a quantity of material insoluble in water in genuine fruit butter. The rest consists of water, the added sugar, if any, and the fruit juice with which the butter is made.
Adulteration of Fruit Butter.-Very extensive adulterations are practiced with fruit butter offered in the open market. In the Bureau of Chemistry as high as 30 percent of glucose has been found as an added product. The addition of cane sugar cannot be regarded as an adulteration but the best fruit butters are made without it. Artificial colors are sometimes used, and preservatives, especially benzoic acid, are quite common in the commercial article.
PEACH PRESERVES-FRUIT BUTTER-BRANDIED FRUIT.
Brandied Fruit.-The use of brandy in common with sugar in the preservation of fruit is widely practiced. Sometimes alcohol alone is relied upon. as a preserving agent. At other times greater or less quantities of cane sugar are used. Usually heat is employed in addition to the other preserving agents to complete sterilization. Nearly all forms of fruit may be preserved
in this way. Brandied cherries and peaches are perhaps the most abundant. The quantity of alcohol employed varies between 15 and 20 percent of the total weight of the goods. The quantity of cane sugar used has been found to range from six to 20 percent of the weight of the fruit. Fruit preserved in this way cannot be regarded in the light of food solely, but only as a condimental substance. The eating of any large quantity of food containing that percentage of alcohol could not be accomplished without danger of intoxication. The utilization of such foods upon the table should be of a restricted character, and, especially, they should not be used with children or very young people where the danger from the direct effects of the alcohol is magnified and the possibility of forming the alcohol habit is also present.
Adulteration of Brandied Fruits.-The principal adulteration of brandied fruit is in the use of aclohol which is not genuine brandy. It is well known that much of the brandy offered in commerce is fictitious, that is, is not the pure distilled alcoholic product from sound wine properly aged in wood before using. When brandy is purchased for preserved fruit, unless special care is taken to secure the genuine article the imitation article may be supplied. Instead of the real brandy the manufacturers may use an article which is entirely devoid of any product of the distillation of wine or containing only a small amount thereof. The term "brandy" used with the fruit in such a case is a misnomer and the article would be deemed misbranded under the provisions of the law. The manufacturer can assure himself of the purity of the brandy by obtaining it from a bonded warehouse, since it is made under the supervision of the officials of the internal revenue and kept under such supervision until delivered to the consumer. Inasmuch as preparations of this kind are regarded as delicacies and the cost of the product does not enter materially into consideration it is highly advisable that only genuine brandy, distilled from sound wine and aged in wood for a period of not less than four years, be employed in the manufacture.
Importance of the Canning and Preserving Industries.-The statistics for the canning and preserving industries for the calendar year ending December 31, 1904, form a part of the census of manufactures, which is made in conformity with the act of Congress of March 6, 1902, and are compared with similar statistics for the census of 1900, which covered the fiscal year ending May 31st.
There has been a large increase in those industries. The slight decrease in the average number of wage-earners is more apparent than real, and is due largely to the fact that a considerable number were employed in fish canneries under a contract system. The contractor furnishes the laborers and is paid for an agreed quantity of product. The establishment reporting has no record of the number employed by the contractors, and they were not included in the number reported, the amount paid for such contract