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To enable the Bureau of Animal Industry, Department of Agriculture, to perform the duties imposed upon it by the agricultural appropriation act, approved March 3, 1921, and the act of May 29, 1884 (23 Stat. L., p. 31), and acts amendatory thereof, for the payment of indemities on account of cattle slaughtered during the current tiscal year and prior fiscal years, in connection with the eradication of tuberculosis from animals, $600,000.
We shall be glad to hear you, Mr. Reed, if you desire to make a statement.
Mr. REED. The reason that I introduced this bill was because of urgent requests received from farm organizations in my district. It appears from their letters that very great progress has been made by these organizations under the agricultural appropriation act approved March 3, 1921, with reference to the eradication of bovine tuberculosis. The Agricultural Department reports that since starting the work of tuberculin testing of cattle in 1918 to October 1, 1921, in New York State, 20,812 were found to be tubercular, or 13.8 per cent of those given the test.
The $141,000 allotted to the State of New York on July 1, 1921, to indemnify the owners of cattle, has now been exhausted, and I am informed that the work was discontinued on October 1, 1921, because of the lack of funds to pay the indemnity.
The dairy business in the State of New York is one of the most important agricultural activities in the State. The total number of dairy cows on farms January 1, 1920, according to the census report, was 1,481,918. The figures show that on farms reporting milk produced there were 1,322,312 cows. In this connection the average production of milk per dairy cow in 1919 was 502 gallons.
Speaking in terms of dollars, the value of the milk sold in New York State in 1919 was $159,005,454, which does not include butter fat nor butter.
The total number of dairy cattle in my congressional district according to the last census was 203,903. It can be readily seen that in presenting this matter I am speaking for a portion of the State that places great emphasis on this important industry. The cattle are largely thoroughbreds, and the farm organizations are intensely interested in eradicating tuberculosis from their herds. The work has been well started and it seems to me that it would be poor economy to prevent the continuation of the work because of lack of funds with which to pay the indemnity.
The eradication of tuberculosis bears directly on the problem of safeguarding the people from this dread disease. A great effort is being made in the State of New York to protect people from tuberculosis, especially infants. In order that I might bring specific facts to bear on this point I telephoned to the tuberculosis section of the Hospital Division of the United States Public Health Service and asked for information relative to the number of deaths from tuberculosis in New York State annually and the same information as to the new cases of the disease reported for that State. I also inquired whether milk from tubercular cows is a menace to infants consuming this milk. I wish to insert a chart showing the number of cases and the number of deaths from tuberculosis, all forms, and pulmonary tuberculosis in New York State for the years 1916-1920:
Number of cases and number of deaths of tuberculosis (all forms) and pul
monary tuberculosis in New York State for the years 1916-1920.
With reference to the second inquiry as to the danger of tuberculosis being contracted by infants consuming milk, I wish to insert the letter from C. C. Pierce, Acting Surgeon General, in reply to my inquiry.
OCTOBER 24, 1921. Hon. DANIEL A. REED,
House of Representatires, Washington, D), ('. MY DEAR MR. REED: As requested in your telephone conversation of October 19 with the tuberculosis section of the Hospital Division there is inclosed herewith information relative to the number of deaths from tuberculosis in New York State annually and the same information as to the new cases of the clisease reporteil in that State. The aggregate of tuberculous patients in New York State at any one time can not be determined from data at hand. In this connection, however, it is interesting to note that according to surveys made by the National Tuberculosis Association at Framingham, Mass., there appears to be an incidence of two cases of tuberculosis which can be diagnosed as such, among each 100 of population. Not all of these cases, however, are in need of hospital care, the disease in many instances being self-arrested before the patient comes under observation.
With further reference to your inquiry there is no doubt that milk from tuberculous cows is a menace to infants consuming this milk. The bovine tubercule bacillus does not (except in possibly very rare instances) (ause tuberculosis of the lungs in adults. It causes tuberculosis of the bones, joints, and glands, especially in children. About 8 per cent of deaths from tuberculosis in man are caused by the bovine tubercle bacillus, most of the victims being children. Raw market milk of the cheaper grades sold in most cities frequently contains bovine tubercle bacilli.
I hope that this information will be found satisfactory for the purposes desired. Respectfully.
C. C. PIERCE, Acting Surgeon Generui.
While I do not wish to take up too much of your time or burden your record with facts, I feel that the subject matter is of sufficient importance to warrant a few excerpts from a report made by F. C. Smith, surgeon, United States Public Health Service, Fort Stanton, X. Mex. In this report he states:
About 8 per cent of deaths from tuberculosis in man are caused by bovine bacilli, most of the victims being ch ldren. Raw market milk of the cheaper gradles in most cities frequently contains bovine tubercle bacilli. Opinion has fluctuated concerning the importance of bovine infect on, from Von Behring's theory that all tuberculosis is due to bovine infection acquired in infancy, to the idea that it might safely be ignored and was even desirable. It seems definitely settled that while the danger from this source has been sometimes exaggerated, it is a distinct menace and there remains only the question as to how it can best be avoided. It is an amazing fact that with full knowledge of the epidemiology of tuberculosis among cattle, the d sease has not been eliminated in a single State in this country.
This same authority states:
About 10 per cent of all deaths among children under 15 years of age are due to the var ous forms of this disease. It is known that tuberculosis increases in frequency but decreases in fatality with each year of life during childhood.
I have an official statement showing the appropriations for hospital facilities, under date of October 10, 1921. This statement shows that the appropriations made by Congress for hospital facilities amount to $18,600,000. Out of a total of 16 hospitals completed or under way, 10 are for the care of tubercular people.
The same report shows that contemplated hospitals, plans nearly completed, which are included in this total appropriation of $18,600,000, there are four, three of which are for the care of tubercular patients. One of these contemplated hospitals is to be built in New York at a cost of $1,250,000.
It seems to me that while we are spending large sums to care for those affected with tuberculosis it is equally important that nothing should be left undone to prevent the spread of the disease. If by appropriating money to pay the indemnity for the eradication of bovine tuberculosis we can prevent children and very young infants from contracting the disease, then it ought to be done. The fact that New York has acted promptly in taking advantage of the law to eradicate this dread disease, it is only fair that the State should be permitted to continue its good work so long as it can be shown that real results are being obtained.
WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 9, 1921.
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE.
BUREAU OF LIGHTHOUSES.
STATEMENT OF MR. GEORGE R. PUTNAM, COMMISSIONER OF
INCREASED COMPENSATION FOR CLERICAL FORCE IN WASHINGTON.
The CHAIRMAN. It appears you have an item here for four clerks at the rate of $1,600 each per annum from November 1, 1921, to June 30, 1922, in lieu of two clerks at $1,000 each and two clerks at $900 each for the same period appropriated for the legislative, executive, and judicial appropriation act for the fiscal year 1922, $1,734. Do you call that a deficiency?
Mr. PUTNAM. No, sir; I call that a supplemental estimate. These are submitted as supplemental and deficiency estimates.
The CHAIRMAN. Is there any emergency that would justify this appropriation ?
Mr. PUTNAM. I think so, if you will allow me to explain it, briefly. This is for the central office of the Lighthouse Service here in Washington.
Mr. KELLEY. Are these statutory positions?
Mr. PUTNAM. The salaries are not fixed by law except as they are appropriated for individually.
Mr. Sisson. Under the statute that becomes the salary for that office until changed by law, which makes it legislation, of course.
The CHAIRMAN. As I understand it, we are considering deficiency appropriations, and I can not read this into a deficiency under any possible construction.
Mr. PUTNAM. The letter from the director of the budget stated the committee would consider supplemental and deficiency estimates, and this document is so headed.
The CHAIRMAN. We are not bound by that, you know.
Mr. PUTNAM. I understand, but this document submitted to the committee is headed “Supplemental and deficiency estimates."
Mr. GALLIVAN. And in consequence of that you submitted this request?
Mr. PUTNAM. In consequence of that this has been submitted as a supplemental estimate and not as a deficiency estimate.
Mr. KELLEY. You are not changing the number of clerks, but increasing the pay!
Mr. PUTNAM. We want to drop the four lowest clerks in our office and put in four clerks at $1,600, so we can get competent persons to do our work.
The CHAIRMAN. Are these $900 positions filled now?
Mr. PUTNAM. They are leaving themselves every little while. I have a list of 71 persons we have had in the two lower grade positions in our office in the last four years. This is not an attempt to revise the general schedule of pay.
The CHAIRMAN. The clerks classed here as $900 and $1,000 with the bonus get $1,140 and $1,240 ?
Mr. PUTNAM. Yes, sir.
The CHAIRMAN. And if they were $1,600 clerks they would get the bonus also ?
Mr. PUTNAM. Yes, sir; that is correct. I appreciate, Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, that this is a rather unusual request to bring here on this kind of a bill, but I think we are in a very unusual kind of a position. We have a large service of about 6,000 people, and we have only 40 people here in Washington to conduct the headquarters work of that service. I do not think there is any parallel to this in the Government service in Washington. We can do the work with 40 people if we have competent people, but we can not do it right if we have not competent people. The salaries in our office were fixed in 1867, more than 50 years ago, and with two exceptions they have not been changed since, except that you have given this bonus in the last few years. In the meantime you have established a great many large bureaus here in Washington within the last few years, with lump-sum appropriations where the fixing of the pay is within the discretion of the heads of those bureaus.
The CHAIRMAN. And we made a great mistake in doing that.
Mr. PUTNAM. They have fixed salaries on an average two and three and four and five hundred dollars higher than we are allowed by law to pay. The result is we are losing our people right along. We do not happen to have any vacancies to-day, but we may have tomorrow or the next day, and here is a list of 71 changes that have been made in the two lower grades in our office in the last four years.
The CHAIRMAN. Such changes are occurring every day in every activity.
Mr. PUTNAM, In the last year I have had three changes in the position of secretary in my own office, one within the last two weeks. They go to these bureaus, that fix the going rate of wage in Washington, and we are perfectly helpless in keeping a proper force to carry on this work. I have here the announcement of the Civil Service Commission of the entrance rate of pay for stenographers, $1,200 plus the bonus. This is $200 and $300 more than we can pay, and stenographers are the lowest grade of clerical employees required in our office, because of the technical character of the work.
WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 9, 1921.
DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE.
STATEMENTS OF MR. CHARLES E. STEWART, CHIEF CLERK; MR. E. M. KENNARD, ADMINISTRATIVE ACCOUNTANT; MR. J. D. HARRIS, CHIEF, DIVISION OF ACCOUNTS; MR. CLARKSON SHERWOOD, IN CHARGE OF PRINTING AND SUPPLIES; MR. SEWALL KEY, ASSISTANT SUPERINTENDENT OF PRISONS; AND DAVID D. CALDWELL, SPECIAL ASSISTANT TO THE ATTORNEY GENERAL.
The CHAIRMAN. The first item is, “ Contingent expenses: For miscellaneous expenditures, including telegraphing, fuel, lights, foreign postage, labor, repairs of buildings, care of grounds, books of reference, periodicals, typewriters and adding machines and exchange of same, street car fares,” etc., for the fiscal year 1919, $0.38.
What is that, please?
Mr. HARRIS. That is an ascertained claim.
The CHAIRMAN. Was there money enough to pay this claim if the balance in the fund had not been turned back to the Treasury, or was there no balance?
Mr. HARRIS. There was no balance.
Mr. KENXARD. This is a delayed bill of the Western Union Telegraph Co. for telegraphic services.
The CHAIRMAN. There is no interest charge on it?
DETECTION AND PROSECUTION OF CRIMES.
The CHAIRMAN. The next two items under " Detection and prosecution of crimes," one for 1918, $1.66, and one for 1919. $8.75. Be kind enough to explain to us how these two items occurred.