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estas it is clear that no such common experience can be generally had by all Biers for a generation or more. The Board believes a common entry of all war. Reserve and Regular, via the first 2 years of the NROTC as proposed 7 the Jacobs-Barker plan, would eliminate intraservice differences to ony a Er degree. Other more realistic methods of eliminating such friction exist. ming them are the following which the Board strongly recommends :

10: Take immediate and vigorous action to insure positive indoctrination and 72.1.!ng of all officers in mutual understanding of the problems which must be

sed in order that individual officers from all sources may pull together for the 02 good of the Navy. D) Initiate open-minded and progressive administrative measures to insure:

1. Identical designation of all junior officers.

2 Equal opportunity among all officers for promotion, responsibility, training, and education.

Adjust the supply of permanent commissioned officers taken into the Navy -tat approximately one-half come from the Naval Academy and one-half from Bull"-T Surres I am the Beard conceives that implementation of the last of these measures alone

in time serve to eliminate intraservice friction and insure an open-minded, als of riffi er corps wherein each source of entry provides qualities for mutual * 111on. The Marine Corps offers the Navy sound precedent. Their officers, down from varied sources, are unsurpassed in professional esprit.

1* The Board recommends in the junior-officer grade, the judicious and equitaigen niployment of short-term commissions associated with terminal educational bertirs and bonus payments on a sliding scale. Short-term officers would be Tdifferentiated members of an over-all junior-officer pool. All would be com

soned 4 years after entry, wear the same uniform, carry the same designation, arr bare a reasonable opportunity of obtaining a permanent commission. Those I was commissioned would be returned to inactive reserve status at as early an 1 as practicable, and given the best possible opportunity to enter a business sve profession.

s short-term officers would provide 10A large number of junior officers on active duty to meet service needs in

category. * A reduction of the number of naval officers embarking upon a permanent casal career, thereby lessening to a marked extent forced attrition and the accomi-Triig waste and expense of retirement in an officer's highly productive years.

TEA continually replenished reservoir of educated, experienced, active, and - vlis Reserve officers available for immediately useful employment with miniLinn bred for refresher training in event of mobilization in national emergency. JAX* L. HOI LOWAY, Jr.,

JAMES P. BAXTER, Riur Admiral, USN,

President, Williams College, Ninior Member.

Member. HEY T. HEALD,

FELIX I. JOHNSON, President, Minois Institute of Tech Captain, USN, mology,

Member. Venuber.

STUART H. INGFRSOLL, (******»& D. WHEELOCK,

('aptain, USN, i aptain, CSN,

Member.
Momber.

ARTHUR S. ADAMS,
FIN P W. VEST,

Captain, CSV (Retired), (Captain, U8N,

Member.
Wimber.

DOUGLAS M. SWIFT, 1'111*8 K. DUNCAN.

Commander, USN,
Commander, USN,

Member and Recorder.
Ymber.

The Chairman. Let us now take up the Jacobs matter. Do you have that there?

Admiral Johnson. There was no board in connection with that, Mr. Cairman.

The ('HAIRMAN. Do you have the report?

Admiral JOHNSON. We have a copy of the bill which I will put into the record, sir.

$1266-46-No. 225

6

(The bill referred to is as follows:)

A BILL To provide for the selection and training of officers for the Regular Navy and for

the Naval Reserve, and for other purposes

CONTENTS BY SECTIONS

Section 1. General authorization.

Section 9. Naval cadets and Reserve

Section 2. Definitions.

midshipmen.

Section 3. NOTUS at educational insti-

(a) Application of naval

tutions:

law to.

(a) Establishment of.

(b) Discipline of.

(b) Authority of com-

(c) Status of.

manding officer and

(d) Discharge of.

Secretary

(e) Pay and allowances

Section 4. Officer candidacy:

of.
(a) Eligibility.

(f) Benefits to which en-
(b) Competitive exami-

titled.
nation.

(g) Disability of.
Section 5. Quotas for naval cadets and Section 10. Regular midshipmen.
midshipmen.

Section 11. Appointments to rank of en-
Section 6. State committees :

sign in Naval Reserve.
(a) Establishment of. Section 12. Enlisted men :
(b) Pay and allowances

(a) Prep a rator y
of members.

schools for.
Section 7. Naval cadets :

(b) Status on appoint-
(a) Certifications to

ment.
State committees. Section 13. Revision of curriculum at
(b) Selection and

ap

Naval Academy.
pointinent.

Section 14. Expenditures authorized.
Acceptance of appoint Section 15. NROTC and V-12 units.
ment.

Section 16. Naval cadet appointments
Section 8. Regular and Reserve midship-

for 1946.
men:

Section 17. Regular midshipman ap
(a) Records for State

pointment provisions-
committees.

date.

(b) Selection and ap-

pointment of Regular

midshipmen.

(c) Appointment of Re-

serve midshipmen.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States

of America in Congress assembled, That the Secretary of the Navy is hereby

authorized and directed to establish, supervise, administer, and control, a pro-

gram for (1) the selection of candidates for officer training for the Regular

Navy and the Naval Reserve; (2) the training of candidates so selected at estab-

lished and duly accredited educational institutions for periods of not less than

two academic years; (3) the screening and selection of the candidates so selected

and trained for appointment as midshipmen at the United States Naval Academy

or as Reserve midshipmen; and (4) the further training of such midshipmen

with a view to commissioning them in the Regular Navy or the Naval Reserve,

as the case might be.

Sec. 2. When used in this Act (a) the term “President" means the President

of the United States; (b) the term “Secretary” means the Secretary of the Navy;
(c) the term "Commission” means the United States Civil Service Commission :
(d) the term “State" includes every State, Territory, and possession of the
United States, and the District of Columbia ; (e) the term "educational institu-
tion" means any school, college, or university, of higher (as distinguished from
secondary) education but in no event shall the term include any school, college,
or university, which has not been approved by the appropriate accrediting organi.
zations; (f) the term “naval officers training unit” means a naval activity estab-
lished pursuant to this Act at an educational institution for the purpose of con-
ducting a naval cadet school, or a Reserve midshipman school, or both; (g) the
term "officer candidate” means any individual who has, after proper examination,
been recommended to the Secretary, by the Commission as suitable material for
appointment as a naval cadet; (h) the term “naval cadet" means any officer
candidate who has been accepted for and actually enrolled in a naval cadet

bu mder the supervision of a naval officers training unit; (i) the term "Re

* midshipman" means any oflicer candidate who has completed at least two ko mhic sears training as a naval cadet and who has been appointed Reserve 2 fomnan under section 8 (c) of this Act; (j) the term “Regular midshipLa mens any officer candidate who has completed at least two academic years *-.in as a naval cadet and who has been accepted for and actually enrolled in * Chated States Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland.

sa 3 (a) l'pon the application of any educational institution, the Secretary 2.5. in bis discretion, with the approval of the President, establish a naval

training unit at such institution composed of either a naval cadet school or Barve midshipmen's school, or both. In passing upon the applications of

Uobal institutions and in determining at which institutions naval officers Tuang units shall be established, the Secretary shall consider the following *****: (1) The desirability of giving the widest possible geographical distribu*** in such training units, wherever feasible placing at least one such unit within m. sate; (2) the geographical advantages or disadvantages of the particular

lution; (3) the physical properties, equipment, faculty, course of study, B'd ratation of the particular institution; (4) the relative cost to the Govern2-38 of establishing and operating each proposed training unit; and (5) the

sisibility from public, private, or institution sources of adequate housing 2nd being facilities at reasonable cost for naval cadets and Reserve midship

Whenever consistent with the above-enumerated considerations, the SecFalary shall establish naval officers' training units at institutions to which Naval

rve officers training units are attached on the date of the enactment of

Act. In passing upon any application filed under this section, the Secretary is require the applying educational institution to comply with certain condi

. before approval or the Secretary may establish such a training unit subject *s• be cantinuous compliance with stated conditions. The conditions imposed site Necretary under this section shall not be unreasonable or arbitrary, but

all the designed to effect a uniform, high-quality training program among all marul «fficer training units.

sh, The Secretary shall detail an officer of the Navy or of the Naval Reserve * commanding officer of each naval officers training unit, together with such

pulisted and officer personnel as he deems necessary. The commanding fe of each naval officers training unit shall be in complete charge of said ***ing unit and of naval cadets and Reserve midshipmen assigned thereto. He

authorized to take all action necessary for the proper administration of the aining unit and the proper training of said cadets and midshipmen, subject to sih instructions as he shall receive from the Secretary. The Secretary may ', kinh regulations for the operation of naval officer training units which shall

*Ryzle but not be limited to the following: (1) The establishment of minimum aurine requirements for naval cadets and reserve midshipmen, including but not uted to courses in mathematics, navigation, mechanical drawing, naval science

of tarties, physics and modern sciences, naval history, customs and etiquette, Eet xh. history, modern languages, and the economic and social sciences; and (2)

24 iablishment of minimum requirements for drill, field maneuvers, practice Tom, and physical fitness programs. Naval cadet and Reserve midshipmen's puest *** shall be ancillary to the regular courses offered by the educational in** 310n involved and shall be scheduled in such a way as to recognize that Borie midshipmen are to be trained primarily for civilian occupations. Every

- stali be made to schedule naval cadets and Reserve midshipmen into courses noris offered by the educational institution; the staff of the training unit being

pleted to instruct only in those required courses wherein the institution offers *****of.parable courses. At institutions in which courses are given by members of

training unit staff. civilian students not classified as naval cadets or Reserve ové tiponen may, in the discretion of the commanding officer of the training

tw* pwrmitted to attend such courses as are taught by members of the staff of *t training unit.

4. (a) Any male citizen of the United States, its Territories or posses* not less than fifteen years of age and not more than twenty years of age 15 mpir for officer training in the United States Navy. Applications shall

marde to and on forms provided by the Commission. A qualified applicant tuts an enlisted man in the United States Navy shall apply to the Secretary, #1. stull forward the application to the Commission.

hi The l'ommission shall offer and conduct annual, uniform. Nation-wide com***** examinations for the selection of officer candidates. Examinations shall

be given at such times and places as the Commission shall determine; however.. they shall be completed at such time as to permit the Commission to certify the results of such examinations to the Secretary not later than April 15 of each year. The content of annual examinations shall have the approval of the Secretary and shall be designed to test (1) educational background; (2) intelligence; (3) mechanical aptitude; and (4) potential officer and leadership qualities. The Commission shall certify to the Secretary, on or before April 15 of each year, the names of those applicants who have been tested and who are recommended by the Commission for officer training. Such certifications shall show, with respect to each recommended candidate, his State and National standing on the examination.

SEC. 5. The Secretary shall, from time to time, fix National and State quotas for naval cadets. The quota of naval cadets for each State shall approximate a percentage of the national quota of naval cadets equal to the ratio which the population of the State bears to the population of all States. The Secretary shall, from time to time, fix National and State quotas for Regular midshipmen at the United States Naval Academy. The quota of Regular midshipmen for each State shall approximate a percentage of the national quota of Regular midshipmen equal to the ratio which the population of the State bears to the population of all States.

SEC. 6. (a) The Secretary is authorized and directed to appoint, in each State, a naval cadet and Reserve and Regular midshipman selection committee composed of three members-one a line officer of the Navy or Naval Reserve, preferably on duty at a naval officers training unit within the State, one a person of distinction in the field of education, and one a representative citizen. Headquarters of the committee shall be established at a naval officers training unit within the State, if there be such otherwise at the training unit nearest to the State.

(b) Members of State committees appointed under authority of this section, except such members as may be officers of the Navy or Naval Reserve, may be employed by the Secretary, by contract, or otherwise, without regard to section 2709 of the Revised Statutes or the civil-service or classification laws and, out of available appropriations, the Secretary may provide for the compensation of such State committee members at rates not to exceed $25 per day and while away from their homes on official business, transportation in kind, and not to exceed $10 per day in lieu of subsistence.

SEC. 7. (a) As soon after April 15 of each year as practicable, the Secretary shall certify to each State committee (1) information as to its current State quota of naval cadets ; (2) information as to the number of prospective vancancies in that quota on September 1 of that year; (3) information as to the naval officers training units to which appointments to vacancies should be made; and (4) a number of names of officer candidates for the State recommended by the Commission equal (if there are sufficient names recommended) at least to three times the number of prospective vacancies, together with the State and National ratings thereof and such other information as may have been certified by the Commission.

(b) Immediately upon the receipt of the certifications provided for in subsection (a) of this section, the committee shall (1) notify each certified officer candidate that he has been recommended for appointment as a naval cadet, informing him of his State and National standing ; (2) send to each such officer candidate appropriate forms for filing with the committee showing (a) his school record ; (b) his criminal record, if any; and (c) a certification by duly licensed and qualified physician as to the applicant's physical condition ; (3) notify the applicant to appear before the committee and officers attached to a designated naval offcers' training unit for a personal interview and physical examination ; (4) interview all physically qualified officer candidates who file proper forms and appear for interview ; (5) after due consideration of civil-service ratings, files on prior experience, studies, and conduct and personal interviews, select and appoint to the certified vacancies the officer candidates who, in their opinion, are best qualified; and (6) notify those appointed to appear and accept appointment.

(c) Upon acceptance of appointment as naval cadet each officer candidate shall enter into a contractual agreement with the Secretary, acting for and on behalf of the United States, binding said officer candidate to the naval service, unless sooner released by competent authority, for a period of seven years as follows: (1) Not less than two academic years as naval cadet ; (2) not less than two academic years as Reserve midshipman or not less than three years as a Regular midshipman; and (3) not less than three years as a Naval Reserve officer or not less than two years as a Regular Navy officer.

tai The commanding officer of each naval officers training unit shall ** & complete record of each naval cadet's scholarship, conduct, and activities.

be remores shall be supplemented by procedures whereby each naval and in****, instructor makes periodic recommendations as to the qualifications

ob eadet. The record so kept shall be made available to the State com- in which shall supplement that information by such interviews as it deems vary and proper.

10 in the month of March of each year the Secretary shall certify to the >"**promittee the prospective number of Regular midshipmen vacancies for its

as of July 1 of that year in the United States Naval Academy. On or fro June 1 of each year, each State committee shall recommend to the

mary for appointment as Regular midshipmen a sufficient number of naval 90s (with appropriate alternates) to fill the vacancies in Regular midship2- billets at the Naval Academy for that State: Provided, That there are a

at number of qualified naval cadets from the State to merit, in the * U «of the committee, such appointment. In order to be eligible for recom

dation by the committee a naval cadet must have satisfactorily completed at - two academic years as a naval cadet as of June 1 of the year of recom

«9). In making recommendations under this subsection, the committee * 2 prisider, as a primary factor, the desire of individual cadets to be perma

I mixers in the United States Navy. Every naval cadet, in good standing, ** L* cumpletes his second academic year as a naval cadet, shall be given the daf a) being considered for appointment as a regular midshipman; or *** trag permitted to continue in the naval officers training program as a te mid-hipinan. In June of each year, the Secretary shall appoint, from *** tamended principals and alternates from each State, a sufficient number & tingular midshipmen to fill the quota for such State. In the event that there * Wail-ufficient number of naval cadets recommended for any State, the Secrend?1.5 authorized to fiil the vacancies from among alternates from other, prefer2".1 adjacrot, States. Upon acceptance of appointment as Regular midshipmen, urai eudets shall be ordered to report to the United States Naval Academy on salut July 1 of the year of appointment. e Naval cadets who have satisfactorily completed not less than two academic

of training as such, and who have not been appointed Regular midshipmen :r subsection (b) of this section and who have not been discharged from

untractual obligation to the United States, as hereinafter provided for, the appointed Reserve midshipmen. 1. 9. (a) Naval cadets and Reserve midshipmen, while so serving, shall

furt to the Articles for the Government of the Navy, United States Navy kations, and all orders from superior authority issued pursuant to law.

b. In order to avoid unnecessary application of court-martial procedures to aval «ndris and Reserve midshipmen, the Secretary, with the approval of • Prodpot, is authorized to promulgate disciplinary regulations and proce* for naval cadets and Reserve midshipmen based on punishment through

VP of demerits and the assignment of extra duty and study periods • b cistuissal from the program as the punishment for excessive demerits. ting in suid regulations shall forbid the application of existing court-martial : *ins in cases in which the Secretary finds the use of such procedures to

propriate. For purpose of discipline, naval cadets shall be deemed to be

«en fun and Reserve midshipmen shall be deemed to be midshipmen under - fine law, the cominanding officer in the latter situation exercising the funcmenu prerogatives that the Superintendent of the Naval Academy exercises ang 'Isting law with respect to midshipmen at said Naval Academy.

An officer candidate who has accepted appointment as a naval cadet Intinue under the designation of naval cadet until (1) discharged from 2. Antractual obligation to the United States by proper authority; or (2)

**nd a Regular midshipman; or (3) designated a Reserve midshipman. 2 tspot cand date, designated Reserve midshipman, shall continue under that

aiion until (1) discharged from his contractual obligation to the United ** by proper authority or (2) commissioned in the United States Naval

1) A naval cadet or Reserve midshipman may be discharged from his conmual codiligation to the United States under section 7 of this Act, by his Oding officer, on recommendation of the State committee based on a showing Pili mord of unsatisfactory conduct; (2) record of unsatisfactory scholar

; 131 physical disqualification; (4) undue hardship on the othicer candidate tels famly.

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