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and secretaries of the several constituent corporations and sealed with their corporate seals. There must be annexed thereto memoranda of the ratification and confirmation thereof by the stockholders of each constituent corporation, which must be respectively signed by stockholders representing at least three fourths of the capital stock of their respective corporations. When completed as aforesaid said articles must be filed in the office of the county clerk of the county in which the original articles of incorporation of either of the consolidating corporations are filed, and a copy of the articles of incorporation and consolidation certified by such county clerk must be filed in the office of the secretary of state, and thereupon the constituent corporations named therein must be deemed and held to have become extinct in all courts and places and said new corporation must be deemed and held in all courts and places to have succeeded to all their several capital stocks, properties, roads, equipments, adjuncts, franchises, claims, demands, contracts, agreements, assets, choses and rights in action of every kind and description, both at law and in equity, and to be entitled to possess, enjoy, and enforce the same and every thereof, as fully and completely as either and every of its constituents might have done had no consolidation taken place. Said consolidated or new corporation must also, in all courts and places, be deemed and held to have become subrogated to its several constituents and each thereof, in respect to all their contracts and agreements with other parties, and all their debts, obligations, and liabilities, of every kind and nature, to any persons, corporations, or bodies politic, whomsoever, or whatsoever, and said new corporation must sue and be sued in its own name in any and every case in which any or either of its constituents might have sued or might have been sued at law or in equity had no such consolidation been made. Nothing in this section contained shall be construed to impair the obligation of any contract to which any of such constituents were parties at the date of such consolidation. All such contracts may be enforced by action or suit, as the case may be, against the consolidated corporation, and satisfaction obtained out of the property which, at the date of the consolidation, belonged to the constituent which was a party to the contract in action or suit, as well as out of any other property belonging to the consolidated corporation. 1901-327.

473a. Railroad corporations doing business in this state and organized under any law of this state or the United States, or of any state or territory thereof, have power to enter into contracts with one another, whereby the one may lease of the other the whole or any part of its railroad, or may acquire of the other the right to use, in common with it, the whole or any part of its railroad. 1905— 575.

474. There is granted to every railroad corporation the right of way for the location, construction, and maintenance of their necessary works, and for every necessary adjunct thereto, over any swamp, overflowed, or, other public lands of the state not otherwise disposed of or in use, not in any case exceeding in length or width that which is necessary for the construction of such works and adjuncts, or for the protection thereof, not in any case to exceed two hundred feet in width.

475. The grants mentioned in the preceding section do not apply to public lands of the state within the corporate limits of towns and cities, or within three miles thereof.

476. The right to take from any of the lands belonging to the

state, adjacent to the works of the corporation, all materials, such as wood, stone, and earth, naturally appurtenant thereto, which may be necessary and convenient for the original construction of its works and adjuncts, is granted to such corporations.

477. If any corporation receiving state lands or appurtenances thereunder is dissolved, ceases to exist, is discontinued, or the route or line of its works is so changed as not to cover or cross the lands selected, or the use of the lands selected is abandoned, such selected lands revert, and the title thereto is reinvested in the state or its grantees, free from all such uses.

478. When any selection of the right of way, or land for an adjunct to the works of a railroad corporation, is made by any corporation, the secretary thereof must transmit to the surveyor-general, controller of state, and recorder of the county in which the selected lands are situate, au plat of the lands so selected, giving the extent thereof and use; for which the same is claimed or desired, duly verified to be correct; and, if apøroyed, the surveyor-general must so indorse the plat, and issues the corporation a permit to use the same, unless, on petition properly presented to the court, a review is had and such use prohibited.

CHAPTER III.

Business, How Conducted Section

Section 479. Baggage, generally.

487. Fare refusal by passengers. 480. Yearly report, generally. 488. Officers' badge. 481. Corporation obligation. 489. Rates of charges. 482. Refusing to carry, generally. 490. Tickets, limitations. 483. Liability, passengers, gen- 491. Rails. erally.

492. Under and overhead rail484. Regulations posted.

ways. 485. Fences, generally.

493. Sec. 492, applies all railways, 485a. Private right of way. 494. Sale, generally. 486. Running regulations.

479. A check must be affixed to every package or parcel of baggage when taken for transportation by any agent or employee of such railroad corporation, and a duplicate thereof given to the passenger or person delivering the same in his behalf; and if such check is refused on demand, the railroad corporation must pay to such passenger the sum of twenty dollars, to be recovered in an action for damages; and no fare or toll must be collected or received from such passenger, and if such passenger has paid his fare, the same must be returned by the conductor in charge of the train; and on producing the check, if his baggage is not delivered to him by the agent or employee of the railroad corporation, he may recover the value thereof from the corporation.

480. Every railroad corporation must make an annual report to the secretary of state, or other officer designated by law, of its operations for each year, ending on the thirty-first day of December, verified by the oaths of the president or acting superintendent of operations, the secretary and treasurer of such corporation, and file it in the office of the secretary of state, or such other designated officer, by the twentieth day of February, which must state:

1. The capital stock, and the amount thereof actually paid in;

2. The amount expended for the purchase of lands for the construction of the road, for buildings, and for engines and cars, respectively.

3. The amount and nature of its indebtedness, and the amount due the corporation;

4. The amount received from the transportation of passengers, property, mails, and express matter, and from other sources;

5. The amount of freight, specifying the quantity in tons; 6. The amount paid for repairs of engines, cars, buildings, and other expenses, in gross, showing the current expenses of running such road;

7. The number and amount of dividends, and when paid;

8. The number of engine-houses and shops, of engines and cars, and their character. 481. Every such corporation must start and run its cars, for the

on of persons and property, at such regular times as it shall fix by public notice, and zůst furnish sufficient accommodations for the transportation of all sy&ht passengers and property as within a reasonable time previous théreto, offer or are offered for transportation, at the place of starting, at the junction of other railroads, and at şiding and stopping places established for receiving and discharging wax passengers and freight; and must take, transport, and discharge such passengers and property at, from, and to such places, on the due payment of tolls, freight, or fare therefor. 1905–575.

482. In case of refusal by such corporation or their agents so to take and transport any passengers or property, or to deliver the same, at the regular appointed places, such corporation must pay to the party aggrieved all damages which are sustained thereby, with costs of suit.

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483. Every railroad corporation must furnish, on the inside of its passenger-cars, suficient room and accommodations for all passengers to whom tickets are sold for any one trip, and for all persons presenting tickets entitling them to travel thereon: and when for transporting passengers on any baggage, wood, gravel, or freight car, the same care must be taken and the same responsibility is assumed by the corporation as for passengers on passenger-cars.

484. Every railroad corporation must have printed and conspicuously posted on the inside of its passenger-cars its rules and regulations regarding fare and conduct of its passengers; and in case any passenger is injured on or from the platform of a car, or on any baggage, wood, gravel, or freight car, in violation of such printed regulations, or in violation of positive verbal instructions or injunctions given to such passenger in person by any officer of the train, the corporation is not responsible for damages for such injuries, unless the corporation failed to comply with the provisions of the preceding section.

485. Railroad corporations must make and maintain a good and sufficient fence on both sides of their track and property. In case they do not make and maintain such fence, if their engine or cars shall kill or maim any cattle or other domestic animals upon their line of road, except where same runs through or upon public land, they must pay to the owner of such cattle or other domestic animals, a fair market price for the same, unless it occurred through the neglect or fault of the owner of the animal so killed or maimed. Railroad corporations paying to the owner of the land through or along which their road is located an

agreed price for making and maintaining such fence, or paying the cost of such fence with the award of damages allowed for the right of way for such railroad, are relieved and exonerated from all claims for damages arising out of the killing or maiming any animals of persons who thus fail to construct and maintain such fence; and the owners of such animals are responsible for any damages or

ges or loss which may accrue to such corporation from such animals being upon their railroad track, resulting from the non-construction of such fence, unless it is shown that such loss or damage occurred through the negligence or fault of the corporation, its officers, agents or employees. 1915—1281.

485a. The owner or owners of any lands along or through which any railroad is constructed or maintained, shall have the right to such farm or private crossings over such railroad and railroad right of way as may be reasonably necessary or convenient for ingress to or egress from such lands, or in order to connect such lands with other adjacent lands of such owner or owners; and the owner or operator of such railroad shall construct and at all times maintain such farm or private crossing in a good, safe and passable condition; provided, that the railroad commission shall have the authority to determine the necessity for such crossing and the place, manner and conditions under which said crossing shall be constructed and maintained, and shall fix and assess the cost and expense thereof. 1915—920.

486. A bell, of at least twenty pounds weight, must be placed on each locomotive-engine, and be rung at a distance of at least eighty rods from the place where the railroad crosses any street, road, or highway, and be kept ringing until it has crossed such street, road, or highway; or a steam whistle must be attached, and be sounded, except in cities, at the like distance, and be kept sounding at intervals until it has crossed the same, under a penalty of one hundred dollars for every neglect, to be paid by the corporation operating the railroad, which may be recovered in an action prosecuted by the district attorney of the proper county, for the use of the state. The corporation is also liable for all damages sustained by any person, and caused by its locomotives, train, or cars, when the provisions of this section are not complied with.

487. If any passenger refuses to pay his fare, or to exhibit or surrender his ticket, when reasonably requested so to do, the conductor and employees of the corporation may put him and his baggage out of the cars, using no unnecessary force, at any usual stopping-place, or near any dwelling house, on stopping the train."

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488. Every conductor, baggage-master, engineer, brakeman, or other employee of any railroad corporation, employed on a passenger train or at stations for passengers, must wear upon his hat or cap, or in some conspicuous place on the breast of h his office or station, and the initial letters of the name of the corporation by which he is employed. No collector or conductor, without such badge is authorized to demand or to receive from any passenger any fare, toll, or ticket, or exercise any of the powers of his office or station; and no other officer or employee, without such badge, has any authority to meddle or interfere with any passenger or property.

489. Whenever the board of railroad commissioners, in the discharge of its duties, establishes or adopts rates of charges for the transportation of passengers and freight, pursuant to the provisions of the constitution, said board must sérve a printed schedule of such rates, and of any changes that may be made in such rates, upon th:person, co-partnership, company, or corporation affected thereby; and upon such service it is the duty of such person, co-partnership, company, or corporation to immediately cause copies of the same to be posted in all its offices, station-houses, warehouses, and landing-offices affected by such rates, or change of rates, in such manner as to be accessible to public inspection during usual business hours. Said board must also make such further publication thereof as it deems proper and necessary for the public good. If the party to be served is a corporation, such service may be made upon the president, vice-president, secretary, or managing agent thereof, and if a copartnership, upon any partner thereof. The rates of charges established or adopted by said board, pursuant to the constitution and the laws of this state, must go into force and effect on the twentieth day after service of such schedule of rates, or changes in rates, upon the person, copartnership, company or corporation affected thereby. 1905–575.

490. Every railroad corporation must provide, and on being tendered the fare therefor fixed, as provided in the preceding section, furnish to every person desiring a passage on their passenger-cars a ticket, which entitles the purchaser to a ride, and to the accommodations provided on their cars. from the depot or station where the same is purchased to any other depot or station on the line of their road. Every such ticket entitles the holder thereof to ride on their passenger-cars to the station or depot of destination, or any intermediate station, and from any intermediate station to the depot of destination designated in the ticket, at any time within six months thereafter. Any corporation failing so to provide and furnish tickets, or refusing

rnish tickets, or refusing the passage which the same calls for when sold, must pay to the person so refused all actual damages caused thereby, with reasonable counsel fees expended in recovering same. 1901--600.

491. All railroads, other than street-railroads and those used exclusively for carrying freight or for mining purposes, built by corporations organized under this chapter, must be constructed of the best quality of iron or steel rail, known as T or H rail, or other pattern of equal utility. 1873-212.

492. The legislative or other body to whom is intrusted the government of the county, city and county, city or town, under such regulations, restrictions, and limitations, and upon such terms and payment of license tax as the county, city and county, city or town authority may provide, may grant franchises for the construction of elevated or underground railroad tracks over, across, or under the streets and public highways of any such county, city and county, city, or town, for the term not exceeding fifty years; provided, that before granting such franchise, there shail be presented to such legislative or other body a petition signed by the owners of a majority of the landed property, other than public property, on the line of said elevated portion applied for. 1895—241.

493. The provisions of section four hundred and ninety-two shall apply to any railway corporation heretofore or hereafter incorporated. 1905–576.

494. Any railroad corporation, person or persons, firm or corporation, owning any railroad in this state, may sell, convey, and transfer its property and franchises, or any part thereof, to any other railroad corporation, whether organized under the laws of this state or of any other state or territory, or under any act of Congress; and any other such railroad corporation receiving such conveyance may hold and operate such railroad franchises and property within this state, build

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