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and operate extensions and branches thereof, and thereunto exercise the right of eminent domain, and do any other business in connection therewith, as fully and effectually to all intents and purposes as if such corporation were organized under the laws of this state; provided, that before such sale, conveyance, or transfer shall become operative, an agreement in writing must be executed by the parties thereto, containing the terms and conditions of the purchase and sale, and its execution must be authorized by the board of directors, and ratified by three-fourths of the stockholders of each of the railroad companies that are parties to such conveyance and transfer, and said agreement or conveyance shall be recorded in each county through which said road or roads pass in this state; and provided further, that conveyance,

or transfer under this act shall relieve the franchise or property sold, conveyed, or transferred, from the liability of the grantor contracted or incurred in the operation, use, or enjoyment of such franchise or any of its privileges; provided, that this section shall not authorize any corporation to purchase any railroad property operated in competition with it; and provided further, that any or all established rates for fares and tolls for carrying passengers or freight between any points upon any railroad purchased under the provisions of this act, shall not be increased without the consent of the governmental authority in which is vested by law the power to regulate fares and freights; and provided further, that whenever a railroad corporation, which has purchased any line of road under this act, shall for the purposes of competing with any other common carrier lower its rates for transportation of passengers or freight from one point to another upon such line purchased, such reduced rates shall not be again raised or increased from such standard without the consent of the governmental authorities in which shall be vested the power to regulate fares and freights; and provided further, that for every violation of the provisions of this act on the part of directors or governing officers of said corporation, the state shall be entitled to recover from such offending railroad company the sum of ten thousand dollars. It is hereby declared to be the duty of the attorneygeneral of the state, in the event of any such violation, to demand and collect from such company the said penalty; and he is hereby authorized and empowered to prosecute all the necessary actions in the name of the people of the state of California against such company in the courts of the state. All money so collected shall be paid into the general fund of this state. 1903—50.

TITLE IV.

Street-Railroad Corporations.

Section

Section 497. Franchises, tracks.

504. Overcharging, penalty. 498. Constructirg, limitations. 505. Furnishing tickets. 499. Joint use, streets.

506. Agency, 500. Crossings, generally.

507. Rights, reserve. 501. Rates, construction, penalty. 508. License. 502. Construction, generally, 509. Grading tracks. time limitation.

510. Title III, applicable. 503. Rules and regulations. 511. Natural persons, same.

497. Authority to lay railroad tracks through the streets and public highways of any incorporated city, city and county, or town, may be obtained for a term of years, not exceeding fifty, from the trustees, council, or other body to whom is intrusted the government of the

city, city and county, or town, under such' restrictions and limitations and upon such terms and payment of license tax, as the city, city and county, or town authority may provide. In no case must permission be granted to propel cars upon such tracks otherwise than by electricity, horses, mules, or by wire ropes running under the streets and moved by stationary engines, unless for special reasons in this title hereinafter mentioned; provided, however, that such board or body in granting the right, or at any time after the same is granted, to use electricity, or any other of said modes, shall have power to impose such terms, restrictions, and limitations as to the use of streets and the construction and mode of operating such electric and other roads as may, by such board or body, be deemed for the public safety or welfare. 1891--12.

498. The city or town authorities, in granting the right of way to street-railroad corporations, in addition to the restrictions which they are authorized to impose, must require a strict compliance with the following conditions, except in the cases of prismoidal or other elevated railways. In such cases, said railway shall be required to be constructed in such a manner as will present the least obstruction to the freedom of the streets on which it may be erected, when allowed by the granting power:

First. To construct their tracks on those portions of streets designated in the ordinance granting the right, which must be as nearly as possible in the middle thereof.

Second. That the tracks must not be more than five feet wide within the rails, and must have a space between them sufficient to allow the cars to pass each other freely. 1921–1499.

499. The legislative body of any incorporated city, city and county, or town, may permit two or more lines of street railway to use the same portion of the same street or the same tracks upon such terms as may be agreed upon by the companies operating such railways; but no permission shall be granted to one company to use the same tracks or portions of the same street for a distance of more than five consecutive blocks, without the consent of the person or company occupying said portion of the street and then only upon payment of an equal portion of the cost of construction of the tracks and appurtenances used by such railways jointly; provided, that any incorporated city, city and county, or town, may own and operate street railways within or without the municipal limits, and may occupy the same street or tracks occupied or used by any street railway within its limits for any number of blocks upon payment to the owner thereof an equal portion of the estimated cost of construction, at the time of such occupation, of such tracks or appurtenances as such city, city and county, or town may elect to use jointly with said street railway. Where such portion of such street shall be occupied by a track or tracks of a different gauge from the track or tracks proposed to be consructed thereon by a line of street railway under a different management, such last-mentioned line of street railway may nevertheless construct its track or tracks, subject to the limitation before described, over the same ground as may be occupied by such prior track or tracks; provided, the same can be so constructed as not to interfere with the operation of such prior track or tracks beyond such necessary interference therewith as shall be incident to such construction with reasonable skill, care and diligence, 1911---1101.

500. Any proposed railroad track may be permitted to cross any track already constructed, the crossing being made as provided in chapter two, title three, of this part. In laying down the track and preparing therefor, not more than one block must be obstructed at any one time, nor for a longer period than ten working days.

501. The rates of fare on the cars must not exceed ten cents for one fare for any distance under three miles, and in municipal corporations of the first class must not exceed five cents for each passenger per trip of any distance in one direction either going or coming along any part of the whole length of the road or its connections. The cars must be of the most approved construction for the comfort and convenience of passengers, and provided with brakes to stop the same, when required. A violation of the provisions of this section subjects the corporation to a fine of one hundred dollars for each offense. 1903—172.

502. Work to construct the railroad must be commenced in good faith within not more than one year from the date of the taking effect of the ordinance granting the right of way, and said work must be completed within not more than three years after the taking effect of such ordinance; provided, that the governing body of such municipal corporation at the time of granting said right of way, shall have the power to fix the time for either the commencing or completion, or both, of said work; not, however, to a time less than six months for commencing, and not less than eighteen months for completing the same. A failure to comply with either of the foregoing provisions of this section, or with either of the provisions of the ordinance granting said right of way, works a forfeiture of the right of way, and also of the franchise, unless the uncompleted portion is abandoned by the person or corporation to whom said right of way is granted, with the consent of the authorities granting the right of way, such abandonment and consent to be in writing. The authority granting the right of way shall have the power to grant an extension of time for the completion of said work, if it appear that the work has been commenced within the time fixed and prosecuted in good faith; but no extension of time shall be granted for the commencemenlt of said work, and shall not be granted for more than one year for the completion of the same. All extensions of time shall be in writing, and made a matter of record in the municipality. Provided further, that this act shall not in any way affect any franchise or right of way granted before its passage. 1895—17.

503. Cities and towns in or through which street-railroads run may make such further regulations for the government of such street railroads as may be necessary to a full enjoyment of the franchise and the enforcement of the conditions provided herein.

504. Any corporation, or agent or employee thereof, demanding or charging a greater sum of money for fare on the cars of such street railroad than that fixed, as provided in this title, forfeits to the person from whom such sum is received, or who is thus overcharged, the sum of two hundred dollars, to be recovered in a civil action in any justices' court having jurisdiction thereof, against the corporation.

505. Every street-railroad corporation must provide, and on request furnish to all persons desiring a passage on its cars any required quantity of passenger-tickets or checks, each to be good for one ride. Any corporation failing to provide and furnish tickets or checks to any person desiring to purchase the same at not exceeding the rate hereinbefore described, shall forfeit to such person the sum of two hundred dollars, to be recovered as provided in the preceding section; provided, that the provisions of this section shall not apply to such street-railroad corporations as charge but five cents fare. 1883–84.

506. Upon the trial of an action for any of the sums forfeited, as provided in the two preceding sections, proof that the person demanding or receiving the money as fare, or for the sale of the ticket or check, was at the time of making the demand or receiving the money, engaged in an office of the corporation, or vehicle belonging to the corporation, shall be prima facie evidence that such person was the agent, servant, or employee of the corporation, to receive the money and give the ticket or check mentioned. 1873-213.

507. In every grant to construct street railroads, the right to grade, sewer, pave, macadamize, or otherwise improve, alter, or repair the streets or highways, is reserved to the corporation and cannot be alienated or impaired; such work to be done so as to obstruct the railroad as little as possible, and, if required, the corporation must shift its rails so as to avoid the obstructions made thereby. 1873–214.

508. Each street railroad corporation must pay to the authorities of the city, town, county, or city and county, as a license upon each car, such sum as the authorities may fix, not exceeding fifty dollars per annum in the city of San Francisco, nor more than twenty-five dollars per annum in other cities or towns. Where any street-railroad connects or runs through two or more cities or towns, a proportionate or equal share of such license tax must be paid to each of the cities or towns; and no such license tax is due the county authorities where the same is paid to any city or town authority.

509. The right to lay down a track for grading purposes, and maintain the same for a period not to exceed three years, may be granted by the corporate authorities of any city or town or city and county, or supervisors of any city or county, but no such track must remain more than three years upon any one street; and it must be laid level with the street, and must be operated under such restrictions as not to interfere with the use of the street by the public. The corporate authorities of any city or town, or city and county, may grant the right to use steam, or any other motive power in propelling the cars used on such grading-track, when public convenience or utility demands it, but the reasons therefor must be set forth in the ordinance, and the right to rescind the ordinance at any time reserved.

510. Street-railroads are governed by the provisions of title three of this part, so far as they are applicable, unless such railroads are therein specially excepted. 1873–214.

511. When a street-railroad is constructed, owned, or operated by any natural person, this title is applicable to such person in like manner as it is applicable to corporations.

TITLE V.

Wagon-Road Corporations.

Section

Section 512. Commissioners, surveyors. 519. Penalty. 513. Map, approval supervisors. 520. Trespass, corporate property. 514. Tolls, bridges and ferries. 521. Revenue, how appropriated. 515. Tolls not allowed, highway. 522. May mortgage property, when 516. Toll rates, posted.

523. Applies persons and corpora517. May be detained, persons.

tions. 518. Persons not to be detained 524. Franchise, automobile roads.

unnecessarily by toll gath-
erer.

512. Where a corporation is formed for the construction and maintenance of a wagon-road, the road must be laid out as follows: Three commissioners must act in conjunction with the surveyor of the corporation, two to be appointed by the board of supervisors of the county through which the road is to run, and one by the corporation, who must lay out the proposed road and report their proceedings, together with the map of the road, to the supervisors, as provided in the succeeding section. 1873–214.

513. When the route is surveyed a map thereof must be submitted to and filed with the board of supervisors of each county through or into which the road runs, giving its general course, and the principal points to or by which it runs, and its width, which must in no case exceed one hundred feet, and the supervisors must either approve or reject the survey. If approved, it must be entered of record on the journal of the board, and such approval authorizes the use of all public lands and highways over which the survey runs; but the board of supervisors must require the corporation, at its own expense, and the corporation must so change and open the highways so taken and used as to make the same as good as before the appropriation thereof; and must so construct all crossings of public highways over and by its road and toll gates, as not to hinder or obstruct the use of the same. 1905-577.

514. All wagon-road corporations may bridge or keep ferries on streams on the line of their road, and must do all things inecessary to keep the same in repair. They may take such tolls only on their roads, ferries, or bridges, as are fixed by the board of supervisors of the proper county through which the road passes, or in which the ferry or bridge is situate. But, in no case must the tolls be more than sufficient to pay fifteen per cent, nor less than ten per cent per annum, on the cost of construction, after paying for repairs and other expenses for attending to the roads, bridges or ferries. If tolls, other than as herein provided, are charged or demanded, the corporation forfeits its franchise, and must pay to the party so charged one hundred dollars as liquidated damages. 1905–577.

515. When any highway or public road is taken and used by any wagon-road corporation as a part of its road, the corporation must not place a toll-gate on or take tolls for the use of such highway or public road by teamsters, travelers, drovers, or any one transporting property over the same.

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