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516. The corporation must affix and keep up, at or over each gate, or in some conspicuous place, so as to be conveniently read, a printed list showing, first, the date when the franchise or privilege under which the right to collect tolls is claimed, was granted and the term of duration of said franchise; second, the date upon which rates of tolls were last fixed by the board of supervisors; and, third, the rates of tolls levied and demanded. Failure to comply with the provisions of this act shall work an immediate forfeiture of franchise. 1901–5.

517. Each toll--gatherer may prevent from passing through his gate any person, animal, or vehicle, subject to toll, until the toll authorized to be collected for such passing has been paid. 1905–577.

· 518. Every toll-gatherer who, at any gate, unreasonably hinders or delays any traveler or passenger or any vehicle or animal liable to the payment of toll, or demands or receives from any person more than he is authorized to collect, for each offense forfeits the sum of twenty-five dollars to the person aggrieved. 1905–578.

519. Every person who, to avoid the payment of the legal toll, with his team, vehicle, or horse, turns out of a wagon, turnpike or plank road, or passes any gate thereon on ground adjacent thereto, and again enters upon such road, for each offense forfeits the sum of five dollars to the corporation injured. 520. Every person who:

1. Willfully breaks, cuts down, defaces, or injures any milestone or post on any wagon, turnpike, or plank road; or,

2. Willfully breaks or throws down any gate on such road; or,

3. Digs up or injures any part of such road or anything thereunto belonging; or,

4. Forcibly or fraudulently passes any gate thereon without having paid the legal toll;

For each offense forfeits to the corporation injured the sum of twenty-five dollars, in addition to the damages resulting from his wrongful act.

521. The entire revenue derived from the road shall be appropriated: first, to repayment to the corporation of the costs of its construction, together with the incidental expenses incurred in collecting tolls and keeping the road in repair; and, second, to the payment of the dividend among its stockholders, as provided in section five hundred and fourteen. When the repayment of the cost of construction is completed, the tolls must be so reduced as to raise no more than an amount sufficient to pay said dividend, and incidental expenses, and to keep the road in good repair. 1873—215.

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522. The corporation may mortgage or hypothecate its road and other property for funds with which to construct or repair its road, but no mortgage or hypothecation is valid or binding unless at least twenty-five percent of the capital stock subscribed has been paid in and invested in the construction of the road and appurtenances, and then only after an affirmative vote of two-thirds of the capital stock subscribed. 1905–578.

523. When a wagon, turnpike, or plank road is constructed, owned, or operated by any natural person this title is applicable to such person in like manner as it is applicable to corporations.

524. The legislative or other body to whom is intrusted the government of any county, city and county, city, or town, may, under such

regulations, restrictions, and limitations as it may provide, subject to existing laws, grant franchises for the construction of paths and roads, either on the surface, elevated, or depressed, on, over, across or under the streets and public highways of any such county, city or town, for the use of bicycles, tricycles, motor-cycles, and other like horseless vehicles, for a term not exceeding fifty years. In incorporated cities no franchise must be granted for the purpose herein expressed, unless the consent in writing of the owners of a majority of the frontage upon the road or street along which said path or road is sought to be constructed, is first had and obtained, and filed with such legislative or governing body. 1905-578.

TITLE VI.

Bridge, Ferry, Wharf, Chute and Pier Corporations. Section

Section 528. License for construction. 530. Yearly report. 529. Limitation, corporate power. 531. Applies persons, corporations

528. No corporation must construct or take tolls on, a bridge, ferry, wharf, chute, or pier until authority is granted therefor by the supervisors, or other governing body having authority in that behalf. 1905– 579.

529. Every such corporation ceases to be a body corporate:

1. If, within six months from filing its articles of incorporation, it has not obtained such authority from the board of supervisors or other governing body having authority in that behalf; and if, within one year thereafter, it has not commenced the construction of the bridge, wharf, chute, or pier, and actually expended thereon at least ten per cent of the capital stock of the corporation;

2. If, within three years from filing the articles of incorporation, the bridge, wharf, chute, or pier, is not completed;

3. If, when the bridge, wharf, chute, or pier of the corporation is destroyed, it is not reconstructed and ready for use within three years thereafter;

4. If the ferry of any such corporation is not in running order within three months after authority is obtained to establish it, or if at any time thereafter it ceases for a like term consecutively to 'perform the duties imposed by law. 1905–579.

530. The president and secretary of every bridge, ferry, wharf, chute, or pier corporation must annually, under oath, report to the board of supervisors or other governing body having authority in that behalf, of the county in which the articles of incorporation are

that behalf, ubervisors orion must annueft,

1. The cost of constructing and providing all necessary appendages and appurtenances for its bridge, ferry, wharf, chute, or pier; .

2. The amount of all moneys expended thereon, since its construction, for repairs and incidental expenses;

3. The amount of its capital stock, how much paid in, and how much actually expended thereof;

4. The amount received during the year for tolls, and from all other sources, stating each separately;

5. The amount of dividends made, and the indebtedness of the corporation, specifying for what it was incurred:

6. Such other facts and particulars respecting the business of the corporation, as the board of supervisors, or other governing body having authority in that behalf may require.

This report the president and secretay must cause to be published for four weeks in a daily newspaper, published nearest the bridge, ferry, wharf, pier, or chute, if required by order of the board of supervisors or other governing body having authority in that behalf. A failure to make such report subjects the corporation to a penalty of two hundred dollars, and for every week permitted to lapse after such failure an additional penalty of fifty dollars, payable in each case to the county from which the authority of the corporation was derived. All such cases must be reported by the board of supervisors, or other governing body having authority in that behalf, to the district attorney or city attorney, who must commence an action therefor. 1905–579.

531. When a bridge, ferry, wharf, chute, or pier is constructed, operated, or owned by a natural person, this title is applicable to such person in like manner as it is applicable to corporations.

TITLE VII

Telephone and Telegraph Corporations. Section.

Section 536. Rights of way, generally. 538. Maliciously injuring, same. 537. Liability, damaging equip- 539. Subaqueous cables, same. ment.

540. Conveyance. 536. Telegraph or telephone corporations may construct lines of telegraph or telephone lines along and upon any public road or highway along or across any of the waters or lands within this state, and may erect poles, posts, piers, or abutments for supporting the insulators, wires, and other necessary fixtures of their lines, in such manner and at such points as not to incommode the public use of the road or highway or interrupt the navigation of the waters. 1905 -492.

537. Any person who injures or destroys, through want of proper care, any necessary or useful fixture of any telegraph or telephone corporation, is liable to the corporation for all damages sustained thereby. Any vessel which, by dragging its anchor, or otherwise, breaks, injures, or destroys the subaqueous cable of a telegraph or telephone corporation, subjects its owner to the damages hereinbefore specified. 1905.-492.

538. Any person who willfully and maliciously does any injury to any telegraph or telephone property, mentioned in the preceding section, is liable to the corporation for one hundred times the amount of actual damages sustained thereby, to be recovered in any court of competent jurisdiction. 1905—492.

539. No telegraph or telephone corporation can recover damages for the breaking or injuring of any subaqueous telegraph or telephone cable, unless such corporation has previously erected on

either bank of the waters under which the cable is placed, a monument, indicating the place where the cable lies, and publishes for one month in some newspaper most likely to give notice to navigators, a notice giving a description and the purpose of the monuments, and the general course, landings, and termini of the cable. 1905—492.

540. Any telegraph or telephone corporation may at any time, with the consent of the persons holding two thirds of the issued stock of the corporation, sell, lease, assign, transfer, or convey any rights, privileges, franchises, or property of the corporation, except its corporate franchise. 1905—492.

TITLE VIII.
Water and Canal Corporations.

Section.

548. Contract to supply.
549. Furnishing water; rules.

Section.
551. Construction and maintain-

ing canals.
552. Land easements.

548. No corporation formed to supply any city, city and county, or town with water must do so unless previously authorized by an ordinance of the authorities thereof. or unless it is done in conformity with a contract entered into between the city, city and county, or town and the corporation. Contracts so made are valid and binding in law, but do not take from the city, city and county, or town the right to regulate the rates for water, nor must any exclusive right be granted. No contract or grant must be made for a term exceeding fifty years.

549. All corporations formed to supply water to cities or towns must furnish pure fresh water to the inhabitants thereof, for family uses, so long as the supply permits, at reasonable rates and without distinction of persons, upon proper demand therefor; and must furnish water to the extent of their means, in case of fire or other great necessity, free of charge. The board of supervisors, or the proper city or town authorities, may prescribe proper rules relating to the delivery of water, not inconsistent with the laws of the state. 1905–580.

551. No canal, flume, or other appliance for the conducting of water must be so laid, constructed, or maintained as to obstruct any public highway; and every person or corporation owning, maintaining, operating, or using any such canal, flume, or appliance, crossing or running along any public highway, must construct, maintain, and keep in repair such bridges across the same as may be necessary to the safe and convenient use of such highway by the public; and on failure so to do, the board of supervisors of the county after seven days' notice in writing to said person or corporation, may construct or repair such bridge or bridges, and recover of such person or corporation the amount of the expenditure made in so doing. 1905–580.

552. Whenever any corporation, organized under the laws of this state, furnishes water to irrigate lands which said corporation has sold, the right to the flow and use of said water is and shall remain a perpetual easement to the land so sold, at such rates and terms as

may be established by said corporation in pursuance of law. And whenever any person who is cultivating land on the line and within the flow of any ditch owned by such corporation, has been furnished water by it with which to irrigate his land, such person shall be entitled to the continued use of said water, upon the same terms as those who have purchased their land of the corporation, 187577.

TITLE IX.

Homestead Corporations. Section.

Section. 557. Organization.

562. Speculating, lands, liability. 558. By-laws, generally.

563. Dissolution. 559. Sales, delinquent stock.

564. Premiums. 560. Loanable funds.

565. Yearly report. 561. Who may own stock.

566. Publication generally. .

557. Corporations organized for the purpose of acquiring lands in large tracts, paying off encumbrances thereon, improving and subdividing them into homestead lots or parcels, and distributing them among the shareholders, and for the accumulation of a fund for such purposes, are known as homestead corporations, and must not have a corporate existence for a longer period than ten years.

558. Such corporations must specify in their by-laws the times when the installments of the capital stock are payable, the amount thereof, and the fines, penalties, or forfeitures incurred in case of default. A printed copy of the articles of incorporation and bylaws must be furnished to any shareholder on demand.

559. Whenever any shares of stock are declared forfeited by resolution of the board of directors, the directors may advertise the same for sale, giving the name of the subscriber and the number of shares, by notice of not less than three weeks, published at least once a week in a newspaper of general circulation in the city, town, or county where the principal place of business of such corporation is located. Such sale must be made at auction, under the direction of the secretary of the company. The corporation may be a bidder, and the shares must be disposed of to the highest bidder for cash. No defect, informality, or irregularity in the proceedings respecting the sale invalidates it, if notice is given as herein provided. After the sale is made the secretary must, on receipt of the purchasemoney, transfer to the purchaser the shares sold, and after deducting from the proceeds of such sale all installments then due, and all expenses and charges of sale, must hold the residue subject to the order of the delinquent subscriber.

560. Homestead corporations may borrow money for the purposes of the corporation, not exceeding at any one time one fourth of the aggregate amount of the shares or parts of shares actually paid in, and the income thereof; no greater rate of interest must be paid therefor than twelve per cent per annum. For the purpose of completing the purchase of lands intended to be divided and distributed, they may borrow on the security of their shares on the land thus purchased, or that owned by the corporation at the time of procuring the loan, any sum of money which, together with the interest contracted to become due thereon, will not exceed ninety per cent of the unpaid amount subscribed by the shareholders;

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